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Article
THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CINNAMON AND CLOVE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

Author: Zainab A. Al-dhaher
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 131-135
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of cinnamon and clove against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Agar diffusion technique was applied in the trial. Both cinnamon and clove were found to have inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus and the mean of the diameter of inhibition zones ranges from (7-17) mm for cinnamon and (7.5-19) mm for clove and statistical analysis using t-test demonstrated that there were significant differences between cinnamon and clove at each concentration used in this study in order that clove was found to have greater effects against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also determined and it was shown that 30% was the MBC for cinnamon and 15% was the MBC for clove.


Article
Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Pomegranate Peels, Green Tea Leaves and Bay Leaves against Vibrio cholera
تقييم الفعالية ضد البكتيريا للمستخلصات المائية لقشور الرمان ,اوراق الشاي الاخضر و اوراق الغار ضد بكتريا الكوليرا

Author: Zainab A. Al-Dhaher زينب عبدالجبار الظاهر
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2013 Volume: 37 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-95
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Pomegranate peels, Green tea leaves, Bay leaves were evaluated in this study. Agar diffusion technique was applied. The three extracts were found to have inhibitory effect against Vibrio cholera and the mean of the diameter of inhibition zones ranges from (11-23 mm) for pomegranate peels, (9-20 mm) for Green tea leaves and (7-18mm) for Bay leaves extracts and statistically analyzed. There were significant differences between pomegranate peels, tea leaves and bay leaves extracts at each concentration used in this study. The pomegranate peels were found to have greater effects against Vibrio cholera followed by tea leaves, Bay leaves. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also determined and it was shown that 10mg/ml was the MBC for pomegranate peels, 10-15mg/ml the MBC for tea leaves and 20-25mg/ml the MBC for Bay leaves.

تم التحري عن الفعالية الضد بكتيرية للمستخلصات المائية لقشور الرمان, اوراق الشاي الاخضر واوراق الغار لاجل تثمينها باستخدام تقنية الانتشار بواسطة أل(اگار) وتم التوصل الى ان المستخلصات الثلاثة لها فعالية تثبيطية ضد بكتريا الكوليرا وتراوحت اقطار التثبيط مابين (11-23) لقشر الرمان ,(9-20) لورق الشاي الاخضر و (7-18) لورق الغار وكانت هناك فروق معنوية مابين المستخلصات الثلاثة ولكل تركيز وكان قشر الرمان هو الافضل بينهم يتبعه اوراق الشاي الاخضر ثم اوراق الغار كما تم التحري عن التركيزالقاتل الادنى لهذه المستخلصات ضد بكتريا الكوليرا وكانت قيمته 10ملغم/ملم لقشر الرمان و15-20ملغم/ملم لورق الشاي الاخضر و20-25ملغم/ملم لورق الغار.


Article
The effect of aspartame and saccharin on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine against mutans streptococci

Authors: Fadia Abd – Muhsin --- Zainab A, Al – Dhaher --- Abbas S, Al – Mizraqchi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 93-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Although chlorhexidine is the most effective against dental plaque it is extremely bitter to prepare formulation, it is necessary to use flavoring and sweetening which can inhibit the antibacterial effect of rinse preparation.
Materials and Method: The effect of different concentrations of aspartame and saccharin on the antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine 0.2% against Mutans Streptococci was evaluated using the agar diffusion method and determination of MIC value of chlorhexidine alone and in presence of aspartame or saccharin was also done in this study.
Results: The results of this study demonstrate that at a concentration of 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% aspartame did not significantly inhibit the antibacterial activity of 0.2% chlorhexidine however the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine significantly reduced when increased the concentrations of aspartame up to 40% and MIC values increased when increased the concentrations of aspartame, while saccharin interfere with the activity of chlorhexidine 0.2% and significantly reduced the anti – mutans activity of chlorhexidine 0.2% at all the concentrations used in this study (6% - 60%) and MIC values increased when increased the concentrations of saccharin.
Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that aspartame may be used as sweetener and flavoring in concentrations up to 16% with chlorhexidine rinse.
Key words: Chlorhexidine, aspartame, saccharin, mutans streptococci. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2008; 20(2):93-97)

Keywords


Article
The effect of black seed oil extracts on mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vitro)

Authors: Baydaa H. Abd-Awn بيداء عبد عون --- Zainab A. Al-Dhaher زينب الظاهر --- Raya R. Al-Dafaai ريا الدفاعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The black seed or Nigella sativa has been used for centuries to promote health and fight disease. Thisplant has a great focus for research due to its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor, and hypotensive effects. Thisstudy was conducted to assess the effect of the black seed oil extract on sensitivity of mutans streptococci and theadherence to tooth surface in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate in vitro.Materials and methods: Four different concentrations of black seed oil extract (1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were preparedusing ethanol as a solvent for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the black seed oil extract against mutansstreptococci isolated from saliva of volunteers and compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate using agar diffusiontest, followed by determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the black seed oil extract.Three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) were used in the adherence study whereby a stainless steel wires werethreaded from one end in the roots of previously cleaned, polished and sterilized first premolars, which were thenimmersed in 10 ml of the agent for 2 minutes, followed by washing with sterilized deionized water. The teeth werethen immersed in 10ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth and inoculated with 2% of bacterial isolates and incubatedaerobically at 370C for seven days. A positive score was given to the microbial growth on wire, teeth and bottleindicating a non-effective treatment and vice versa.Results The study showed inhibition zones for black seed oil extract which were found to be increased as theconcentration of the extract increased. The MBC of the black seed oil extract against mutans streptococci was 10%.The results also showed that the oil extract was effective in inhibiting the adherence of mutans streptococci to toothsurface at a concentration of 10%.Conclusion: The black seed oil extract has a bactericidal effect against mutans streptococci at a concentration of10%, and can inhibit the adherence of these microorganisms to tooth surface


Article
Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of pomegranate, sumac, sage, anise, hand bull tongue, thyme, cloves, lemon and mint against some food-borne pathogens
الفعالية الضد مايكروبية للمستخلصات المائية للرمان ,السماك ,المريمية ,اليانسون ,ورد لسان الثور ,الزعتر ,القرنفل ,الليمون والنعناع ضد بعض الممرضات المجهرية المنتقلة بواسطة الاغذية

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Abstract

The increasing rate of resistance development for commonly used antibiotics have led to search for newer, more effective, affordable and easily available medicine. Medicinal plants have revived as a consequence of current problems associated with the use of antibiotics. Aqueous extracts of nine plants (pomegranate, sumac, sage, anise, hand bull tongue, thyme, cloves, lemon and mint) were qualitatively and quantitatively examined against twenty microbial isolates, mostly food borne including pathogens. (E.coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans) antimicrobial screening was done by agar diffusion (well diffusion) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Among the screened plants, cloves were the most inhibitor against isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans followed by the inhibitory effect of sumac against (E.coli, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans). On the other hand, pomegranate, sage and lemon showed varied inhibitory effect against the tested food borne isolates, whereas the extracts of anise, hand bull tongue, thyme and mint showed no antimicrobial activities against most of the tested isolates. Regarding the inhibition zone and MIC results, the present study certified that Candida albicans was the most sensitive pathogen as compared with the other food borne pathogens tested (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi).

Keywords

pomegranate --- somac --- sage --- anise --- handbulltongue --- thyme --- lemon --- mint.

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