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Article
Preparation of biodiesel fuel from Urtica dioica seeds oil and study different Properties

Authors: Osamah M.M. Taha --- Khalid S. Tawfiq --- Subhi M. Jarullah
Journal: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE مجلة التربية والعلم ISSN: 1812125X Year: 2019 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 33-47
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Recently,biofuels are considered as an important alternative energy resource and could be a substitute for fossile fuels,due to the fact the increasing awarenees of the environmental pollution issues and depletion of fossil fuel resources (crude oil, natural gas and coal). The greatest motivation for producing biofuels is the clobal warming caused by the continuous burning of fossile fuels. In this study,fatty acid methyl esters,known as biodiesel fuel derived from triglycerides(virgin vegetable oil of nettle),by transesterifacation with methanol,show the promising yield and better quality of biodiesel. This paper presents the development for the production of biodiesel from the vegetable oil having the high yield 91% where the transesterification reaction is promoted by finding an optimal conditions. Clearly the process of transesterification is directly affected by the mode of reaction condition including: molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, amount of KOH, reaction time and temperature. In the present paper,various conditions of preparation of biodiesel have been described to obtain the best quality and high yield.


Article
STUDY ON HETEROGENEOUSL CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION

Authors: Abdullah Nizar SAEED --- Farah Talib Jasim AL-SUDANI
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 620-628
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The commercial process of heterogeneously catalyzed biodiesel production process is in its final steps due to its advantages over the old homogeneously catalyzed one, and in order to provide an economic and fast way to investigate the vegetable oil conversion into biodiesel, a relation between conversion and a parameter that can be easily measured like viscosity is developed in this paper. The variation of viscosity with increasing conversion was proved to be exponential.an equation was developed to predict conversion from dynamic viscosity values based on the experimental data. A conversion of 91% was obtained at 60 oC reaction temperature, 12:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 600 rpm in 2 hours of reaction time. The method reported in this paper is meant to save time and money since the most widely used chromatography methods are expensive and time consuming.


Article
Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Used vegetable Oil
انتاج وقود الديزل الحيوي من الزيوت النباتية المستعملة

Authors: Tariq M. Naife --- Haider Abdul Kareem Al Jendeel --- Hussain K. Hussain
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 1371-1377
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Used vegetable oil was introduced to transesterfication reaction to produce Biodiesel fuel suitable for diesel engines. Method of production was consisted of filtration, transesterfication, separation and washing. Transesterfication was studied extensively with different operating conditions, temperature range (35-80oC), catalyst concentration (0.5-2 wt. % based on oil), mixing time (30-120 min.) with constant oil/methanol weight ratio 5:1 and mixing speed 1300 rpm. The concentration of Fatty acid methyl esters (Biodiesel) was determined for the transesterficated oil samples, besides of some important physical properties such as specific gravity, viscosity, pour point and flash point. The behavior of methyl esters production and the physical properties of Biodiesel were studied with the different operating conditions. The results show that increasing methyl esters concentration with increasing temperature and catalyst concentration and the transesterfication is a second order reaction The research aiming to recycle spent cooking oils to prevent pollution of soil and water, and converting them to Biodiesel fuel with low emissions

تم ادخال الزيت النباتي المستعمل لتفاعل الاسترة التبادلية لانتاج وقود حيوي مناسب لمكائن الديزل. ان طريقة الانتاج تضمنت الترشيح, الاسترة التبادلية, الفصل والغسل. درست الاسترة التبادلية على نطاق واسع بمختلف الظروف التشغيلية, مدى درجة حرارة (35-80م) , تركيز العامل المساعد (0.5-2 % نسبة وزنية) , زمن خلط (30-120 دقيقة) بنسبة وزنية ثابتة زيت الى الميثانول 5:1 وسرعة خلط 1300 دورة بالدقيقة. حدد تركيز الديزل الحيوي لنماذج زيت الاسترة التبادلية , اضافة الى بعض اهم الخواص الفيزياوية مثل الكثافة النوعية, اللزوجة, نقطة الانسكاب و نقطة الوميض. لقد تم دراسة سلوك انتاج الاسترات المثيلية والخواص الفيزياوية لوقود اليزل الحيوي بمختلف الظروف التشغيلية. اظهرت النتائج زيادة تركيز الاسترات المثيلية بزيادة درجة الحرارة وتركيز العامل المساعد وان حركية التفاعل الاستري من الرتبة الثانية. البحث يهدف الى تدوير زيوت الطبخ المستهلكة لمنع تلوث التربة والماء, وتحويلها الى وقود الديزل الحيوي ذو الانبعاثات المنخفضة


