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Article
The modifiable risk factors of hypertension in youths

Author: Riyadh Dh. Mehdi Al-Zubaidi
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2007 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Objective: To verify the modifiable cause(s) of hypertension in youths.
Method: It is a prospective observational study, it was done in out patient private clinic in Kerbala city during the period between May 2004 and October 2006 .three hundred and fifty persons were included, the ages of all persons ranged between 20 and 35years, but 236 were hypertensive and 114 were normotensive.The main parameters that were studied included; body mass index (BMI) ,total serum cholesterol and smoking.



Results: All the hypertensive patients belong to families with history of hypertension, 80.5% of them were hypercholestremic,64.4% were obese and 53.8% were smoker. On the other side, only 21% of the persons of the normotensive group belonged to families with hypertension , none of them were obese, but 7.9% were hypercholestremic and 13.1% were smoker.
Conclusion: hypercholestremia,obesity and smoking are a modifiable causes of hypertension in youth. Early recognition, education and treatment of hypercholestremia plus weight reduction and cessation of smoking may prevent or reduce the severity of hypertension and hence its hazardous complication later on.

لتحديد اسباب ارتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني في الشباب والقابلة للتعديل تمت دراسة 350 مريضا قسموا لمجموعتين : الاولى 236 والثانية 114 قاسمهما المشترك عمر يتـراوح بين 20 و 35 سنة واختلافهما وجود وعدم وجود ارتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني في المجموعة الاولى والثانية على التوالي .المعايير الرئيسية التي تمت دراستها هـي معدل كتلة الجسـم ، الكوليسترول الكلي في الدم والتدخين.لقد بينت النتائج ان كل المرضى ينتمون لعوائل موجبة التاريــخ المرضي فيما يخص ارتفـاع ضغط الدم الشرياني مقارنة ب14.4 % في المجموعة الثانية. كل مرضى المجموعة الاولى اظهروا زيادة فــي معدلات كتل اجسامهم (64.4 % يعانون من السمنة ) في حين لا يوجد بدينا في المجموعة الثانية . 80.5 % اظهروا زيادة الكوليسترول الكلي مقارنة ب7.9 % في المجموعة الثانية ،كما ان 53.8 % كانوا مدخنين مقارنة ب 13.1 % في المجموعة الثانية .ان هذا يقودنا الى الاستنتاج بان زيادة الكوليسترول ، السمنة والتدخين عوامل مسببة (بطريق او آخر) لارتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني وهي قابلة للتعديل، لذا فان التثقيف على مخاطرها ومعالجة زيادة الكوليسترول ربما تسهم في منع او تقليل شدة ارتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني .


Article
Compliance of Hypertensive Patients to Medication in AL-Imam AL-Hussein medical City- Kerbala- 2018

Authors: Zahraa Ismael Abdul Majeed Alnasrawi --- Shahrazad S. Al Jobori --- Hassan Ali A. Nassrallah
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 4048-4058
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: High blood pressure (BP) is estimated to cause 7.5 million deaths worldwide, around 12.8% of the whole deaths . It is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease and its complications, heart failure, renal insufficiency, stroke and blindness in diabetic patients.Aim: This study is designed to determine the compliance of hypertensive patients attending the consultation clinics of internal medicine in Al-Imam Al-Hussein medical city with treatment regimen and the causes of noncompliance.Method: A descriptive cross- sectional study conducted in the outpatient clinics of Al- Imam Al-Hussein medical city in Kerbala during the period from March till June 2018.Total study sample was 335 hypertensive patients ,their ages over 25 years were selected by convenience sampling procedure according to the inclusion criteria . They were interviewed and assessed using special questionnaire format based on sociodemographic data, Morisky 8- item medication adherence scale (MMAS-8) ,and measuring of blood pressure.Results: the mean age of the patients was 58.69 ± 11.87 years. Good compliance with treatment was present in only 28.36% of the sample, 25.67% with partial compliance and 45.97% had poor compliance. Good control of blood pressure was present only in 23.3% of the patients .The absence of symptoms was the first isolated cause of non-compliance to medication 21.9%, followed by forgetfulness 18.8%, the cost of medication 16.3%, then negligence and carelessness of patients 9.4%, while 23.1% of the patients had more than one specific reason to their poor compliance.Conclusions: the study revealed a low rate of medication compliance and low level of blood pressure control with strong association between them. Compliance increased with age, male gender, higher level of education and income, longer duration of the disease, presence of complications, using healthy diet and having positive believe about hypertension treatment and its consequences.


