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Article
Pattern of cerebral palsy in Mosul

Author: Nada A.A. Al-Ali ندى العلي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2007 Volume: 33 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 15-19
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objective: To examine the possible etiological factors, the clinical types, and the consequences of cerebral palsy in Mosul.
Methods: This prospective descriptive (case series study) took place in children’s teaching hospitals Mosul. All children diagnosed as cerebral palsy between March 2000 and March 2005 were recruited for this study. Children without a clear diagnosis and those below the age of 12 months were excluded. Thus 306 Patients were recruited prospectively from those attending the inpatients and outpatients clinics of children’s teaching hospitals in Mosul.
The caretakers of children were asked to fill in questionnaire. The patients were examined and classified. They were also assessed by an ophthalmologist and an audiologist; computerized tomography of the brain and EEG were performed when appropriate.
Results: There were 306 patients; 184 were females and l22were males. The female to male ratio was 1.5:1 .Birth asphyxia accounted for 118 (38.6%) of cases. Low birth weight accounted for 70 (22.9%) of cases. The etiology was undetermined in 66 (21.4%). Neonatal jaundice: 32 (10.5%), meningoencephalitis:16(5.2%), and brain malformations in 4 (1.3%), spastic cerebral palsy was found in 244(79.7%) of the clinical typing, psychomotor delay was present in 96 (31.4%) and epilepsy was reported in 114 (37.3%). Ocular problems were reported in 152 (49.7%); speech problems were reported in 108 (35.3%); and hearing problems were reported in 8(2.0%).
Conclusion: The etiological factors of cerebral palsy are sometimes preventable in our region. Improvement in antenatal, natal, and perinatal care is essential in the reduction of the incidence of cerebral palsy.

ملخص البحث: دراسة سريرية للشلل الدماغي لدى الأطفال في مدينة الموصلأهداف البحث: يهدف هذا البحث لدراسة الأسباب المحتملة والأنماط السريرية ونتائج الشلل الدماغي لدى الأطفال في مدينة الموصل.تصميم البحث: ووقت أجرائه: أجريت هذه الدراسة في مستشفيات الموصل التعليمية وشملت كل الأطفال الذين شخص لديهم شلل دماغي في الفترة من آذار 2000- آذار 2005 وقد استبعدت الحالات التي لم يؤكد تشخيصها، بالإضافة للحالات لدى أطفال اقل من 12 شهرا.المشاركون: 306 طفلا مصاب بشلل الدماغ.النتائج: تضمن البحث 306 حالة شملت 184 أنثى 122 ذكر، بنسبة 1:1,5 كانت نسبة نقص الأكسدة الوليدي 38,6% ونسبة نقص وزن المولود 22,9%، ولم تحدد الأسباب في 21,6% من الحالات. بين الفحص السريري فرط مقوية عضلة لدى 79,7% من الأطفال، وإعاقة حركية-نفسية لدى 31,4% منهم، وصرع لدى 37,3% منهم وشوهدت الإعاقة البصرية والسمعية وتأخر الكلام في 49,7% و 2%و3,35% من الحالات على التوالي.الاستنتاج: بعض أسباب الشلل الدماغي في الموصل يمكن تجنبها والوقاية منها، فالاهتمام بمراكز رعاية الأمومة والطفولة وإنشاء مراكز جديدة هي إجراءات هامة لخفض نسبة انتشار شلل الدماغ بالإضافة إلى نشر الوعي الصحي بين الأمهات.

Keywords

Cerebral palsy --- EEG


Article
EEG Changes in Patients with Migraine

Authors: Majeed Salih Hamad --- Nawfal M. Sheaheed --- Sarmed Mohammad Abdulrasool --- Akram M. Almahdawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 156-160
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND :migraine is a recurring syndrome of headache, nausea, vomiting, and/or other symptoms of neurological dysfunction in varying admixtures. Migraine, is one of the most common causes of headache, afflicts approximately 15% of women and 6% of men. OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to determine the EEG changes in a sample of migraineurs with their relation to its types. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of neurology of Baghdad teaching hospital from December 2007 to February 2008. A total of 60 migraineurs were taken, aging (10-40) years, diagnosed according to International headache society (IHS) criteria. Patients with history of epilepsy, head injury, brain lesion and recurrent headaches not Compatible with IHS criteria were excluded from the study . EEG was performed, whenever possible, during headache and between attacks of headache. RESULTS: Sixty Iraqi patients with migraine were evaluated. Twenty patients (33.3%) were having migraine with aura (MWA) while 40 patients (66.7%) had migraine without aura (MWOA). Of the sixty studied patients 15 were having electroencephalographic finding. Among patients with MWA, 8 of them have abnormal EEG (40%), while in patients with MWOA, 7 of them have abnormal EEG (17.5%). Slow waves were found in 10 patients (52.64%), sharp waves in 8 (42.10%), and spikes in one patient (5.26%). It has been found that 9 patients (50%) have abnormality in occipital region, 6 of them (33.34%) in frontal region, and 3 of them (16.66%) in temporal region. CONCLUSION: EEG is not useful as a diagnostic tool for migraine, as the EEG changes found in migraine are not specific, they are infrequently associated, and there is no EEG difference between MWA and MWOA. So, clinical criteria are the only way for diagnosis of migraine. KEYWORDS: migraine, headache, EEG