Article
Esterification of Free Fatty Acid with High Chain Alcohol for Biodiesel Production Using Semi-Batch Reactive Distillation

Authors: Wadood T. Mohammed --- Marwa F. Abdul Jabbar
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 11-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The esterification of oleic acid with 2-ethylhexanol in presence of sulfuric acid as homogeneous catalyst was investigated in this work to produce 2-ethylhexyl oleate (biodiesel) by using semi batch reactive distillation. The effect of reaction temperature (100 to 130°C), 2-ethylhexanol:oleic acid molar ratio (1:1 to 1:3) and catalysts concentration (0.2 to 1wt%) were studied. Higher conversion of 97% was achieved with operating conditions of reaction temperature of 130°C, molar ratio of free fatty acid to alcohol of 1:2 and catalyst concentration of 1wt%. A simulation was adopted from basic principles of the reactive distillation using MATLAB to describe the process. Good agreement was achieved.


Article
EFFECT OF ALCOHOL RATIO AND REACTION TEMERATURE ON THE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM USED COOKING OIL
تأثير نسبة الكحول ودرجة حرارة التفاعل على انتاج وقود الديزل الحيوي من زيت الطبخ المستعمل

Authors: Aouf A. Al-Tabbakh --- Amer A. Mohammed --- Nassir A. M. Habib
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 6 Pages: 32-39
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic diesel fuel produced by catalytic transesterification of oil. It can be successfully employed in diesel engines and liquid fuel burners. The present work deals with a system for transesterification of vegetable oil using a stirring reactor. Used cooking oil is employed for this purpose due to its availability and cost-effectiveness. The transesterification of oil was carried out using molar ratios (oil:methanol) of (1:9, 1:7, 1:5, 1:3) and reaction temperatures of (45, 55, 60, 70 oC). Sodium Hydroxide NaOH was used as a catalyst by an amount of 1% of oil weight and a stirring speed of 500 rpm was applied for 2 hours. The results showed that the production of biodiesel depends on the molar ratio of (oil:methanol) and on the reaction temperature. The optimal values that gave the highest productivity of biodiesel occurred at the molar ratio of (1:7) (oil:methanol) at a reaction temperature of (60 oC) in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst by an amount of 1% of oil weight.

وقود الديزل الحيوي، أو ألكيل استر هو وقود بديل متجدد قابل للتحلل، وغير سام حيث يتم انتاجه من عملية استرة الزيتالمحفزة، ويمكن استعماله بنجاح في محركات الديزل وحراقات الوقود السائل. تم في هذا البحث استخدام مفاعل لأسترة الزيت النباتيبخلطه مع الميثانول واستخدم لهذا الغرض زيت الطبخ المستعمل لتوفره وقلة تكلفته. تم اجراء عملية الاسترة للزيت باستخدام النسبالمولية )زيت:ميثانول(: ) - 9:1 ، 7:1 ، 5:1 ، 3:1 ( ولدرجات حرارة تفاعل (45, 55, 60, 70 oC) واستخدام هيدروكسيد الصوديومNaOH عاملا مساعدا بمقدار 1 % من وزن الزيت مع تطبيق خلط بسرعة 500 دورة في الدقيقة لمدة ساعتين. أظهرت النتائج أن إنتاجالوقود الحيوي يعتمد على نسب الخلط للزيت والميثانول كذلك على درجات حرارة التفاعل. كانت القيم المثلى التي تعطي اعلى انتاجيةللوقود الحيوي هي عند درجة حرارة ) 60oC ( ونسبة خلط مولية )زيت:كحول(: ) - 7:1 ( باستخدام هيدروكسيد الصوديوم عاملا مساعدابمقدار 1 % من وزن الزيت من وزن الزيت.