Article
Application of Water Quality Index for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Purpose in Dibdiba Aquifer, Kerbala City, Iraq

Authors: Fadhil Mohamed Al- Mohammed --- Abdulkider Aziz Mutasher
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2013 Volume: 21 Issue: 5 Pages: 1647-1660
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical tool used to transform large quantities of water quality data into single number which represents water quality level. This research is accomplished to evaluate the quality of groundwater in Dibdiba aquifer/Kerbala city-Iraq for the purpose of drinking by using Water Quality Index (WQI). Groundwater samples were collected in April, 2010 from 20 wells. Various physicochemical parameters: pH, total dissolved solids, potassium, bicarbonate, sulphate, total hardness, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and chloride have been calculated in all the water samples. In most of the parameters the concentration observed were found to be above the permissible limits of the Iraqi standard for drinking purpose. The results showed that WQI values for the groundwater of the study area ranged from 432.6 to 184.5, which mean water was found to be severely contaminated and unsuitable for drinking purpose at all sites of the wells. Also this research concluded that further improvement is required to treat the water of Dibdiba aquifer wells for using as drinking purpose.

ان مؤشر نوعية المياه هو اداة رياضية تستخدم لتحويل عدد من المتغيرات الخاصة بنوعية المياه الى رقم منفرد يعبر عن مستوى نوعية المياه.تم انجاز البحث لتقييم نوعية المياه الجوفية في خزان دبدبة ضمن نطاق مدينة كربلاء المقدسة وتقدير صلاحيتها لغرض الشرب باستخدام مفهوم مؤشر نوعية المياه. جمعت نماذج المياه الجوفية خلال شهر نيسان 2010 من 20 بئر. تم حساب عدد من المتغيرات لكل نموذج وهي درجة التفاعل والاملاح الذائبة الكلية والبوتاسيوم والبيكاربونات والكبريتات والعسرة الدائمية والصوديوم والكالسيوم والمغنيسيوم والكلور.ان التراكيز التي تم الحصول عليها لمعظم المتغيرات هي اكبر من الحدود المسموح بها وفقا للمواصفة العراقية لمياه الشرب. اوضحت الدراسة بان قيم مؤشر نوعية المياه للمياه الجوفية في منطقة الدراسة يتراوح بين 432.6 و 184.5 , وهذا يعني ان مياه جميع الابار ملوثة وغير ملائمة للاستخدام لغرض الشرب.وقد بينت الدراسة بان المياه الجوفية لمنطقة الدراسة تحتاج الى معالجة لاستخدامها لغرض الشرب والاستهلاك البشري.


Article
Pattern of Seminal Fluid Analysis among Subfertile Couples in Kerbala Maternity Hospital during 2012

Authors: Mousa Mohsen Ali --- Hayder Aamer Abboud2
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 1865-1869
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Article
The Importance of GPS use in tourism attractions (Hotels of Holy Kerbala as a sample)
أهمية استخدام نظام تحديد المواقع العالمي الـ GPSفي الجـذب السياحي فنادق كربلاء المقدسة أنموذجاً

Author: Najim A. A. AL-Daamy نجـم عبـد العالي عـباس الدعـمي
Journal: Ahl Al-Bait Jurnal مجلة أهل البيت ISSN: 18192033 Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 23 Pages: 602-631
Publisher: University of Ahl Al-Bait جامعة اهل البيت