Keywords

KEYWORDS: migraine --- headache --- EEG


Article
Drug Resistant Epilepsy Among Patients Attended The Neurosciences Hospital

Author: Nael Husain Zaer*, Basim Hanoon Jabbar **, Ahmed Tahseen Muslim**, Mu'tazFayrooz**, Zaki Noah Hasan***
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 108-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Drug resistant epilepsy is defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated, appropriately chosen and used antiepileptic drug schedules to achieve sustained seizure freedom. Up to 30% of patients referred to clinics with a diagnosis of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy may have been misdiagnosed, and many can be helped by optimizing their treatment.Pseudoresistance, in which seizures persist because the underlying disorder has not been adequately or appropriately treated, must be ruled out or corrected before drug treatment can be considered to have failed. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the causes of drug failure in patients with epilepsy and to differentiate between drug resistant epilepsy and pseudoresistant epilepsy. Type of the study: This is a retrospective study.Method: It is conducted in Baghdad governorate at the epilepsy clinic in the neurosciences hospital during the period from the 1st of February through July 2013. Two hundred patients with refractory epilepsy were involved. These patients attended the epilepsy clinic during 2011 and 2012. The data was collected from the files of the patients including age, gender, weight, history of presenting illness, type of seizure, drugs used, duration of disease, EEG and imaging findings, compliance and follow up. Results: Drug resistance epilepsy constituted a prevalence of 24% (128) as the total number of patients with epilepsy attending the hospital during the same period was 527.The mean age of patients with refractory epilepsy was 25 years. Male were 56.5% (113/200) and urban residents were 70.5% (141/200). The study revealed that 64% (128/200) of refractory epilepsy was attributed to drug resistance; while the remaining proportion was pseudoresistance 36% (72/200). The main cause of pseudoresistance was poor compliance 36.1% (26/72).The most common type of seizure in the sampled patients was generalized tonic clonic seizures in 51.5% (103/200).Compliance was found to be statistically associated with abnormal EEG finding, past medical history (hypertension, cardiac diseases, encephalitis, diabetes mellitus and any significant history) and quality of follow up. The follow-up was found to be statistically associated with the family history, past medical history( encephalitis and hypertension) and compliance of patient. Conclusion:A considerable number of patientsdiagnosed as cases of drug resistant epilepsy had another explanation causing drug failure.The study recommends the application of consensus definition for drug resistant epilepsy and periodic evaluation of patients with drug resistant epilepsy to exclude pseudoresistance.

Keywords

Keywords: Epilepsy --- EEG --- Drug.


Article
Relationship between gender of fetus and the EEG changes and the relation of these changes with some inflammatory biomarkers in preeclamptic pregnant females
العلاقة بين الجنسين من الجنين والتغيرات EEG وعلاقة هذه التغييرات مع بعض المؤشرات الحيوية للالتهابات في الإناث الحوامل مقدمات الارتعاج

Authors: Ihsan Mohammed Abud Ajeena احسان محمد --- Muhannad Yahya I. Al-Muhanna Muhannad Yahya I. Al-Muhanna مهند يحيى
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2016 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 393-399
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: The electroencephalograph records spontaneous electrical activity generated in the cerebral cortex. This activity reflects the electrical currents that flow in the extracellular spaces of the brain that are the summated effects of innumerable excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials upon cortical neurons. Preeclampsia is a disease of pregnancy characterized by a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more on two separate occasions after 20th week of pregnancy in a previously normotensive woman. This is accompanied by significant proteinuria (>300 mg in 24 hours) (Philip, 2006). Subjects and methods: The study included 97 pregnant patients with a confirmed diagnosis of preeclampsia, also 72 females with normal pregnancy have been included as a control group. Their ages and gestational ages were consistent with that of the patients', EEG test and some serological tests including ICAM-1, RCRP and IL-6 was done for the participants. Results: There was a high percentage of EEG changes in the preeclamptic women whom fetus are males. There was a significant differences in the values of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) between preeclamptic women with male fetus and those with female one.

خلفية: مخطاط كهربية الدماغ يسجل النشاط الكهربائي عفوية ولدت في القشرة الدماغية. ويعكس هذا النشاط التيارات الكهربائية التي تتدفق في المساحات خارج الخلية في الدماغ التي هي آثار محصلتها من إمكانات متشابك مثير والمثبطة التي لا حصر لها على الخلايا العصبية القشرية. تسمم الحمل هو مرض من الحمل يتميز ضغط الدم 140/90 مم زئبق أو أكثر في مناسبتين منفصلتين بعد الأسبوع ال20 من الحمل في المرأة سوي ضغط الدم سابقا. ويترافق ذلك بروتينية كبيرة (> 300 ملغ في 24 ساعة) (فيليب، 2006).        المواضيع والأساليب: وشملت الدراسة 97 مريضا حاملا لتأكيد التشخيص من تسمم الحمل، وأدرجت أيضا 72 إناث مع الحمل الطبيعي كمجموعة تحكم. وكانت أعمارهم وأعمار الحمل متسقة مع أن من المرضى، واختبار EEG وبعض الاختبارات المصلية بما في ذلك ICAM-1، وقد تم RCRP وIL-6 للمشاركين.النتائج: كان هناك نسبة عالية من التغييرات EEG في النساء مقدمات الارتعاج منهم الجنين من الذكور. كان هناك فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في قيم انترلوكين 6 (IL-6) بين النساء مقدمات الارتعاج مع الجنين الذكر والذين يعانون من الإناث واحدة.


