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Article
Effect of Rootstock Type and CO2 Enrichment on Bud Take of Local Sweet Orange and Growth Characteristics of the Produced Seedlings
تأثير نوع الاصل والاغناء بغاز CO2 في نسبة نجاح طعوم البرتقال المحلي ومواصفات النمو للشتلات المنتجة

Authors: Atheer M. Ismail اثير محمد اسماعيل --- Mohammed A. Salman محمد عباس سلمان
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18131646 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: عدد خاص بالمؤتمر التخصصي الثالث / الانتاج النباتي Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to study the influence of rootstock type and CO2 enrichment in the percentage of the local sweet orange scions success and growth characteristics of the produced seedlings under lath house conditions from March 2011 to November 2012 , Five types of citrus rootstocks : sour orange , cleopatra mandarin , swingle citrumelo , volkamer lemon and rough lemon were selected to budding with local sweet orange in 10/4/2011 and exposing the budded transplants to two CO2 levels : concentration of CO2 in the atmospheric air ( control ) 0.0385% and 0.077%. The results demonstrated that the rootstock type had significant effect in the studied traits , cleopatra mandarin rootstock had achieved the highest percentage of scions success and highest N , chlorophyll content in the leaves , volkamer lemon rootstock had achieved the highest value of the branches length , rough lemon rootstock had achieved the highest value of the branches number , leaves number , scion diameter , the dry weight of vegetative part and the percentage of carbohydrate in the branches while the rootstocks volkamer lemon and rough lemon had achieved the highest value of the leaves area , exposed the budded transplants to 0.077% CO2 significantly increased the percentage of successful scions , number of branches , length of branches , number of leaves , leaves area , scion diameter , the dry weight of vegetative part and branches content of carbohydrate , and significant decreased in leaves N and chlorophyll content .

اجريت دراسة لمعرفة تاثير نوع الاصل والاغناء بــــ CO2 في نسبة نجاح طعوم البرتقال المحلي ومواصفات النمو للشتلات المنتجة تحت ظروف الظلة الخشبية للمدة من اذار 2011 لغاية تشرين الثاني 2012 , اذ انتخبت خمسة اصول بذرية ( النارنج , اللالنكي كليوباترا , الستروميللو سوينجل , الليمون فولكاماريانا والليمون المخرفش ) للتطعيم عليها بصنف البرتقال المحلي بطريقة التطعيم الدرعي بتأريخ 10/4/2011 ومن ثم عرضت الشتلات المطعمة الى مستويين من CO2 هما : تركيز غاز ثنائي اوكسيد الكاربون (CO2) في الهواء الجوي ( 0.0385% ) وضعفه ( 0.077% ) , اوضحت النتائج ان لنوع الاصل تاثيرا معنويا في الصفات المدروسة اذ حقق اصل اللالنكي كليوباترا اعلى نسبة مئوية للطعوم الناجحة و محتوى النتروجين والكلورفيل في الاوراق , اما اصل الليمون فولكامارينا فقد حقق اعلى قيمة لطول الافرع الرئيسة , وحقق اصل الليمون المخرفش اعلى قيمة لعدد الافرع وعدد الاوراق وقطر الطعم والوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري والنسبة المئوية للكربوهيدرات في الافرع في حين حقق اصلا الليمون فولكاماريان والليمون المخرفش اعلى قيمة للمساحة الورقية , وادى الاغناء بغاز CO2 بتركيز 0.077% الى زيادة معنوية في النسبة المئوية لنجاح التطعيم وعدد وطول الافرع الرئيسة وعدد الاوراق والمساحة الورقية وقطر الطعم والوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري ومحتوى الافرع من الكربوهيدرات , وانخفاض معنوي في محتوى النتروجين والكلوروفيل في الاوراق .


Article
Is co2 laser Hemorrhoidectomy superior to conventional open Hemorrhoidectomy?

