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Article
Distribution of doctors’ workforce in Erbil Governorate
توزيع القوى العاملة للأطباء في محافظة أربيل

Authors: Tariq S. Al-Hadithi --- Vian M. Husein --- Moayad A. Wahab
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1138-1146
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Imbalance in the distribution of health workforce might result in inequities in health services delivery. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of doctors’ workforce in Erbil governorate and identify the possible reasons for rapid turnover of doctors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study included all the 962 doctors working in the health facilities of Erbil governorate. A questionnaire was used to collect data that included 40 questions divided into four broad sections of identification information, socio-demographic characteristics, information on professional characteristics and factors influencing employment process in rural areas. Results: There were 5.1 doctors per 10,000 populations. Most of the doctors were deployed in urban areas (83.6%). Most doctors were working in hospitals (74.2%) and 23.3% in primary health centers. Specialists constituted the largest categories of doctors (33.5%) and general practitioners the smallest (6.7%). Doctors’ willingness to stay at the current workplace was significantly associated with being married, having opportunities to select workplace, working in private clinics and having the workplace inside Erbil. Conclusion: The density of doctors per 10,000 populations in Erbil governorate is below the regional and international average, with a remarkable urban-rural imbalance in numerical, geographical and institutional terms.

Keywords

Health workforce --- Erbil


Article
Association of certain sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of diabetic patients with quality of life
علاقة بعض الخصائص الاجتماعية والديموغرافية والسريرية لمرضى السكري مع نوعية الحياة

Authors: Tariq S. Al- Hadithi --- Saadia A. Khther --- Ronak N. Hussein
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-42
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common and demanding health problem that has a great effect on everyday life of patients. This study was done to determine sociodemographic and clinical characteristics that affect the quality of life (QOL) of diabetic patients.Methods: A total of 300 patients with diabetes mellitus in Erbil city were included in this study. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) questionnaire was applied for assessment of 6 domains of QOL using multiple regression analysis.Results: Type of work and body weight were the most significant factors shown to affect diabetic patients QOL domains. Type of work was significantly affecting physical (P=0.006), psychological (0.004), level of independence (P<0.001) environmental (P=0.007) and spiritual (P=0.009) QOL domains. Duration of diabetes was significantly affecting physical (P=0.002), psychological (P=0.037) and level of independence (P<0.001) domains. Body weight was significantly affecting physical (P=0.039), psychological (P=0.012), level of independence (P=0.036), social relationships (P=0.022) and spiritual (P=0.030) QOL domains.Conclusion: QOL had a variable significant association with certain socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of diabetics. There should be an emphasis on improving QOL of diabetics and consequently achieving better metabolic control.


Article
Prevalence of Skin Diseases among Primary School Children
انتشار الأمراض الجلدية بين أطفال المدارس الابتدائية

Authors: Tariq S. Al-Hadithi --- Omer Qadir Surchi --- Khalis Bilal M. Ali
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 5-12
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Skin diseases constitute serious public health problems throught the world, especially in children. The aim of the study was to determine the preva-lence of skin diseases in primary school children in Erbil city, and its relation to various socio-demographic factors.Methods: A total of 6915 pupils aged 6-15 years were randomly selected from 32 primary schools using multistage random sampling technique. Data regarding general socio-demographic variables were collected from each student in a specially designed question-naire. Children were clinically examined and the dermatological findings were recorded.Results: The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 40.6%, Infectious dermatoses have the highest prevalence rate (15.27%), followed by eczematous skin diseases (13.13%). The overall prevalence of skin diseases and infectious dermatoses were significantly higher among females, younger age groups and those of low socio-economic status, while eczematous skin diseases were significantly higher among males.Conclusions: Skin conditions are common among school children, which may reflect pre-vailing low socio-economic conditions. Relevant health education programs and preventive measures should be implemented.


