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Article
Non-Ablative Tattoo Removal Using Fundamental and Second Harmonic Nd:YAG Laser (Tattoo Ink Clearance Response)

Authors: Susan I. Hassan --- Walid K. Hamoudi --- Tengku A.T. Ibrahim --- Rafiuz Z. Haroun
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-26
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

The quantitative and qualitative analysis of ink constituents were performed using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, equipped with a transmission electron microscope to recognize any unwanted photo-reaction, unusual tattoo darkening, or allergic effects after exposure to 10 ns laser pulses. 7-11.4 J/cm2 laser fluences using single- and triple-pulse irradiation were experimented. Green tattoo ink demonstrated low absorption for both 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths, which explains the absence of darkening during the laser treatment. Tattoos containing more ink required more treatment sessions before clearing. The 1064nm laser revealed a reduction of the black tattoo pigments in different degrees due to the different quantities of ink particles injected into rabbit's skin and different laser conditions. High laser fluences (below the damage threshold) enhanced black tattoo ink removal with smaller number of laser treatment sessions. Intracellular steam formation introduces a sudden change in scattering properties of the incident laser, manifested clinically as whitening of the irradiated skin. For brown ink, the use of moderate fluence sessions at 532 nm indicated better tattoo clearance because of the higher absorption coefficient at this wavelength. The 1064nm laser effectively targeted black and brown tattoo pigments. The 532 nm wavelength showed lower clearance efficiency for black tattoo but effectively cleared brown and red pigments.


Article
X-Ray Study of Nanosized Copper Powder Produced by Sonoelectrodeposition Process

Authors: Mohammed JasimKadhim --- Adnan S. Jabur --- Heider Yasser Thamir Alyasiri
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 317-325
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Electrodeposition process coupled with ultrasonic vibration (sonoelectrodeposition) was used to deposit nanosized copper powder from acidic solution of copper sulphate. Thecathodic current density and the amplitude of vibration used are 37.5 mA/cm2 and 35% from the maximum capacity of vibration respectively. Purity, morphology and size of the nanosized powder were studied. The XRD studies also reported.The copper powderhas a high purity with mean size of particles about 52 nanometer. XRD analysis confirms that the crystals, sizes are in nanosized range.

Keywords

Electrodeposition --- Ultrasonic --- Particle size --- Morphology --- SEM --- EDS --- XRD


Article
Characterizations of Synthetic 8mol% YSZ with Comparison to 3mol %YSZ for HT-SOFC

Authors: Abeer F. Al-Attara --- , Saad B. H. Faridb --- Fadhil A. Hashim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2020 Volume: 38 Issue: 4 part (A) Engineering Pages: 491-500
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this work, Yttria (Y2O3) was successfully doped into tetragonal 3mol%yttria stabilized Zirconia (3YSZ) by high energy-mechanical milling tosynthesize 8mol% yttria stabilized Zirconia (8YSZ) used as an electrolytefor high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFC). This work aims toevaluate the densification and ionic conductivity of the sinteredelectrolytes at 1650°C. The bulk density was measured according to ASTMC373-17. The powder morphology and the microstructure of the sinteredelectrolytes were analyzed via Field Emission Scanning ElectronMicroscopy (FESEM). The chemical analysis was obtained with Energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) wasused to obtain structural information of the starting materials and thesintered electrolytes. The ionic conductivity was obtained throughelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the air as a function oftemperatures at a frequency range of 100(mHz)-100(kHz). It is found thatthe 3YSZ has a higher density than the 8YSZ. The impedance analysisshowed that the ionic conductivity of the prepared 8YSZ at 800°C is0.906(S.cm) and it was 0.214(S.cm) of the 3YSZ. Besides, 8YSZ has a loweractivation energy 0.774(eV) than that of the 3YSZ 0.901(eV). Thus, theprepared 8YSZ can be nominated as an electrolyte for the HT-SOFC.

Keywords

8YSZ --- HT-SOFC --- electrolyte --- EIS --- EDS --- AC conductivity.