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Abstract

Background: Hemorrhoids are one of the mostcommon surgical conditions .Conventionalhaemorrhoidectomy was the traditional operation forthe treatment of hemorrhoids. Other modalities oftreatment had been used as an alternative operationsincluding CO2 laser haemorrhoidectomy.Objectives: To determine the outcome of treatmentof hemorrhoids by using CO2 laserhaemorrhoidectomy and its advantages overconventional surgeryMethods: This is a retrospective comparativeinterventional study of 1024 case of third degreehaemorhoids selected out of 1300 case ofhemorrhoids of different degrees, admitted toALKINDY, ALYERMOUK teaching hospitals andABD ALMAGEED private hospital, from May 1998to July 2002,they were treated by CO2 laserhaemorrhoidectomy and conventional surgery. Theyare divided into 2 groups randomly, 512 cases treatedby CO2 laser (group A), 512 cases treated byconventional surgery (group B). Both groups werestudied regarding operative time, hospital stay,healing time, post operative complications and costeffectiveness.Results: In GROUP A, the operative time rangedfrom 10 to 20 minutes with an average of 13 minutes.The hospital stay ranged from 4 to 12 hours with amean time of 10 hours as all cases were treated asday cases. Post operative pain was minimal in 50% ofpatients and required simple analgesia for treatmentwhile 50% had no pain. Bleeding occurred in lessthan 1% of cases, anal stenosis 3.3%, Infectionrecorded in 0.58% of patients.In GROUP B, Theoperative time ranged from 15 to 25 minutes with anaverage time of (19) minutes, hospital stay rangedfrom 24 to 48 hours with a mean time of 28 hours.Post operative pain recorded in all the patients(100%) and required narcotic analgesia for treatment,25 patients (4.8%) had varying degrees of bleeding,40 patients (7.8%) had infection, 25 patients (4.8%)had anal stenosis.In group A due to shorter hospitalstay, earlier healing of wounds, earlier return to workwhich was within 7 to 10 days, the surgical treatmentproved to be cost effective.Conclusion: CO2 laser Hemorrhoidectomy wasfound to be easy and safe procedure with lower rateof complications, shorter hospital stay and costeffective.

Keywords

Co2 --- Laser --- Hemorrhoids


Article
Operation and Study Characterize(CW) CO2 Laser
تشغيل ودراسة خواص ليزر ثاني اوكسيد الكاربون المستمر

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Abstract

In this work a commercial (CW) CO2 laser has been operated and characterized, Where a power of up to (2.40 W) has been achieved at a pressure (35 mbar) , a current of (30 mA) and an applied voltage of (5kV) . The effect of the pressure and the current on out put power has been studied. Also the laser plasma has been studied theoretically and compared with the experimental values to insure the best operation of the laser tube.

تم في هذا البحث ترصيف وتشغيل ودراسة خواص منظومة ليزرثاني اوكسيد الكاربون (CO2) المستمر ، حيث أجريت عملية ترصيف وتشغيل للمنظومة المستخدمة مع أفضل شروط للتشغيل ، وتم الحصول على قدرة خرج ليزري(2.40W) عند ضغط (35mbar) وتيار (30mA) والفولتية المطبقة(5kV) كما تم دراسة تأثير ضغط مزيج الغاز الكلي وتيار التفريغ الكهربائي على معدل القدرة الخارجة، بعدها تم دراسه تحليل بلازما الليزر للمنظومة العاملة اعتماداً على علاقات رياضية ومقارنتها مع القيم العملية التي تم الحصول عليها للتأكد من عمل المنظومة بالشكل المطلوب.


Article
Analysis of Troposphere Carbon Dioxide in IRAQ from Atmosphere Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data: 2010-2011

Authors: Hussein Abdelwahab Mossa --- Hazim Saleh Ahmed --- Jasim Mohammed Rajab
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2012 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 524-531
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

As the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the most prominent Greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere and plays a key role in earth's climate. It’s resulting more than 50% of the global warming when all greenhouse gases (excepting water vapor) are added together. Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, its concentrations increased over 110 ppmv. The troposphere CO2 have been studied employing Atmosphere Infrared Sounder (AIRS), onboard NASA's Aqua Satellite, and data of CO2 emission in Iraq during the period 2010 – 2011. The analysis for five dispersed stations shows the seasonal variation in the CO2 fluctuated considerably observed between spring and autumn seasons. The mean and the standard deviation of monthly CO2 was (391.77±4.55 ppm) for the entire period. The CO2 in 2011 values was higher than its values in 2010 at all stations throughout the period. The highest value that occurred in this period was on March at Baghdad (396.32 ppm) and the lowest value was in September at Basra (387.22 ppm). Elevation in CO2 values can be observed throughout the year over the congested urban and Industrial area. The monthly CO2 maps for study area were obtained from the NASA-operated GIOVANNI portal (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni). The AIRS data and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of the troposphere CO2 concentrations over different regions.