Article
ANTENATAL CARE IN ERBIL CITY-IRAQ: ASSESSMENT OF INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
مراكز الرعاية الامومة و الطفولة في مدينة اربيل - جمع المعلومات , التثقف الصي و تثفيف الصحي و ثقافة الاتصال

Authors: TARIQ S. AL-HADITHI طارق الحديثي --- AWRING M. RAOOF, مروان روؤف
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2011 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-40
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background and objectives Information education and communication strategy is included in the antenatal care to inform and educate pregnant women on topics related to pregnancy and care of newborn. The aim of this study was to assess women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications and their experiences at health care facilities.Methods A sample of 1839 pregnant women attending primary health care centers from 1st of Jan through 30th of Apr 2009 was selected. At each primary health care center between 39 and 221 women were interviewed. Requested data included women's information on advicegiven on place of birth, family planning, benefit of birth in a health facility and other topics.Information on women's awareness of danger signs and their experiences at primary health care centers was also collected.Results Family planning and nutrition were the most commonly discussed topics, 44.6% and 46.7%, respectively. Heavy bleeding, hypertension, anemia and bad obstetrical history were recognized by 67% 60%, 58% and 45% of clients as danger signs, respectively. Only 11% recognized prolonged labour as danger signs, with variations in the experiences of women at the primary health care centers; 61% reported spending three minutes and less with the health care provider, 53% were told about progress of pregnancy, 55% had the chance to ask questions and 65% were asked to return for another visit.Conclusion Health education provided at antenatal clinic level in Erbil city seems to be relatively poor.

خلفية واهداف البحث: است ا رتيجية جمع المعلومات وثقافة الاتصال والمقابلة@في م ا ركز الرعاية للأمومة والطفولة لغرض تعليم وتثقيف الحامل حول مجموعة من الموضوعات المتعلقة والمرتبطة بالحمل ورعاية المولود. كان الهدف من الرسالة تقييم وعي الم أ رة حول العلامات الخطرة لعملية الولادة وخب ا رتهم وتجاربهم حول نوعية التسهيلات التي تقدّم في الم ا ركز الصحية.طرق البحث: تم مقابلة 1839 حامل اللواتي زرن الم ا ركز الصحية الأولية من 1 كانون الثاني إلى 30 نيسان سنة .221- 2009 . كان عدد المقابلات في كل مركز تت ا روح بين 39 كانت المعلومات المطلوبة شملت معرفة الحامل بنصائح والارشادات المقدمة لها حول مكان الولادة، تنظيم الأسرة،والتسهيلات الموجودة في الم ا ركز والمؤسسات الصحية وموضوعات أخرى. وتم جمع المعلومات حول وعي الم أ رة بشكل عام حول معرفة العلامات الخطرة وخب ا رتهم وتجاربهم في الم ا ركز الصحية الأولية.،% النتائج: تنظيم الأسرة/ تباعد الولادات، الغذاء/ التغذية كانت من أهم الموضوعات التي تم مناقشتها، كانت النسبة 45 %47 على التوالي. تم كشف العلامات الخطرة كالنزف الشديد، ارتفاع ضغط الدم، فقر الدم، سوء خلفية فترة الحمل، 45 % على التوالي. نسبة 11 % من النساء تعتبر اطالة فترة الحمل من ،%58 ،%60 ،% وكانت النسب كالآتي: 67 % العلامات الخطرة، وهناك مفارقات كبيرة بين وجهة نظرهن حول خبرتهن بالتسهيلات في الم ا ركز الصحية الأولية، 61 منهن قد قضين 3 دقائق من الوقت مع المشرفات في الرعاية وقت الزيارة، 53 % قد تلقين معلومات حول سير عملية الحمل، 55 % منهن كانت لها فرصة المناقشة مع المشرفات، 65 % قد أخذن موعد لزيارة لاحقة.الاستنتاج: التثقيف الصحي في م ا ركز الرعاية في مدينة أربيل كانت غير جيدة وتحت المستوى المطلوب.