Article
Identification and Determination of Metal Elements of Dates Syrup Extracted from Various Varieties Using SEM-EDS Technique

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Abstract

This study has been conducted to determine and identify the metal elements of dates syrup extracted from Khstawy, Zehdy and Shukary using Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) technique. The results showed that dates syrup was rich in both metal and non- metals elements. The obtained results showed some different trends in the date syrup content of mineral elements. The results showed the availability of Carbon (C) element in dates syrup extracted via hydraulic pressure from Khstawy (80.73%), Zehdy (65.28 %) and Shukary (68.49%) varieties while in dates syrup produced thermally (80.59%) and dates syrup produced without thermal (72.16%). Oxygen (O) ratio in Khstawy, Zehdy, Shukary, dates syrup produced thermally, and dates syrup produced without thermal were 18.92, 35.27, 15.26, 19.09 and 27.46 respectively. Moreover, the results showed the availability of sodium (Na) (0.17 %), sulphur (S) (0.11 %), potassium (K) (0.05%), silicon (Si) (0.03%) in the dates syrup extracted from Khstawy, while in Zehdy variety there was Aluminum (Al) (0.33%), potassium (K) (0.08%), chloride (Cl) (0.03%), magnesium (Mg) (0.01%). In Shukary variety, Al (5.24%), K (0.05%), nitrogen (N) (10.73%), (S) (0.06%), copper (Cu) (0.18%). Additionally, the results showed that the quantity of metal elements available in dates syrup produced thermally were found as follow as follows: Na (0.22%), S (0.1%) as well as O and C. Yet, the number of the metal elements in the dates syrup produced by hydraulic pressure was more that the dates syrup produced thermally are as follows: Na (0.1%), Al (0.1%), K (0.1%), S (0.02%), Si (0.03%) and phosphor (P) (0.02%).

Keywords

Chemical elements --- Date syrup --- SEM-EDS --- GC/M.


Article
THE STUDY OF THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SPINEL NICKEL ALUMINATE
دراسة الخواص الحراريه للسبينل نيكل الومينيت

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Abstract

Spinel nickel aluminate is an important industrial material, has been synthesized by a solid state reaction method from nano powders γ- Al2O3 and NiO represented as a theoretical batch. Sintering the raw materials was done at rate heating 4 OC/min in 1500 OC. The sintered specimens were investigated employing by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It is that the formation nickel aluminate spinel was completed in 1500 oC, at the following percent (20 wt % NiO and 30wt% NiO and 50 wt% NiO), thermal properties have been also investigated for sintered specimens. The new composite materials it high thermal expansion stability and resistant to thermal shock at 1200oC, especially with 30 wt % NiO.

سبينل نيكل الومينيت هو ماده صناعيه مهمه , حضرت بطريقه تفاعل الحاله الصلبه من مكوناتها الاساسيه وهي كا ما الومينا واوكسيد النيكل . تم تلبيد المواد الأولية عند دورتين حراريتين وعند معدل حراري يبلغ min)/ Ϲ40) تم تشخيص العينات الملبدة باستخدام تقنيات الأشعة السينية ) (X-ray وكذلك المجهر الالكتروني الماسح (SEM), وان التفاعل اكتمل عند oC 1500 . تم دراسة الخصائص الحرارية لهذه المادة المركبة حيث انها تمتاز بالاستقراريه الحراريه من خلال فحص التمدد الحراري عند كل نسب الخلط , اضافه الى المقاومه العاليه للصدمه الحراريه عندoC 1200 بالاخص عند اضافه NiO % 30 wt .


Article
The Effect of 3DS Max in Developing the Skill of Designing Theatrical Decoration among the Students of the Department of Art Education
اثر برنامج ɜDs Max في تنميــــة مهارة تصميـــم الديكور المسرحي لدى طلبة قسم التربية الفنية

