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Article
THE EFFECT OF KETAMINE, DICLOFENAC AND THEIR COMBINATION ON FOUR MODELS OF INDUCED PAIN IN MICE

Authors: ABDULLAH M JAWAD --- ASMAA M HUSSAIN AL-ALI
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 12
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Adjuvant analgesics are drugs that have weak or nonexistent analgesic action whenadministered alone, but can enhance analgesic action when co-administered with knownanalgesic agents. Ketamine, an anesthetic drug, is an adjuvant analgesic drug. Its use in doseslower than therapeutic doses might be important in the management of certain types of pain asneuropathic pain.The present study was performed to investigate the effects of subanesthetic doses of ketaminein four animal models of induced pain and to compare its effects with diclofenac sodium. It isalso intended to test the effectiveness of combining both drugs together in these animal modelsof pain.All experiments were performed on albino mice. Mice were evaluated for their responsivenessto noxious stimuli using four tests: tail-flick test, hot-plate test, formalin test and acetic acidinducedwrithing test. These effects were measured before and one hour after intraperitonealdrug administration. In some experiments, they were followed for 6 and 24 hours.We found that Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, resulted in a significant analgesic effect in allthe four models of pain. It increased pain latencies in tail-flick test by 78% compared to preadministrationtime, and by 95% in hot plate test. It also decreased the number of lickings andbitings in formalin test by 41.9% and the number of abdominal writhing by 73.5%. Theseanalgesic effects represented around 60% of diclofenac effect in heat-induced pain models, butit is similar to diclofenac in the other two models. The enhancement of diclofenac analgesiceffect by ketamine ranged from 13.6% to 46% in the four tests.It is concluded that Ketamine in subanesthetic doses has a significant analgesic effectcomparable to diclofenac. It can enhance diclofenac effect by a margin not exceeding 50% ofdiclofenac effect. Much smaller doses of ketamine are required to be tested in the future.

Keywords

KETAMINE --- DICLOFENAC


Article
Evaluation of Using Intranasal Desmopressin, Parenteral Diclofenac or their Combination in the Management of Acute Renal Colic Pain in Iraqi Patients

Author: Ibrahim A. Majeed ابراهيم ادهم مجيد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2007 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-4
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

There is a suggestion that an antidiuretic hormone-induced decrease in diuresis might contribute to the rapid relief of the acute pain in renal colic. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of desmopressin nasal spray compared with diclofenac given intramuscularly in patients with acute renal colic. The study included 75 patients randomized into three different groups; group A received desmopressin (40 &#956;g, nasal spray), group B diclofenac (75 mg) intramuscularly and group C, both desmopressin and diclofenac. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from `no pain' to `unbearable pain') at baseline, 10, 20 and 30 min after administering the treatments. On admission, the pain level was the same in all three groups. At 10 min the pain decreased in all groups to a level that was not significantly different. At 20 min groups B and C had similar mean pain levels (5.8), whereas in group A it was 5.7. At 30 min, groups B and C scored 3.0 and 2.5 respectively, and group A 6.1. All three treatments were equally effective at 10 and 20 min but at 30 min there was a stabilization/slight increase in pain level in group A. In conclusion, these results indicate that desmopressin may be used to treat renal colic either alone or combined, increasing the analgesic effect of other drugs like diclofenac

يوجد مقترح على أن هورمون المضاد للتدرر المحث لنقصن الإدرار والذي قد يوعز إلى إزالة الألم الحاد في حصوة الكلية . هذه الدراسة صممت لتقييم كفاءة مادة ديسموبريسين عن طريق العضلة للمرضى المصابين بحصوة الكلية . الدراسة احتوت على 75 مريض بصورة عشوائية تم تقسيمهم الى ثلاثة مجاميع المجموعة (أ) استلمت ديسموبريسين 40 ميكروكرام , زذذ الانف . المجموعة (ب) دايكلوفيناك 75 ملغم عن طريق العضلة . والمجموعة (ج) استلمت كلا الدوائين ديسموبريسين و دايكلوفيناك , الالم قيم بواسطة القياس العيني ( 10 سم للقياس الافقي - لمدرج من لا الى غير محتمل الالم ) , عند خط الشروع 10 , 20 , 30 دقيقة بعد تناول العلاج . عند الدخول مستوى الالم كان متساوي في جميع المجاميع , عند 10 دقائق قل في كل المجاميع الى المستوى الذي لم يكن هناك فرق معنوي , عند الدقيقة 20 مجموعة ( ب , ج ) لها متوسط مستوى الالم 8.5 بينما مجموعة (أ) كان 5.7 , عند 30 دقيقة مجموعة ( ب , ج ) كانت القيمة 3.5 , 2.5 على التوالى ولمجموعة (أ) 6.1 , كل العلاجات الثلاثة كانت متساوية التأثير في 10 , 20 دقيقة ولكن في 30 دقيقة كان هناك استقراراً على نقصان ضئيل في مستوى الالم عند لمجموعة (أ) . في الاستنتاج تلك النتائج اوضحت ان ديسموبريسين قد يستعمل لعلاج المغص الكلوي منفرداً أو مركباً لزيادة التأثير المسكن للادوية الاخرى مثل دايكلوفيناك . مفتاح الكلمات : مغص كلوي , داخل تجويف الانف , ديسموبريسين , دايكلوفيناك