Article
Commercial CaO Catalyzed Biodiesel Production Process

Authors: Zaid Adnan Abdel-Rahman --- Ahmed Daham Wiheeb --- Marwa Majeed Jumaa
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 4 Pages: 846-852
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils is a good alternative clean diesel. The present study was conducted because there are some variations or contradictions in literature on the use of CaO heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, biodiesel was produced from sunflower vegetable oil and methanol in presence of commercial calcium oxide catalyst in batch mechanical stirrer reactor. The effect of three operating conditions, methanol mole ratio (4-12), reaction time (0.5-2.5 h) and catalyst amount (2-10 %), on the yield of biodiesel was studied at constant reaction temperature of 60 oC. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used with central composite design (CCD) of experiments. Polynomial correlation was found for the dependent variable of the process (yield of biodiesel), satisfactorily predicted at 95% confidence level. The optimum yield biodiesel was about 98% and at operating condition of methanol ratio 10, reaction time 2 h and catalyst amount 8 %. The reaction time was found to be the most effective operating condition. Kinetics study of the process showed that first order reaction with triglyceride concentration and zero order with methanol concentration gave best fit with the experimental data, triglyceride with a reaction rate constant k= 1.53 h-1.

البايوديزل المنتج من الزيوت النباتية خيار جيد لديزل نظيف . اجريت الدراسة الحالية لان هناك اختلافات او تناقضات في البحوث المنشورة على استعمال اوكسيد الكالسيوم كعامل مساعد غير متجانس. في هذه الدراسة , انتج البايوديزل من الزيت النباتي نوار الشمس مع الميثانول بوجود اوكسيد الكالسيوم التجاري كعامل مساعد في مفاعل دفعات بخلاط ميكانيكي. درس تاثير ثلاثة ظروف تشغيل ؛ نسبة المولية للميثانول (4-12) وزمن التفاعل (2,5 ساعة) وكمية العامل المساعد (2-10%) على انتاجية البايوديزل بثبوت درجة حرارة التفاعل 60 درجة مئوية. استخدمت طريقة استجابة السطوح (RSM) مع تصميم التجارب المركب المركزي (CCD) . تم ايجاد علاقة متعددة الحدود للمتغير المعتمد للعملية (انتاجية البايوديزل) , اعطت نتائج مقبولة في مستوى ثقة 95% . افضل انتاجية للبايوديزل بحدود 98% في ظروف تشغيلية ؛ النسبة المولية للميثانول (10) وزمن التفاعل (2 ساعة) وكمية العامل المساعد (8%). ووجد ان زمن التفاعل هو المتغير الاكثر تاثيرا لظروف التشغيل. بينت دراسة حركية العملية , ان تفاعل من الدرجة الاولى مع تركيز ثلاثي الكليسيرين ودرجة صفر مع تركيز الميثانول , اعطت افضل انطباق مع النتائج العملية , لثابت معدل التفاعل (k= 1.53 h-1).


Article
Computational Combustion and Emission Analysis of Biodiesel in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine