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Abstract

GPS The Global Positioning System is a fundamental pillar of the basics of management of the tourism and hotels establishments in the world, it play the large role in providing the tourism and hotels services, thus contribute much in the tourist attractions to the tourist intent and the various types of tourism, in Karbala the using of this system is important as an attractive city and polarized to the millions of visitors throughout the year because they include all the tourism potential is first class, especially the religious Tourism, as the proportion of tourist hotels which make up more than 25% of the number of hotels operating in Iraq, according to Statistics Hence this research to highlight the need to use information and communication technologies in promoting tourist attractions in the city of Karbala. especially the global positioning of GPS system through a number of detectives first dealt with research methodology and previous studies and the second section focused on the concept of tourism and the foundations of tourist attractions, the third section addressed the concept of information and communication technologies and to shed light on the GPS system, the fourth is including the practical side of the search, which included the analysis of the results of the distributed questionnaire on the number of workers in the tourism and hotel establishments and a number of specialists in the field of tourism and hospitality, using the statistical software of SPSS, to reach a number of conclusions and recommendations.

استخدام نظام الـ GPS Global Positioning System نظام تحديد المواقع العالمي يعد ركيزة أساسية من أساسيات ادارة المؤسسات السياحية والفندقية على مستوى العالم لما يؤديه من دور في توفير الخدمات السياحية والفندقية، وبالتالي يساهم كثيرا في الجذب السياحي الى أماكن القصد السياحي ولمختلف أنواع السياحة، وفي محافظة كربلاء يعد استخدام هذا النظام من الأهمية بمكان انها مدينة جاذبة ومستقطبة للملايين من الزوار وعلى مدار السنة لأنها تشتمل على كل المقومات السياحية ومن الطراز الاول خصوصاً السياحة الدينيةReligious Tourism، كما تشكل نسبة الفنادق السياحية فيها أكثر من (25%) من عدد الفنادق العاملة في العراق، حسب الإحصائيات ومن هنا انبرى هذا البحث لتسليط الضوء على ضرورة استخدام تقنيات المعلومات والاتصال في تعزيز الجذب السياحي في مدينة كربلاء خاصة نظام تحديد المواقع العالمي الـ GPSوذلك من خلال عدد من المباحث تناول الاول منهجية البحث والدراسات السابقة والمبحث الثاني ركز على مفهوم السياحة ومقومات الجذب السياحي، أما المبحث الثالث فتناول مفهوم تقنيات المعلومات والاتصال وتسليط الضوء على نظام الـ GPS، وتناول المبحث الرابع الجانب العملي للبحث الذي تضمن تحليل نتائج الاستبانة الموزعة على عدد من العاملين في المؤسسات السياحية والفندقية وعدد من المختصين في مجال السياحة والفندقة وذلك باستخدام البرنامج الاحصائي الـ SPSS، وتوصل البحث الى عدد من الاستنتاجات منها يساهم في استخدام هذا النظام بمساعدة القطاع الفندقي الكربلائي لمنافسة القطاع الفندقي محلياً وعربياً وعالمياً وإلى عدد من التوصيات.


Article
Landfill Site Selection for Kerbala Municipal Solid Wastes by Using Geographical Information System Techniques
اختيار موقع طمر صحي لنفايات البلدية الصلبة لمدينة كربلاء المقدسة باستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

Authors: Riyad Al-Anbari --- AumarAlnakeeb --- Mohammad A. Abdulredha
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 3130-3144
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

One of the serious and growing potential problems in most large urban areas is the shortage of land for waste disposal. Although there are some efforts to reduce and recover the waste, disposal in landfills is still the most common method for solid wastes destination. Optimized siting decision reduces negative effects to residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill area in Kerbala are determined by using the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and multi- criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Eight input digital map layers including urban centers, Hamlets, industrial areas, sub roads, wetlands, pipe line, soil characteristics, and surface water are produced using a geographical information system. Simple additive weighing method (SAW) within (MCDA) is used to analyze the prepared maps and produce final suitability map. According to the digital maps produced by this method, the analysis results in selection of one landfill site located in the north of Kerbala city. The area of landfill site selected is 6,800,000 m2 and, its volume is 20,400,000 m3.