Authors: Amar Fadel Hassan عمار فاضل حسن --- Omer Qassim Ali عمر قاسم علي
Journal: al-academy مجلة الاكاديمي ISSN: 25232029 18195229 Year: 2018 Issue: 90 Pages: 295-310
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The research aims at benefiting from the technological development and the technical progress. This development necessitated that the educational process take advantage of this progress, and the development of special computer software, especially the design programs, made the two researchers think about how to benefit from these design programs in teaching students the skills of theatrical design. The current search aims at: Identifying the effect of 3Ds Max in developing the skill of theatrical decoration design among the students of the Department of Art Education "Third stage / Department of Art Education / Faculty of Fine Arts / University of Diyala for the academic year 2014-2015.The researchers used the experimental method of the two groups (controlling and experimental) and pretest and posttest method to achieve the objective of the research. The sample was selected from the students of the third stage / Department of Art Education for the academic year 2014/2015.The sample was randomized into two groups: the experimental group consisted of (15) students who studied through the use of 3Ds Max and the controlling group consisted of (15) students who studied in the traditional way. The researchers prepared a form for evaluating the skill performance of the theatrical decoration design. This form consisted of (10) paragraphs with a five-point scale and a percentage weight of five degrees. After preparing the research tool and achieving its validity and stability, the research was applied for eight weeks. The data attained were statistically processed and the results were reached at and the most notably effective of which was the 3Ds Max program in the development of the skill of the theatrical decoration design among students of the Department of Art Education.

يتلخص البحث في الاستفادة من التطور التكنولوجي والتقدم التقني والذي اوجب هذا التطور العملية التعليمية على الاستفادة من هذا التقدم ومن خلال التطور الحاصل في البرامجيات الخاصة في الحاسوب وخصوصا البرامج التصميمية جعل الباحثان يفكران بكيفية الاستفادة من هذه البرامج التصميمية في تعليم الطلبة مهارات تصميم الديكور المسرحي.استهدف البحث الحالي تعرف على اثر "برنامج ɜDs Max في تنمية مهارة تصميم الديكور المسرحي لدى طلبة قسم التربية الفنية " المرحلة الثالثة / قسم التربية الفنية / كلية الفنون الجميلة /جامعة ديالى للعام الدراسي 2014 /2015.استخدم الباحثان المنهج التجريبي ذي تصميم المجموعتين (الضابطة-التجريبية) وذات الاختبارين القبلي والبعدي لتحقيق هدف البحث. وقد اختيرت عينة البحث من طلبة المرحلة الثالثة/قسم التربية الفنية للعام الدراسي 2014/2015حيث تم توزيع العينة عشوائيا إلى مجموعتين الأولى تجريبية مكونة من (15) طالبا وطالبة درست بواسطة برنامج Ds Maxɜ والثانية ضابطة مكونة من (15) طالب وطالبة ودرست بالطريقة التقليدية. قام الباحثان بإعداد استمارة تقويم الاداء المهاري لتصميم الديكور المسرحي وتكونت هذه الاستمارة من( 10 ) فقرات حدد لها مقياس خماسي ووزن مؤي مكون من خمس درجات ,وبعد اعداد اداة البحث وتحقيق صدقها وثباتها تم تطبيق البحث لمدة ثمانية اسابيع بعدها تم معالجة البيانات التي حصل عليها الباحثان احصائيا وتم التوصل الى النتائج والتي من اهمها فاعلية برنامج Ds Maxɜ في تنمية مهارة تصميم الديكور المسرحي لدى طلبة قسم التربية الفني


Article
Improvement of Resistance Spot Welding by Surfaces Treatment of AA1050 Sheets
تحسين لحام المقاومة النقطي بمعالجة أسطح صفائح سبيكة الالومنيوم AA1050

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Abstract

Resistance spot welding (RSW) aluminum alloys has a major problem of inconsistent quality from weld to weld, because of the problems of the non-uniform oxide layer. The high resistivity of the oxide causes strong heat released which influence significantly on the electrode lifetime and the weld quality. Much effort has been devoted experimentally to the study of the sheet surface characteristics for as-received sheet and surface pretreatment sheet by pickling in NaOH and glass-blasted with three thicknesses (0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm) of AA1050. Three different welding process parameters energy setup as a low, medium, and high were carried. Tensile-shear strength tests were performed to indicate the weld quality. Moreover, microhardness tests, macro/micrographs, and SEM/EDS examinations were carried out to analyze, compare, and evaluate the effect of surface conditions on the weldability. The as-received sheet showed a higher electrical contact resistance because of its thicker and non-uniform oxide layer. In contrast, the glass-blasted sheet showed lower value, since it has a roughest surface, which leads to easy breakdown the oxide layer. The highest average values and least scattering of the maximum load fracture are with treated sheet by pickling in NaOH, these values are 760, 1193, and 2283 N for 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm sheet thickness respectively for medium input energy. In contrast, the minimum values with glass-blasted sheet are 616, 1008, and 2020 N for 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm sheet. The microhardness profiles of the fusion zone and HAZ is the lower than the base metal for all cases. Numerical simulation with SORPAS® was used to simulate and optimize the process parameters, and it has given good results in prediction when they compared with experiments.