Keywords

- CO2 --- AIRS --- AMSU --- Iraq


Article
A Study On The Effect of Using Various Reflectivities of Output Couplers on CW Carbon Dioxide Laser Performance
دراسة تاثير استخدام مرايا خرج بانعكاسيات مختلفة على قدرة ليزر ثنائي اوكسيد الكاربون المستمر

Author: نجم عبد الكاظم جواد الربيعي
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2007 Volume: 25 Issue: 10 Pages: 333-336
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A practical study has been carried out on axial flow CW CO2 laser bychanging the output coupler with a wide range of reflectivities. ZnSe mirrorswere used in various reflectivities (20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70,75,80,85,90).It has been found that the output power varies considerably with varies thereflectivity of the output coupler. Thus the optimum reflectivity for 1moptical length and 1cm discharge tube of CW CO2 laser is found to be 65±5%. Our results have been compared with other published data.

تم في هذا البحث اجراء دراسة عملية على منظومة ليزر ثنائي اوكسيد الكاربون المستمر ذات الجريانالطولي من خلال تغيير مراة الخرج الامامية باستخدام معدل واسع من الانعكاسيات. تم استخدام مرايا(20, 30, 40, 45, 50,5 5,6 وبانعكاسيات مختلفة 0,6 (ZnSe) مصنعة من بلورة سيلينيد الخارصين5. لقد وجد ان قدرة الخرج الليزري تتاثر بانعكاسية المراة الامامية بشكل كبير , 70, 75,80,85,90%)1 وقطر تفريغ m وكانت افضل انعكاسية للمنظومة المصنعة في هذا البحث التي لها طول بصري مقدارة65 والتي اعطت قدرة ليزرية عظمى مقدارها ± 60 اي حوالي % 5 - 10 يقع ضمن حدود % 70 mm50 . تم مقارنة النتائج المستحصلة من هذا البحث مع نتائج البحوث المنشورة الاخرى. W

Keywords

CO2 Laser --- CW laser --- Reflectivity


Article
The effect of the CO2 laser on the enamel cracks

Author: Dr. Muthenna Sh. Rajab. *
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-153
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The objective of this study aimed to assess the effeats of the CO2 laser on the enamel cracks. The labial cracks of thirty extracted central incisors were irradiated with 4 Watts power and (0.4, 0.2 and 0.1) pulse durations. The laser used was CO2 laser with 10.6 μm in wavelength. The irradiated samples were sectioned into ground cross sections and examined under polarizing microscope. Enamel cracks can not be welded completely using CO2 laser irradiation. Although the formation of superficial glaze layer, there was a tendency to increase in the separation of the crack sides as the pulse duration of the laser increased

Keywords

Keywords: Enamel --- Crack --- CO2 --- Laser


Article
The study of CO2 laser welding for stainless steel

Author: Methaq Mutter Mehdy Al-Sultani
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 227-248
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

The laser welding process for (304) stainless steel by pulsed and continuous CO2 laser ,had been studied , where all of ( T,I(Z), β(t), υ, υwelding, Qh, Qm, Qv and Qtot) had been calculated as function of each (pulse speed at different repetition rates , pulse width ) for pw-CO2 laser and as a function of thickness at different values of incident laser power for cw-CO2 laser. The pulsed CO2 laser welding had been compared with continuous CO2 laser welding and we found that the pw-CO2 at high repetition rate is the best in welding process achieving because of highest values of welding efficiency .As well as , the using of high power laser fasten welding process. It can be concluded that the keyhole welding is more useful than spot welding because of it's highest value of each of welding speed (υwelding) and welding efficiency (ξ).