Authors: Mohamed Al-Dawody --- S.K. Bhatti
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 184-192
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The aim of the present study is to analyse the combustion characteristics, performance and emission parameters of a variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine experimentally and numerically using soybean methyl ester (SME) biodiesel. Initially the engine is fed with diesel to capture the basic data, and then SME was tested as 20 % blend (B20), as 40% blend (B40) and as pure bio-fuel (B100). The experimental investigations are followed by a computational combustion and emissions analysis of diesel engine which is done by using the CFD software (ANSYS FLUENT 13). The combustion, performance and emissions parameters are evaluated by operating the engine at four different compression ratios of 15, 16, 17.5 and 19 and varying the load from 0 kW to 4.4 kW with 1.1 kW step. It is observed that peak pressure is closer to TDC when SME blends is increased. SME blend has earlier combustion start because of the advancement in the injection timing, shorter delay time. Increasing mixing ratio of biodiesel is found to decrease BTE slightly and increases the BSFC. Remarkable decrease in UHC and CO emissions as the ratio of SME is increased due to the complete combustion of biodiesel with presence of more oxygen in the combustion chamber. The measured BSN for B20, B40, and B100 SME was less than that of diesel fuel by 20.44%, 35.78%, and 48.3% respectively. It is inferred from the combustion analysis that as the compression ratio increases from 15 to 19 a decrease in smoke intensity, UHC, and CO, but it increases the emission of NOx. Both turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate were decreased as the percentage of SME increased by 10.84% and 2.01% respectively. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 19 caused an increase in the peak pressure, density, combustion velocity, turbulence, peak temperature, NOx and a decrease in soot emissions. It can be assessed that the B20 SME is best suited to implement it into diesel engine without any effects. It has been founded from the results that 19 compression ratio has shown good performance and low emissions as compared to other compression ratios. The results obtained from the experimental investigation have been compared with the results of CFD analysis and are found to be in good agreement with each other with just slight deviation.


Article
Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Sheep Fats Waste

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Abstract

Animal fats are a good, promising and ethical alternative source for biodiesel production, but they need more complex treatments than vegetable oils. Iraqi butchery plants waste fats (sheep fat) which are suggested as feedstock to produce biodiesel. This type of fat contains a large quantity of free fatty acids (FFAs) (acid number 49.13 mg KOH/g of fat). The direct transesterification of such fats produce high amount of soap instead of desired biodiesel, so a pre-treatment step (to reduce FFAs) is necessary before transesterification. This step was done by esterification of the free fatty acids in the fat by adding ethanol and using 1% acid catalyst (H2SO4) for 30 minutes. The results showed that the acid number of sheep fat after pre-treatment step reduced to 0.97 mg KOH/g of fat at esterification step. Transesterification of treated fats (produce from esterification) used to convert biodiesel. The maximum yield of biodiesel was about 85 vol. % for treated fats obtained with 25/100 ethanol/fat wt. ratio, 70° C reaction temperature and 50 minutes total treatment period (pre-treatment step and transesterification reaction). The suggested model of the production rate kinetic of transesterification reaction, found that the production rate is inversely proportional with the volume of biodiesel produced with activation energy of 25320 J/mole.


Article
An attempt to Stimulate lipids for Biodiesel Production from locally Isolated Microalgae in Iraq
محاولة لتحفيز انتاج الدهون للديزل الحيوي من الطحالب الدقيقة المعزولة محليا في العراق

Authors: Thaer I. Kassim *** ** ثائر ابراهيم قاسم --- Ibtsam F. Aljbory * ابتسام فريد الجبوري** --- Fikrat M. Hassan* فكرت مجيد حسن
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 97-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Two locally isolated microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris Bejerinck and Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith) were used in the current study to test their ability to production biodiesel through stimulated in different nitrogen concentration treatments (0, 2, 4, 8 gl ), and effect of nitrogen concentration on the quantity of primary product (carbohydrate, protein ), also the quantity and quality of lipid. The results revealed that starvation of nitrogen led to high lipid yielding, in C. vulgaris and N. palea the lipid content increased from 6.6% to 40% and 40% to 60% of dry weight (DW) respectively.Also in C. vulgaris, the highest carbohydrate was 23% of DW from zero nitrate medium and the highest protein was 50% of DW in the treatment 8gl. While in N. palea the highest carbohydrate was 25% of DW in the treatment 4gl, and the highest protein was 15% of DW in 8gl treatment.