واحدة من المشاكل المحتملة والخطيرة التي تواجه معظم المدن الحضرية، هي نقص الاراضي المخصصة لطرح النفايات الصلبة البلدية. لذا يتم بذل الجهود لتقليل واستعادة هذه النفايات، ويعتبر طرحها الى الطمر الصحي من اكثر الطرق الشائعة لحد الان للتخلص من تأثيرها. فتوجب اتخاذ القرار الامثل للتقليل من اثار مواقع الطمر الصحي الضارة للقاطنين الذين يعيشون بالقرب منها وذلك للتعزيز من الاستدامة المطلوبة والمتعلقة بدورة حياتها.في هذه الدراسة، تم انتخاب مواقع من مدينة كربلاء المقدسة لتصلح ان تكون مساحات للطمر الصحي. وذلك بطريقة التكامل بين نظم المعلومات الجغرافية GIS وتحليل القرار للمعايير المتعددة MCDA. حيث تم انتاج ثمانية خرائط رقمية باستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية لتمثل طبقات كل من المراكز الحضرية، القرى، المساحات الصناعية، الطرق الرئيسية والفرعية، الاراضي المبللة، خطوط الانابيب، خواص التربة والمياه السطحية. وباستخدام طريقة الاوزان المضافة المبسطة SAW كأحد طرق التحليل لاتخاذ القرار المتعدد المعايير، تم تحليل هذه الطبقات واعداد خرائط وانتاج الخارطة النهائية للمساحات الملائمة للطمر الصحي. ومن خلالهذا التحليل نتج اختيار الموقع الملائم للطمر الصحي والذي وقع شمال مدية كربلاء المقدسة والذي بلغ مساحته 6.800.000 م2 وبحجم 20.400.000 م3.

Keywords

Landfill --- Site Selection --- GIS --- SAW --- MSW --- Criteria --- Kerbala


Article
Prevalence of Positive Widal Test among Healthy Personnel in Kerbala

Authors: Ali Abdulridha Kadhim Abutiheen --- Muneer A. Altumma --- Riyadh Abed Al-Rasol Heniwa --- Zahra Majid Al-Mosawi --- et al.
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 2265-2271
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever is still an existing health problem in many developing countries. Widal test is almost the most widely used method for diagnosis of typhoid fever in many developing countries including Iraq, though it is nonspecific with many drawbacks on its use.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of Widal test positivity in sera of healthy young personnel in Kerbala city.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in Karbala city, Blood samples from 107 healthy young adults aged 18-40 years old collected, whom are free of sign and symptoms, and not having significant ill health within last two months or typhoid fever within last six months.Results and Discussion: males composed 48.6% of the sample, their mean age was 22.8 ± 3.66 years, and 51.4% of them had a titer of 1/80 for S.typhi O antibody, while other ABs titers were 44.9%, 47%, and 44.9% for S typhi H, S. paratyphi BO and S. paratyphi BH respectively. On other hand ABs titers ≥ 1/160 (positive) were found in 42.1 % for S. typhi O, while others were 28%, 23.4%, 20.6% for S. paratyphi BO, S. typhi H and S. paratyphi BH respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between those tested positive and the negative group in regards to gender or age, or WBCs count.Conclusions: ABs titers are so high, that increases the doubts, and uselessness of the use of Widal test for diagnosis of typhoid fever, and raises the need for the estimation of basic titers for these ABs among Iraqi population.