لحام المقاومة النقطي لسبائك الالمونيوم يتضمن مشكلة كبيرة في استقرارية جودة اللحام من لحام إلى لحام آخر بسبب عدم انتظام سمك طبقة الاوكسيد. المقاومة الكهربائية العالية لطبقة الاوكسيد تسبب في توليد حرارة عالية، والتي لها تأثير كبير على العمر التشغيلي للاقطاب وجودة اللحام. كُرس جهد كبير عملياً لدراسة خصائص سطح الصفائح الغير معالجة وتلك المعالجة كيميائياً بهيدروكسيد الصوديوم وبالقصف بالكرات الزجاجية ولثلاثة أسماك (0.6 ، 1.0 ، و 1.5 ملم) لصفائح سبيكة AA1050 وقد تم إجراء ثلاثة إعدادات مختلفة لمدخلات طاقة اللحام منخفض، متوسط، ومدخلات الطاقة العالية. قوة اللحام تم تقييمها بفحص الشد- القص. فضلاً عن ذلك، تم إجراء فحص الصلادة الدقيقة، الصور الملوغرافية والمايكروية، والماسح الالكتروني مع التحليل الطيفي بهدف المقارنة وتقييم تأثير حالة السطح على جودة اللحام. الصفائح كما جهزت (الغير معالجة) أظهرت مقاومة تماس كهربائية عالية بسبب السماكة الاكثر والغير منتظمة لطبقة الاوكسيد. وعلى النقيض، الصفائح المعالجة بالقصف بالكرات الزجاجية أظهرت أقل قيمة، حيث لها سطح خشن الذي يساعد على تكسر طبقة الاوكسيد بسهولة. أعلى قوة ملحومات مع أقل تشتت حصلت مع الصفائح المعالجة بهيدروكسيد الصوديوم هذه القيم هي 760، 1193، 2283 نيوتن للصفائح سمك 0.6، 1.0، 1.5 ملم على التوالي. على النقيض، أقل قيم لقوة الملحومات مع الصفائح المعالجة بالقصف بالكرات الزجاجية وهي 616، 1008، 2020 نيوتن للصفائح سمك 0.6، 1.0، 1.5 ملم على التوالي. منحني الصلادة الدقيقة لمنطقة الانصهار والمنطقة المتأثرة بالحرارة هي أقل من المعدن الاساس ولكل حالات الصفائح. تم استخدام المحاكاة العددية مع برنامج SORPAS® لمحاكاة وتمثيل متغيرات عملية اللحام، وأعطى تنبؤ جيد عند المقارنة مع التجارب العملية.


Article
Synthesis and Study of Silver Nanoparticles Using Iraqi and Indian Lawsonia inermis Plant and their Catalytic Performance in Degradation of Organic Pollutant

Authors: Zainab T.Y. Al-Abdullah --- Thuraya M. Ibrahim --- Ahmed M. Sadda --- Bassam A.R. Alabdul Aziz
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2019 Volume: 37 Issue: 2 Part (c) special Pages: 257-280
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Abstract- In this work, we depict the cheap, friendly environment, anunreported and easy methodology for the synthesis of silver nanoparticlesusing the extract of leaf concentrate of Lawsonia inermis as a green,reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles display exclusive physicalcharacteristics, which have appealed serious research attention due to theiressential uses. In present work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized forenvironment uses by means of a completely green biosynthetic process usingLawsonia inermis flowers extract (henna). The structure, as well asproperties of silver nanoparticles, was investigated with UV-visiblespectroscopic techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energydispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) and zeta potential. The maximumpeak absorption by using UV-visible spectroscopic analysis was found at460and 495nm, which point to the production of silver nanoparticles. Usualslight particle diameter that is determined by SEM was found to (10-46nm).Furthermore, zeta potential investigation shown that silver nanoparticleshave good stability. EDX analysis also displays the presentation of a silverelement. The methylene The catalytic effectiveness using light (LED) withsilver nanoparticles was additionally researched in catalytic degradation ofmethylene blue dye. blue dye degrades 16 - 24.8% within 40 min for Iraqi& Indian henna produced better catalytic activity because of smallerparticle size of silver, which is less than (10 ) nm in Indian henna.