Article
The Role of Addition of Diclofenac Sodium to Imipramine in Treating Children with Nocturnal Enuresis

Author: Samir Ali Muter
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-20
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Nocturnal enuresis presents a common medical problem all over the world, over many years various therapeutic options have been tried; none was proved to be superior, because the defect occurs at many levels in the urinary tract and its neuronal control. Nowadays prostaglandins have been proved to play a role at renal, bladder, urethral and sympathetic control of urinary system.OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the role of diclofenac sodium when added to the conventional imipramine therapy in treating patients with primary nocturnal enuresis.PATIENTS AND METHOD:70 children complaining of nocturnal enuresis were enrolled in this study, half of them were given imipramine alone and the other half were given a combination of imipramine and diclofenac sodium at night before retiring to bed, and the number of wet nights per week was recorded on a calendar sheet by the parents over 4 weeks, those who showed more than 50% reduction in the number of wet nights a week were regarded as responders, who were followed after cessation of treatment over another 6 weeks to look for relapse.RESULTS:Of the patients treated with imipramine alone 57.14% (20/35) showed more than 50% decrease in the number of wet nights weekly compared to those treated by imipramine and diclofenac sodium who showed 84.84% (28/33) response rate (> 2.5 SE of difference between responding proportions). The relapse rate after stopping treatment was 60% (12/20) in the first group compared to 32.1% (9/28) which exactly two times the SE of difference between relapsing proportions.CONCLUSION:The addition of diclofenac sodium to imipramine in treating patients with primary nocturnal enuresis might have caused a highly significant higher response rate and a fairly significant lower relapse rate after cessation of treatment.


Article
Post Tonsillectomy Pain Relief: Comparative Study between Peritonsillar Infiltration of Bupivicain and Intramuscular Diclofenac
تخفيف الم مابعد رفع اللوزتين مقارنة مابين مادة البافكايين الموضعي والدايكلوفيناك العضلي

Author: Anas Ahmed Saleh انس احمد صالح
Journal: Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18172716 Year: 2017 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-67
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Hospital based study carried out on (40) patients from both sexes, aged (4-26) years,underwent Tonsillectomy by dissection method during the period extend from (June2012 to September 2012). The Patients were divided into two groups- Group A (18)patients: include those with pre-incisional – infiltration of bupivicain with subsequent(spray) post operatively on Tonsils bed at evening and next morning. Group B (22)patients: include those patients with diclofenac intramuscular injection, half hourbefore operation with subsequent doses at evening and next morning. (Result): nodifference in history of post- operative nausea and vomiting regarding the two groups.The mean operative time for group (A) was (28.9) minutes, while the mean operativetime for group (B) was (29.5) minutes. Both groups showed no difference regardingreactionary bleeding (bleeding occurs within 24 hours) or secondary bleeding(Bleeding occurs after 6-8 days due to infection). Group (A) showed low score of painin immediate post-operative time but it was not significant, while group (B) showedlow score of pain in most of the cases at evening, it was significant. No difference inboth groups in the next morning both showed low score of pain. Conclusion:intramuscular diclofenac is more potent as pain relief if compare with Bupivicaininfiltration. Aim of study: To identify the effect of infiltration of bupivicain for posttonsillectomy pain-relief and in compare to intramuscular injection of diclofenac.


Article
Histological Study of Socket Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rabbits Treated with Short Term Diclofenac Sodium (Expermintal Study)

Author: Sahar G Alkazaz
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 27 Pages: 423-431
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate if short term therapy with diclofenac sodium of interferes with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rabbits. Materials and Methods: The sample included twelve rabbits; 6 rabbits received interamuscular injections of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg/day), one day before extraction, at a day of extraction and 4 days after extraction of the right mandibular incisors and 6 rabbits received interamuscular injections of normal saline. The animals were sacrificed in each group at 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Results: The present results showed that the effect of diclofenac treatment caused no signifcant decrease in bone formation of socket healing. Conclusion: Histological study of short term therapy with diclofenac sodium after tooth extraction caused non-significant decrease in bone formation of extraction sockets healing in rabbits.