استخدمت عزلتين محلية من الطحالب الدقيقة (Chlorella vulgaris Bejerinck and Nitzschia palae (Ktz.) W. Smith) ,لاختبار قدرتها على انتاج الديزل الحيوي من خلال تحفيزها بمعاملات مختلفة من النتروجين (صفر و 2 و 4و 8 ملغم/لتر), وتاثيرها على المنتجات الاساسية (الكاربوهيدرات والبروتين) كذلك على كمية ونوعية الدهون. اظهرت النتائج بان المعاملة ناقصة النتروجين (صفر) حفزت على انتاج عالي من الدهون في كلا من الطحالب الدقيقة C. vulgaris و N. palea حيث ارتفع محتوى الدهون من 6.6 ٪ الى 40 ٪ ومن 40 ٪ الى 60٪ من الوزن الجاف على التوالي. واظهرت C. vulgaris اعلى محتوى للكاربوهيدرات 23٪ من الوزن الجاف في المعاملة صفر نتروجين وسجلت اعلى محتوى للبروتين 50٪ من الوزن الجاف في معاملة 8 ملغم / لتر. في حين N. palea كان اعلى محتوى للكاربوهيدرات 25٪ من الوزن الجاف في معاملة نتروجين 4ملغم/لتر واعلى محتوى للبروتين 15٪ من الوزن الجاف في معاملة نتروجين 8 ملغم/لتر. الكلمات المفتاحية: طحالب دقيقة, دهون, حامض ستيرك , حامض اويلك, الديزل الحيوي


Article
Effects Of Biodiesel Fuel Upon The Exhaust Emission And The Performance Of Compression Ignition Engine
تأثير وقود البيوديزل على انبعاثات وأداء مكائن الاحتراق الداخلي

Authors: Ayad M. Salman إياد محمود سلمان --- Eiman Ali Eh. Sheet إيمان علي إحسان شيت
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 107-123
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Biodiesel is a renewable source of energy since it is made of renewable sources such as corn and soybeans, thus reduces the dependence on oil and eliminates the monopoly of certain countries on oil. This research studied effects of three types of fuel, biodiesel from new oil, biodiesel from waste cooking oil and diesel fuel on engine performance and emissions. A diesel engine and a gas analyzer is used in this research. The effect of each fuel on the performance of the engine at different set of speeds at a fixed throttle setting (full throttle and medium throttle) is studied, with the recording of amounts of gas emissions from the exhaust, and compare the results obtained for these cases. Also obtained a set of fuel characteristics to help with the calculations for better understanding of fuels through various experimentations.The results showed that waste cooking oil performance is a mediate one between new oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The emissions of waste cooking oil biodiesel are low with consideration to its efficient combustion. Biodiesel in general has a higher brake power and torque because it is clean burning and has a smoother running.Key words: Biodiesel fuel, diesel fuel, exhaust emission, diesel engine performance.

الوقود الحيوي (الديزل الحيوي) يعتبر مصدر طاقة متجددة حيث يصنع من مصادر قابلة للتجدد مثل الذرة وحب الصويا، هذا يخفض الاعتماد على النفط ويزيل احتكار بعض البلدان للنفط. في هذا البحث تم دراسة تأثير ثلاثة أنواع من الوقود هي الديزل الحيوي من زيت نقي والديزل الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي ووقود الديزل على أداء وانبعاثات الغازات من المحرك عمليا باستخدام محرك ديزل ومحلل غازات مختبريه. تم حساب تأثير كل نوع من الوقود المستخدمة على أداء المحرك لمجموعة من السرع المختلفة ولوضع صمام الخنق بحالتين خنق تام وخنق متوسط حيث تم تسجيل كميات انبعاث الغازات من العادم. وكذلك تم الحصول على مجموعة من خصائص الوقود وبمساعدة الحسابات لفهم أفضل للوقود من خلال التجارب المختلفة. بينت النتائج إن أداء وقود الديزل الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي يتوسط بين أداء الوقود الحيوي الجديد ووقود الديزل. انبعاثات الوقود الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي هي الأقل نتيجة احتراقه الكفؤ. عموما الديزل الحيوي له عزم وقدرة كبح أعلى من وقود الديزل بسب احتراقه النظيف والدوران المنتظم.

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