Article
Histological and Physiological Studies on the Long-term Effect of Different Concentrations of Energy Drink (Tiger) on the Renal and Hepatic Systems of Young Mice
دراسة نسيجية وفسلجية حول تأثير تناول تراكيز مختلفة لمشروب الطاقة ولمدة طويلة على الجهاز البولي والكبدي في الفئران صغيرة العمر

Author: luma Qasim Ali لمى قاسم علي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 816-823
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study aims to investigate the long-term histopathological, and physiological effects of different concentrations of a commercially available energy drink (Tiger) on liver and kidney of young mice. Sixteen Balb/c male mice,6 -week old, were divided into 4 groups (n=4). Two groups consumed the energy drink at a concentration of 28µl energy drink/ml water. One group were killed after 10 days (T1), another group were killed after 20 days (T2). Other group of mice consumed the energy drink at a final concentration of 14µl/ml for 20 days (T3). The last group was provided only with water and served as control. Mice of all groups drank around 3 ml per day. The histopathological study on liver of treated groups showed many changes such as inflammatory cells infiltration and aggregation with hepatocyts necrosis, some of these necrosis replaced by RBCs and inflammatory cells, while the pathohistological changes in kidney of treated groups limited to aggregation of RBCs and inflammatory cells between renal tubules which expressed vacuolar degeneration. These changes based on elevated liver function enzymes (Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT), Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) and blood urea and creatinine. These changes were more in the T2 groups, so it could be concluded that long term of energy drink consuming effect histopathologically and physiologically on kidney and liver of young mice depending on its concentration and period of consuming.

هذه الدراسة تهدف الى التحقق من التأثيرات الفسلجية والنسيجية المرضية لاستعمال طويل الامد لتراكيز مختلفة من مشروب الطاقة الاكثر شيوعا لدينا على الكبد والكلية لفئران صغيرة السن. فئران بأعمار ست اسابيع من نوع البينو تم تقسيمها الى اربعة مجاميع. المجموعة الاولى تناولت مشروب الطاقة بتركيز 28مايكرليتر/مللتر ماء, وتم قتلها بعد عشرة ايام (T1). المجموعة الاخرى تناولت مشروب الطاقة لنفس التركيز لكن تم قتلها بعد 20 يوم (T2). المجموعة الثالثة تناولت مشروب الطاقة بتركيز 14مايكرليتر/مللتر ماء ولمدة 20 يوم (T4). المجموعة الرابعة تم تجهيزها بالماء فقط لتكون مجوعة سيطرة. تم قتل الفئران و تجميع عينات الدم و اعضاء الفئران (الكبد والكلية). الدراسة النسيجية المرضية لمقاطع كبد الفئران التي تناولت مشروب الطاقة اظهرت تغيرات كثيرة كترشح خلايا التهابية وتجمعها في الكبد مع تنكز لبعض المناطق وبعضها قد امتلأت بخلايا الدم الحمراء والالتهابية بينما كانت التغيرات في كلى المجاميع التي تناولت مشاريب الطاقة محدودة حيث اقتصرت على تجمعات لخلايا الدم الحراء والالتهابية بين الانيبيبات البولية والذي يعرب عن تنكس وعائي. هذه التغيرات اتفقت مع ما وجد من ارتفاع بالأنزيمات الخاصة بوظائف الكبد (GPT, GOT, و ALP) اضافه الى اليوريا والكرياتنين الخاصة بوظائف الكلية. هذه التغييرات كانت متزايدة في مجموعة T2 ولهذا يمكننا ان نستنتج ان تناول مشاريب الطاقة لمدة طويلة تؤثر نسيجيا و فسلجيا على الكلية والكبد للفئران صغيرة السن وهذا التأثير يعتمد على تركيز مشروب الطاقة ومدة تعاطيه.

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