Article
Estimation of some haematological parameters and enzymes activity transaminase for some arthritis patients who used voltaren drug in AL-Ramadi city
تقدير بعض من المتغيرات الدموية وفعالية الانزيمات الناقلة للامين لعدد من مرضى التهاب المفاصل والمستخدمين لعقار الفولتارين في مدينة الرمادي

Author: Hind y,Alfahdawi هند يونس الفهداوي
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2011 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 28-30
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Voltaren is an important nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is commonly used in both humans and animals ,this research was conducted to study the effect of voltaren drug used by some of patients with arthritis for more than a year inAL- Ramadi city, Where blood samples were collected from the patients coming to AL- Ramadi General Hospital , 50 samples were collected on average age of 55 years.Where some of the haematological parameters and enzyme activity were estimated.The result showed that there was asignificant reduction in the count of WBC, reaching the lowest value2500 cell/ml ,and also noted a decrease in the PCVand reached its lowest value28%,accompanied by arise in liver enzymes activity(Aspartate aminotransferase AST, Alanine aminotransferase ALT), the highest value of 95 (U / L) and 94 (U / L) each, respectively

عقار الفولتارين هو أحد الأدوية اللاستيرويدية المضادة للإلتهاب الشائعة الاستعمال لعلاج كل من البشر والحيوانات ،اجري هذا البحث لدراسة تأثير عقار الفولتارين المستخدم من قبل بعض مرضى التهاب المفاصل ولاكثر من سنة في مدينة الرمادي ، حيث تم جمع عينات الدم من المرضى الوافدين الى مستشفى الرمادي العام والبالغ عددها 50 عينة وبمعدل عمر 55 سنة، اذ تم قياس بعض المتغيرات الدموية (العدد الكلي لكريات الدم البيض WBC وحجم كريات الدم المضغوطةPCV وفعالية الانزيمات الناقة للامين(ناقل امين اسبارتيتAST وناقل امين الانينALT) وبينت النتائج بأن هناك انخفاض معنوي في عدد كريات الدم البيض اذ بلغت ادنى قيمة 2500خلية/مل وكذلك لوحظ انخفاض في حجم الخلايا المضغوطة وبلغ ادنى قيمة لها 28% يرافقها ارتفاع معنوي في نشاط انزيمات الكبد AST وALT وبلغت اعلى قيمة95 و 94وحدة دولية لكل منها على التوالي.


Article
Effectiveness of Non Steroidal Anti Inflamatery Drug "Diclofenac Sodium" in Treatment of Nocturia in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Patien

Authors: Ayad Ali Al-Beer --- Abdull-Sattar Jubaiir Allii --- Ehab jasiim Muhammad
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 311-316
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:We explored the effectiveness of enteric coated diclofenac sodiumfor patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) complaining of nocturia. A total of 30 BPH patients aged 50-75 years were enrolled in the study. They each took a single 50-mg tablet of diclofenac sodium prior to sleeping at night for 14 days in addition to their BPH treatments In the questionnaire ,21 of 30 patients (70%) felt more satisfaction than previous treatments.OBJECTIVE:In this study, we attempted to investigate the role of enteric coated diclofenac sodium (voltaren) in the therapeutic management of BPH patients with nocturia.METHODS:Thirty patient with BPH ( 63.6± 6.56 years old) more than two episodes of nocturia per night were involved. These patients had received standard drug therapy. Although these patients had received standard drug therapy for more than half a year, they had still three or more episodes of nocturia. The patients took a single dose of 50 mg of diclofenac sodium enteric coated at night prior to sleep. Before and 2 week after the initiation of this therapy, the effects of this treatment were assessed by frequency volume chart and a questionnaire.RESULT:In the questionnaire ,21 of 30 patients (70%) felt more satisfaction than previous treatments. Patients were grouped into a diclofenac sodium-effective (n = 23) and ineffective groups (n = 7) based on the results of the frequency-volume chart. In the effective group, interestingly, night-time urine volume showed significant reduction (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the average single voided volume at night showed no significant change. There was a statistically significant difference in the night-time urine volume after treatment between groups (P < 0.05). In frequency volume chart, total void per day, total void per night, total urine volume per day, total night urine volume per day and single voided volume in the night before and after this treatment were 9.9±0.56and 10.1±0.69per day, 3.9±0.87 and 2.3±1.1 per night, 1500.2±106.9 and1508.7±107.3 mL per day, 580.2±136.9 and 350.4±169.3 mL per night, and 150±7.2 and 150.4±7.05mL, respectively, in a diclofenac sodium-effective group.CONCLUSION:Diclofenac sodium can be effective and useful for BPH patients with nocturia