درست عملية اللحام الليزري للفولاذ المقاوم (304) بوساطة ليزر CO2 النبضي والمستمر , حيث حسبت كل من ( T, I(Z), β(t) , υ ,, υwelding , ξ Qh , Qm , Qv, Qtot ) كدالة لكلاً من( سرعة النبضة عند معدلات تكرار مختلفة , أمد النبضة ) لليزر النبضي وكدالة للسمك عند قدرات ليزرية ساقطة مختلفة لليزر المستمر . قورن اللحام الليزري بوساطة ليزر النبضي باللحام الليزري بليزر CO2 المستمر , ووجدنا أن ليزر CO2 النبضي عند معدلات تكرار عالية هو الأفضل في انجاز عملية اللحام بسبب القيم العالية لكفاءة اللحام .بالإضافة إلى أن استخدام ليزر بالقدرة العالية يسرَع عملية اللحام . يمكن الاستنتاج أن لحام ثقب المفتاح مفيد أكثر من لحام البقعة بسبب القيم العالية لكلاً من سرعة اللحام ( υwelding ) وكفاءة اللحام ( ξ) .


Article
Effects of Irradiation of Continuous Wave Carbon Dioxide Laser on Caries Resistance of Deciduous Teeth

Author: Muthenna Sh. Rajab مثنى شعبان رجب
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2013 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 101-105
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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The objective of this study aimed to assess the caries-preventive potential of various CW CO2 laser parameters, and to explore the effect of the laser power density on the caries inhibition activity.Extracted human deciduous molars were irradiated with three various power densities, by changing the output power, the exposure time, and the spot diameter. The CO2 laser system emitted laser with 10.6μm in wavelength. All teeth were subjected to carieslike lesion formation by 3.5 pH lactic acid for 21 days. The teeth after that were sectioned into ground cross sections and the lesion depths were measured under a polarizing microscope.CW CO2 laser preventive treatments inhibited carieslike lesion progression up to 82%. This effect was improved with increasing power density within the limits of the examined laser parameters.

Keywords

deciduous --- caries --- CW --- CO2 --- laser.


Article
LAPAROSCOPIC LIVER RESECTION IN THE GOAT

Author: Abdulbari A. Al faris , Jinan A. bannai , Rana K. abdulsamd
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 156-166
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate application of laparoscopy in veterinary surgery and assess the feasibility safety of laparoscopic hepatectomy using thermal energy to control the bleeding after the partial hepatoctomy in the goats. liverenzymes and blood counts were drawn pre and postoperatively with recorded Rectal temperature, respiratory rate and pulse rate and record the time of returning to eat and drink post operation. The abdominal cavity was inflated by the introduction of co2 gas . The result showed that the laparoscopic partial hepatectomy can be easily done in goats without any complications. The mean time of the procedures was 45 minutes (range 40 to 60 min) . The physical parameters were measured preoperatively 1st, 2rd, and 3thdays postoperatively ,showed no significant increase in respiratory rate , plus rat and temperature .The Hematological parameters Hb, PCV and Biochemical tests AST,ALT,LDH, Showed no significant increase in number at day1,2,3 after the surgery From the results of this study, it was concluded that the laparoscopic partial hepatectomy can be easily done in goats without any complications.


Article
Study the effective of annealing on the structural and sensitivity properties for SnO2 thin films to CO2 Gas
دراسة تأثير التلدين على الخواص التركيبية والتحسسية لأغشيةSnO2 لغازCO2

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Abstract

تم في هذا البحث تحضير أغشية رقيقة لشبه الموصل SnO2 بطريقة الرش الكيمياوي على قواعد زجاجية الحراري ذات درجة حرارة(723K) باستخدام محلول مائي لكلوريدات القصدير المائية وبتركيز(0.125M) بسمك (300nm) .أجريت عملية التلدين للأغشية المحضرة عند درجة حرارة(823K). تم دراسة الخواص التركيبية والتحسسية للأغشية المحضرة لغاز CO2 قبل و بعد التلدين بالاضافة الى ذلك درس تأثير التلدين على الحجم الحبيبي لتلك الأغشية.

In this research thin films from SnO2 semiconductor have been prepared by using chemical pyrolysis spray method from solution SnCl2.2H2O at 0.125M concentration on glass at substrate temperature (723K ).Annealing was preformed for prepared thin film at (823K) temperature. The structural and sensing properties of SnO2 thin films for CO2 gas was studied before and after annealing ,as well as we studied the effect temperature annealing on grain size for prepared thin films .

Keywords

thin film --- SnO2 --- CO2 gas sensor

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