Article
Quality of life of type 2 diabetic patients in Erbil city

Authors: Yassin A. Asa`ad --- Samir M. Othman --- Sherzad A. Ismail --- Tariq S. Al- Hadithi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-42
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Diabetic patients could be at increased risk of functional disability, which needs good control of blood glucose and other risk factors and the quality of life of diabetic patients especially those who had complications is remarkably lower than the quality of life of the general population. This study was conducted to assess the quality of life of diabetic patients in its different domains from the patient's perspective in Erbil city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 160 diabetic patients were randomly selected from Layla Qassim diabetic health center. The WHO (WHO QOL- BREF) questionnaire was used as the main tool for data collection, which included26 questions on four domains of health-related quality of life (physical, psychological, social and environmental domains).Results: Around 49% of the patients had checked their blood sugar regularly and had better scores in the social domain (P = 0.036). Diabetic patients of all age groups had low scores in all domains of quality of life, with the lowest mean score in the psychological domain. Females reported significantly higher scores in the environmental domain (P = 0.001). Patients with insufficient monthly family income had lower scores in the social (P = 0.001), psychological (P = 0.031) and environmental (P = 0.039) domains. There was no obvious statistical association between clinical characteristics of the patients and the quality of life domains. However, those with complications had lower scores in the psychological domain, with a higher proportion (P = 0.016) of complications in females.Conclusion: All domains of quality of life are affected by diabetes mellitus, with no clear, consistent statistical association between clinical characteristics of the patients and the quality of life of various domains, which emphasize the need for more multidisciplinary team action for more patient`s education and self-care.

Keywords

Quality of life --- Diabetes --- Social domain --- Erbil --- Iraq


Article
IMPACT OF DIABETES ON PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF DIABETICS IN ERBIL CITY, IRAQ
تاثير السكرى على المجالين البدني والنفسي لنوعية حياة المرضى فى مدينة اربيل / في العراق

Authors: TARIQ S. AL- HADITHI طارق الحديثي --- SAADIA A. KHTHER سعدية خضر --- RONAK N. HUSSEIN روناك حسين
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2010 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 49-59
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Background and objectives Quality of life is an important health outcome of all health interventions and has become a core issue in diabetic care. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of diabetes upon physical and psychological aspects of quality of life.Methods A case-control study was conducted at Shahid Layla Qassim Health Center for Diabetic Patients in Erbil city. A purposive sample of 150 types 1 and type 2 diabetic patients was selected according to the criteria of the study and compared to150 age and sex-matched controls free from diabetes. Data were collected through an application of the physical and psychological domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100)questionnaire.Results Both physical and psychological domains were significantly lower (P< 0.001) for the diabetics than controls, with stronger effects on physical than psychological domain. There were highly significant statistical variations in the physical domain of QOL in relation to age (P= 0.017), gender (P= 0.004), level of education (P = 0.003), marital status (P=0.001), type of work (P=0.007), duration of diabetes (P< 0.001) and medications acquisition (P= 0.040).A highly significant statistical variations in the psychological domain of QOL in relation to the level of education (P=0.016), marital status (P=0.049), type of work (P=0.015), and medications acquisition (P=0.001) were demonstrated. Gender variation have a borderline statistical significance (P = 0.052).Conclusion Diabetic patients had lower physical and psychological QOL compared to controls. Diabetes had a greater impact on the QOL of females than males. Older diabetics are more affected physically than psychologically. Changes in health related QOL should bea part of management of diabetics.

خلفية واهداف البحث: تعتبر نوعية الحياة حصيلة صحية هامة لجميع التداخلات الصحية واصبحت قضيه جوهرية فى الرعاية بالسكرى. الهدف من الدراسة هو تقييم تاثير السكرى على نوعية الحياة في المجالات البدنية والنفسية.طرق البحث: تم اجراء دراسة للحالات و الشواهد في المركز الصحى للشهيدة ليلى قاسم لمرضى السكرى فى مدينة اربيل. اختيرت عينة غرضية من النوع الاول و الثانى لمرض السكرى عددهم 150 مريضا يقابلها 150 شخص بدون سكرى مطابقين لهم في العمر و الجنس . استخدم فى جمع البيانات للمجالين ( البدنى والنفسى) من نوعية الحياة الاستبيان الخاص لمنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO مكون من 100 فقرة.النتائج: كلا المجالين البدنى والنفسى لنوعية الحياة كان ذات اقل من دلالة(P<0.001) واظهرت للدراسة وجود اختلاف ذات دلالة احصائيه عاليه بين مجال البدنى لنوعية الحياة وما يتعلق بالعمر (P= 0.017)، الجنس (P= 0.004)، مستوى التعليم (P= 0.003)، الحاله الزوجية(P= 0.001)، نوع العمل (P= 0.007)، مدة المرض (P< 0.001)، استلام الادوية (P= 0.040). تبين ايضا" وجود اختلاف ذات دلالة احصائيه عاليه بين المجال النفسى لنوعية الحياة وما يتعلق بمستوى التعليم (P= 0.016)، الحاله الزوجية (P= 0.049)، نوع العمل (P= 0.015) و استلام الادوية (P= 0.001).الاستنتاج: كلتا الجوانب البدنية والنفسية لنوعية الحياة كانت متاثره بالسكرى، المجال البدنى متاثر اكثر منه على النفسى و تاثير السكرى على الاناث اكثر منه على الذكور وعلى كبار السن فوق 50 سنة اكثر منه على الشباب خاصة" في المجال البدنى.