Keywords

BPH --- diclofenac --- nocturia --- NSAIDs --- overactive bladder


Article
The effect of diclofenac sodium given alone or in combination with paracetamol in ‎treatment of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus‎
تأثير الدايكلوفيناك صوديوم عند اعطائه بمفرده أو مع الباراسيتامول في معالجة مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني‏

Author: Maha J. A. Makki, Abdullah M. Jawad, Hussam J. Umran
Journal: The Medical Journal of Basrah University المجلة الطبية لجامعة البصرة ISSN: 02530759 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-29
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Background: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is becoming an important health problem worldwide. Diabetes ‎mellitus may be associated with low grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress; both of them could contribute to ‎its pathogenesis. The use of anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant drugs, therefore, represents a promising attempt for ‎treatment and/or prevention of this disease.‎Objectives: To compare the effect of diclofenac sodium alone and when combined with paracetamol in type-2 diabetic ‎patients not achieving target HbA1c.‎Patients and Methods: Twenty four, type-2 diabetic patients consulting the Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology in ‎Maysan, south of Iraq, had managed to complete the 3 month period of the first part of this study after meeting a set of ‎inclusion criteria. Their HbA1c was more than 7% despite the continuous use of oral antihyperglycemic drugs. The ‎effect of diclofenac was compared with another group (n=21) that received paracetamol in addition to diclofenac ‎sodium. Blood samples were taken from before, one month and three months after the start of treatments for ‎measurement of HbA1c, C-reactive protein, C-peptide level and more frequently plasma glucose level ‎‎(fasting/random). Another sixty patients of similar inclusion criteria were also followed for three months but without ‎treatment and served as a control group.‎Results: The effect of one month treatment with diclofenac sodium alone or in combination with paracetamol resulted ‎respectively in a reduction in HbA1c by 9.4% and 11.4%, a reduction in CRP by 62.1% and 79.6%, an increase in C-‎peptide by 262.5% and 216%, a reduction in FPG by 11.2% and 18.1% and a reduction in RPG by 40.3% and 24.8% in ‎comparison to pre-treatment levels.‎The HOMA- ß C-peptide measured in a limited number of patients treated with diclofenac sodium or its combination ‎with paracetamol showed an increase by 405.3% and 330.6% three months after start of treatment for the two groups ‎respectively. The control, non- intervention group did not show significant changes in the levels of HbA1c over the ‎three-month period. ‎Conclusion: Diclofenac sodium 100mg SR capsule administered once daily for one month seems to be effective in ‎achieving a good glycemic control in patients not achieving target HbA1c. The addition of paracetamol to diclofenac did ‎not show a clear synergistic effect, despite paracetamol beneficial effect that had been shown in a previous study. ‎