Article
Risk Factors of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Urban and Rural areas in Kerbala Governorate

Author: Hassan Ali Abood Nassrullah
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 2557-2564
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Urban and rural population have different life style, including diet, physical activity, habits, and this can have an influence on the prevalence of chronic none communicable diseases. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases between urban and rural population sin Kerbala governorate in Iraq.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 16th Jan throughout Feb 2006 on the prevalence of none communicable diseases risk factors using the world health organization STEPS instrument. Data collected by direct interview with the 150 individuals adults (25-65 years old) from different parts of Kerbala governorate, 100 living in urban areas and 50 living in rural areas with nearly equal age and gender distribution. Data collected include demographic characteristics, lifestyle and risk factors (tobacco use, dietary habits regarding fruits and vegetables and oil or fat consumption, physical activity, and history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus). Physical examinations performed to measure blood, height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. Biochemical analysis tested the levels of glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides.Results: Income was lower in rural respondents. Smoking was more prevalent in rural respondents (35.4% vs. 19.4%). Fruits and vegetables consumption was higher in rural respondents. Participants consuming ≥ 5servings /day 27% in rural areas vs. 22.4% in urban areas. Low physical activity was high in both urban and rural participants 37.8% in urban and 43.8% in rural areas. Obesity and overweight was more prevalent in urban participants 70.8% vs 43.8% in rural participants. Hypertension was more prevalent in urban respondents 40% vs. 34% in rural. Fasting blood glucose showed impaired blood glucose and diabetes mellitus in urban respondents respectively 32.6% and 9.5% vs. 25% and 4.5% in rural. Hypercholesterolemia was more prevalent in urban participants 54% vs. 29.4% in rural while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in rural than urban participants (51.3% vs. 38%). Serum triglyceride was nearly the same in both urban and rural participants.Conclusion: Risk factors in urban participants that were higher than those in rural participants were, low consumption of fruits and vegetables, high prevalence of overweight and obesity, HT, impaired blood glucose and DM, and hypercholesterolemia.Smoking and low HDL cholesterol in rural participants were higher than those in urban participants.

Keywords

Chronic --- Non-Communicable --- Diseases --- Risk Factors --- Urban --- Rural --- Kerbala


Article
Experiences of 5th Year Students in Kerbala with Formative Mini-CEX

Author: Riyadh Dhayhood Mahdi Al Zubaidi
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 3956-3961
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Formative work place assessment give opportunities to follow the progression of students learning through monitoring of their doing Aim: To know the experience of the 5th year students with the first year implementation of formative mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX).Method: It is a qualitative research. The information were collected from interview with students completed the internal medicine discipline of the fifth year during the academic year 2017 - 2018.Results: The participants were aware about the exam, the embarrassment of the exam and the presence of peer get less with subsequent examinations, and the encouraging feedback of the examiner exerted a positive effect on the learning process. The students explored the need to further training of clinical examination, in addition to adhering to instructions regarding the need to focus on educational goals. Some of the teachers did not administer the exam according to the instructions of mini – CEX. Conclusion: The experience resulting from the mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) indicates positive results with regard to studentsʹ rush towards learning, a great opportunity for teachers to follow up the studentsʹ level and guidance, enhancement the studentsʹ communication skills, and the need of some teachers to adhere to the essence of this type of assessment.


Article
EFFECT OF THE WIRE MESH REINFORCEMENT ON SOME PROPERTIES OF THE PRECAST CONCRETE TILES

Authors: Zainab M. R. ABDUL RASOOL --- Laith MOHAMMED RIDHA MAHMMOD --- Mushtaq SADIQ RADHI
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 256-269
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The possibility of improving some properties of precast concrete tiles under static load has been studied in this research. The experimental approach was adopted in this research to investigate the effect of two types of wire mesh reinforcements on some properties of precast concrete tiles especially flexural failure load. The experimental program is divided into three groups with two ages of the test, the result of each age is an average of three specimens; the first group consists of six specimens which refer to reference tiles, the second group consists of eighteen specimens reinforced with different shapes of a metal wire mesh. The third group consists of eighteen specimens reinforced with different shapes of the plastic wire mesh. Three tests were conducted in this research, flexural failure load, density, and absorption. The main conclusion from this research is; the increasing in flexural failure load of specimens tiles according to reference tiles was 10%, 17% and 25% for tiles reinforced with square plastic wire mesh, stripe plastic wire mesh and specific plastic wire mesh, and 33%, 35% and 21% for square metal wire mesh, stripe metal wire mesh, and specific metal wire mesh respectively.

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