Article
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN NEONATAL UNIT IN TRIPOLI MEDICAL CENTER, LIBYA
الخمج في وحدة الرعاية المركزية للخدج في طرابلس – ليبيا

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Abstract

Background: Infection is a frequent and important cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period.Objective: This work was carried out to investigate the prevalence of bacterial infection and the frequency of different pathogens among newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Tripoli Medical Center (TMC), Libya.Methods: The case records of all neonates admitted to the NICU of TMC, Libya for the period Sept. 1996 through August 1997, inclusive, were reviewed. Blood and/or CSF cultures were used to establish the diagnosis of bacterial infection. The admissions were categorized as sterile and unsterile. Results: A total of 1123 newborns were admitted to NICU over the period of the study, 129 (11.5%) of them were proved to be bacterially infected, 10.6% and 24% of the sterile and unsterile admissions, respectively, had bacterial infection. Blood culture was positive in 115 (10.2%) of the admitted newborns, while CSF culture was positive in 24 (2.1%) of them. Gram-negative bacteria were the predominantly isolated bacteria. Serratia spp. was isolated from 38.3% and 50% of blood and CSF cultures, respectively. Klebsilla pneumoniae was isolated from about 25% of both blood and CSF cultures. Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS) was isolated from 11.3% of blood cultures.Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that neonatal infection is still a problem facing the country and there is a need for study of bacterial colonization of anogenital tract of Libyan pregnant women and its relation to neonatal infections . Key words: neonatal infection, gram-negative bacteria, Libya

خلفية الدراسة: الاخماج سبب شائع ومهم من اسباب مراضة ووفيات الخدج. والهدف من البحث هي دراسة انتشار الاخماج البكترية وانواعها بين الخدج الراقدين في ردهة العناية المركزة في مركز طرابلس الطبي – ليبيا .طريقة العمل: تم مراجعة ملفات الخدج الراقدين في مركزطرابلس الطبي للفترة أيلول – 1996 ولغاية اب 1998. زرع عينات الدم هي الوسيلة لتحديد الخمج البكتري . دخول المرضى تم تصنيفه الى ملوث وغير ملوث .النتائج: خلال فترة الدراسة رقد 1123 خديجا في ردهة العناية المركزة . 129 (11.5%) اصيبوا بالخمج البكتيري . 10.6% و 24% من الخدج الملوثين وغير الملوثين على التوالي . كانت نتائج زرع عينات الدم موجبة لدى 115 (10.2%) من الخدج بينما كانت زرع عينات السائل الشوكي موجبا لدى 24 (2.1%) . البكتريا ذات الصبغة (كرام) السالبة هي السائدة لدى الاطفال المصابين بالخمج . انواع السريشا لدى 38.3% و 50% من عينات الدم وسائل النخاع الشوكي . البكتريا سالبة التخثر CONS تم عزلها من 11.3% من نتائج عينات الدم . الأستنتاج: خكج الخدج لايزال يشكل مشكلة تواجه البلد و هنالك حاجة لدراسة التلوث البكتيري في الجهاز التناسلي للنساء الليبيات الحوامل و علاقتها بالخمج للخدج.مفتاح الكلمات: خمج الخدج، البكتيريا ذات الصبغة السالبة لكَرام، ليبيا


Article
HBV markers and antibody protective level among Iraqi vaccinated and unvaccinated subjectes

Authors: Adel AL-Shammary --- Jawad K. Al-Diwan جواد كاظم الديوان --- Nafi AL-Ani نافع العاني --- Tariq S. AL-Hadithi طارق الحديثي --- et al.
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 3 Pages: 338-340
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Keywords