خلفية الدراسة: أصبح داء السكري من النوع الثاني مشكلة صحية مهمة على مستوى العالم، وقد يكون هذا المرض مصحوبا" بالتهابات مزمنة واطئة ‏الشدة وأيضا" بإجهاد الاكسدة واللذان يمكن ان يسهما في مراضة السكري، فاستعمال الادوية المضادة للالتهاب لوحدها أو مع مضادات الأكسدة ‏يمثل محاولة واعدة لمعالجة المرض أوالوقاية منه.‏الهدف من الدراسة: لمقارنة تاثير الدايكلوفيناك صوديوم اذا استخدم بمفرده أو مع الباراسيتامول عند مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني غير المسيطر ‏عليه. ‏المرضى و طرائق العمل: شملت الدراسة 24 مريضا" بالسكري من النوع الثاني والذين راجعوا مركز السكري والغدد الصماء في محافظة ميسان ‏بعد استيفائهم لمجموعة من معايير ألاشتمال وكان الهيموغلوبين التراكمي لديهم اكثر من 7% على الرغم من الاستعمال المستمر للأدوية المنقصة ‏للسكر العالي التي تؤخذ عن طريق الفم فكانوا هم مجموعة الدراسة. وقد تمت مقارنة تأثير الدايكلوفيناك مع مجموعة اخرى من المرضى (21 ‏مريضا) وكانت هذه المجموعة أخذت الدايكلوفيناك بالاضافة الى الباراسيتامول. وأخذت عينات من الدم لاجراء فحوصات الهيموغلوبين التراكمي و ‏البروتين التفاعلي نوع سي و سي بيبتايد ومستوى السكر في الدم اما عند الصوم او بشكل عشوائي لكل مريض قبل وبعد شهر وثلاثة أشهر من ‏بدء العلاج . كما تمت متابعة ستين مريضاً اخر لمدة ثلاثة اشهر تنطبق عليهم معايير الاشتمال ولكن بدون المعالجة بالباراسيتامول واتخذت ‏كمجموعة ضابطة.‏النتــائج: ان المعالجة بالدايكلوفيناك صوديوم فقط او مع الباراسيتامول لمدة شهر واحد نتج عنه وعلى التوالي نقصان بالهيموغلوبين التراكمي بنسبة ‏‏9.4% و 11.4% ونقصان بمستوى البروتين المتفاعل من نوع سي بنسبة 62.1% و 79.6% و زيادة بنسبة السي بيبتايد 262.5%‏‎ ‎‏ و ‏‏216% ونقصان في مستوى السكر عند الصوم بنسبة 11.2% و18.1% ونقصان بمستوى السكر العشوائي بنسبة 40.3% و 24.8% ‏مقارنة بمستوى ما قبل العلاج.‏واظهر قياس الهوما‎-‎بيتا للسي بيبتايد في عدد محدود من المرضى الذين عولجوا بالدايكلوفيناك أو الدايكلوفيناك مع الباراسيتامول زيادة بنسبة ‏‏405.3% و 330.6% وذلك عندما تم قياسها بعد شهرين من ايقاف العلاج.‏الاستنتاج: يبدو ان المعالجة بالدايكلوفيناك صوديوم كبسول 100ملغم ذات التحرير البطئ مرة واحدة يوميا لمدة شهر واحد كان فعالا في ‏الحصول على سيطرة سكرية جيدة لدى مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني غير المسيطر عليه. ولم يكن للباراستامول تأثير واضح في تعزيز تأثير ‏الدايكلوفيناك على الرغم من تأثير الباراسيتامول المفيد الذي أظهرته دراسة سابقة.‏


Article
Efficacy of Combined Tramadol with Diclofenac in Comparison with Monotherapy Treatment Using Buscopan Diclofenac or Tramadol in Renal Pain Control

Authors: Hussein Oudah Al-Jasmawy --- Adel Ibraheem Muhi --- Ali Abdulhaleem Kadhim
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 1070 -1076
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Acute renal colic is a severe painful event; drugs used to treat this condition include anticholinergics, opioid analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.To compare drug's efficacy in ureteric pain relief byusing monotherapy including Buscopan 20 mg IV, Diclofenac Sodium 75 mg IM and Tramadol 50 mg IV, with a combination of 2 drugs including Tramadol plus Diclofenac.160 patients (110 males and 50 females), 16 to 75 years of age, with moderate to severe renal pain were treated in emergency department of Hilla Teaching General Hospital and private clinics. Parameters were observed after 10, 30, 60, minutes and 2 hours of drugs treatment. Assessment of analgesic effect of the drugs was done by using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Drug side effects also observed.Buscopan was the least effective drug in pain relief with higher side effects, while Diclofenac and Tramadol have comparable efficacy. Combination of Diclofenac plus Tramadol had a significant efficacy with rapid and sustained pain relief.Incidence of ureteric colic are more common in males than females (male to female ratio is 3/1).For quick pain relief in acute renal colic, a combination of intravenous tramadol with diclofenac sodium is superior to each of them alone, while Buscopan is the least effective, with higher side effects.


Article
Fluoxetine Potentiate the Analgesic Effect of Diclofenac in Male Mice

Author: Selman Mohammed Selman
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 436 -441
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) drug, which is the most widely used in the treatment of depression. The aims of this study were to evaluate the analgesic effects of fluoxetine, and the analgesic effect of combination of fluoxetine and diclofenac in model of thermal pain in male mice.Mice were divided into four groups, six in each. Group 1 received normal saline. Group 2received diclofenac. Group 3 received fluoxetine. Group 4 received fluoxetine before the administration of diclofenac. Evaluation of the analgesic action of the drug was achieved by the tail flick test.Tail-flick latency significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the group 2 in the 2 time intervals as compared to control group. In the group 3, there were no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the tail-flick latency after 30 min as compared to corresponding time of control group, while it significantly increased (P < 0.05) after 60 min as compared to corresponding time of control group. In the group 4caused significant increase (P < 0.05) in the time of tail-flick latency after 60 min as compared to corresponding time of diclofenac group and fluoxetine group. In this study, combination of low dose diclofenac with fluoxetine caused a significant prolongation of tail-flick latency proposing additive antinociceptive effect. Thus, combination of diclofenac with fluoxetine hypothetically reduce the dose requirement and adverse effects for each drug.. Further clinical studies are needed to prove these effects.

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