HBV --- anti HBs --- protective anti -HBs --- VACCINATION --- Iraq


Article
Bacterial Infection in the Neonatal Unit of the Maternity and Pediatrics Hospital in Diyala Iraq
الاخماج البكتيرية في وحدة الخدج في مستشفى الولادة في ديالى- العراق

Authors: Bushra I. AbdulLatif بشرى ابراهيم --- Jawad K. Al-Diwan جواد كاظم --- Tariq S. Al-Hadithi طارق سلمان --- Abdul Hussein M. Al-Hadi عبد الحسين
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2006 Volume: 19 Issue: 4 Pages: 298-301
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract:Objective: This study was carried out to find out the factors associated with neonatal infection among neonates to the special baby care unit (SBCU) at the Maternity and Paediatrics Hospital in Diyala governorate.Methods: All admitted neonates (533) to the SBCU for the period 20th Dec. 1999 to 20th June 2000 were included in the study. Demographic and medical data of the mothers, birth weight of neonates, delivery place and delivery attendant were obtained. Multiple logistic regressions were used to study the association between neonatal infection and the studied factors.Results: Out of the total neonates, there were 176 (33%) neonates with bacterial infection. Birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, maternal education, hypertension, UTI, delivery place and delivery attendants were significantly associated with neonatal infection. Antenatal care was not associated with neonatal infection.Conclusion: Several variables were found to be associated with in the SBCU. These findings were discussed in the view of the effects of gulf wars and economic sanctions on neonatal health.

الملخص:الغاية: تم اجراء هذه الدراسة لتحديد عوامل التي تؤثر على الخمج في وحدة العناية الخاصة بالاطفال في مستشفى النسائية والاطفال في ديالى.طرق العمل: شملت الدراسة حديثي الولادة الذين تم ادخالهم لوحدة العناية الخاصة من 20 / 12 / 1999 ولغاية 20 / 6 / 2000 (533 حديث ولادة) . تم الحصول على المعلومات الديموغرافية والطبية للامهات ووزن حديث الولادة ومكان الولادة ومن اشرف على الولادة. تم استخدام الانحدار المتعدد لتحديد العوامل التي ترتبط بالخمج في ردهة العناية المركزة.النتائج: كان هناك 176 (33%) حديث ولادة مصابا بالخمج البكتيري من العدد الكلي لحديثي الولادة. الوزن غند الولادة وفترة الحمل وعمر الام والمستوى التعليمي للام والاصابة بارتفاع ضغط الدم والتهاب المجاري البولية ومكان الولادة والمشرف غلى الولادة كانت ترتبط معنويا بالخمج. لم يكن لرعاية الحوامل تاثير في الخمج.الاستنتاج: كانت هنالك عدة متغيرات ترتبط في الخمج في وحدة العناية الخاصة. تم مناقشة النتائج في ضوء تاثير حروب الخليج والحصار الاقتصادي على صحة حديثي الولادة.


Article
Brain abscess in Iraq during a 10 years period: Part 1. Epidemiology, aetiology and clinical picture

Authors: Zahra'a A.J. Al-Tamimi 1 . --- Tariq S. Al-Hadithi ' MB ChB, MSc, DTM&H, PhD --- Abdul- Hadi Al-Khalili 2 MB ChB, FRCS --- Jawad K. Al-Diwan 3 MB ChB, MSc
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 77-81
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study comprises two parts. "['his part deals with epidemiology, aetiology and clinical features of brain abscess during a 10 years period, while the second will deal with diagnostic investigation, management and final outcome of brain abscess Methods: The case records of patients with brain abscess admitted to the neurosurgical specialties hospital in Baghdad over a 10 years period extending from 1" Jan. 1993 to 31S` Dec. 2002, inclusive were reviewed. Data obtained included demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 78 cases (1.2% of total admission) of brain abscess were admitted. Their age ranged from one month to 68 years. The most common' aetiological (actor was cyanotic heart disease, with the congenital anomaly being unrepaired in all cases. Remote infection foci other than heart represent minority. Half of the cases had a rapid onset and fluminant progression. The presenting features of the patients older than one year were raised intracranial pressure, and focal neurological deficit and infection. J Fac Med Baghdad Vol. 49, No. 1, 2007 Received: May2006 Accepted: Sep. 2006 Conclusion: Maintaining a high index of clinical suspicions in patients having one of the infection sources together with neurological signs should be emphasized. '.

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