Article
Electro encephalography screening of suspected epileptic patients in Erbil City

Author: Mutaz F. Hummadi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 184-193
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Electroencephalography is an essential component in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy. Electroencephalography provides important information about background electroencephalography and epileptiform discharges and the interictal spike or sharp waves. This study aimed to differentiate between epileptic and non-epileptic patients through electroencephalography investigation and determine its relationship with certain socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.Methods: In this cross-sectional study included 400 cases (205 males and 195 females) with a mean age ± SD of 25 ± 14 years, referred to the private neurology clinic, Soran Medical Center between April 2013 and March 2017 for attacks of abnormal movements and or disturbed level of consciousness.Results: Age-related prevalence of epilepsy showed a significantly higher prevalence (P = 0.001) of the disease among those who were 20 years and more. Epileptic patients showed significantly (P = 0.001) higher sharp slow waves and sharp waves, which were mainly dominated by parietal and occipital regions of the brain. Electroencephalography finding showed higher Beta rhythm followed by Alpha and Delta rhythms (73.5%, 14.3% and 9.0%, respectively), Patients with epilepsy (generalized and focal) had shown best rhythm adoption in Beta rhythm (75.2% and 70.2%, respectively), followed by Alpha rhythm (13.2% and 14.8%, respectively). Focal to bilateral (secondary generalized) and generalized motor epilepsy were the most common diagnosis among the epileptic cases (45.4% and 43.4%, respectively). The overall sensitivity of electroencephalography was 67.8%, and specificity was 63.5%.Conclusion: The electroencephalography showed good sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing suspected epileptic patients, with interesting higher sensitivity than specificity. Not only the abnormal discharges, but the background dominating activity and the best rhythm adoption can help in the diagnosis of epilepsy.

Keywords

Erbil --- Epilepsy --- EEG --- Sensitivity --- Specificity


Article
The Role of Telemetry (Simultaneous Video and EEG Monitoring) in the Proper Management of Epilepsy

Author: Ghaieb B Aljandeel,Gonzalo Alarcon
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 408-413
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Telemetry is defined as simultaneous video and EEG monitoring of presumably epileptic patients while they are hospitalized in telemetry ward so that one or more of the habitual seizures or funs are captured and recorded; these events would be visualized and analyzed later by expert epileptologists for the sake of proper diagnosis, classification, presurgical evaluation or else.OBJECTIVE:To define and evaluate simultaneous Video –EEG monitoring in epilepsy management.METHODS:Two hundreds consecutive telemetries at King's College Hospital in London over the period of nine months starting from Jan 2007 back to May 2006 were reviewed and the conclusive yields were evaluated.RESULTS:It showed that the three main indications for referral were to be ’the diagnosis' in a proportion of 56.5% 'presurgical evaluation ' in 19.8% and ' classification' in 15.2% whereas other application like assessment for vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) candidacy , sleep studies , follow up and frequency estimation constitute the remaining 8.5 % . It was conclusive in 63% for 'classification', 60 % for 'diagnosis', and only 34%for presurgical evaluation, whereas categorically was conclusive in 56.55 of all referrals.CONCLUSION:The study shows that telemetry is a crucial and probably an indispensable tool if the proper understanding of the problem, and consequently proper handling and management are to be considered.


Article
Common Ictal Patterns in Patients with Documented Epileptic Seizures

Author: Ghaieb Bashar ALJandeel
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: supplement Pages: 637-642
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The ictal EEG patterns are the electrical triggers of 'epileptic seizures' and they are different from the familiar 'inter-ictal' discharges that are encountered during the normal 'non-seizing' states of epileptic patients. This study concentrates on the 'seizing discharges' among in-patients with documented seizures through a 'simultaneous EEG-Video' monitoring (telemetry) facilityOBJECTIVE:To identify the common ictal patterns in patients with documented epileptic seizures METHODS:Two hundred consecutive telemetries at King's College Hospital in London over the period of nine months starting from Jan 2007 back to May 2006 were reviewed and the common ictal patterns were evaluated by using 'simultaneous EEG-Video' monitoring (telemetry) facility RESULTS: Three main ictal patterns were observed in the 81 patients with documented epileptic seizures. 'Rhythmic theta ictal pattern' was observed in 46.9% of patients, all showed focal seizures whereas 26.1% of patients showed the 'decremental ictal pattern' (fast activity). Focal seizures were presented in 81.8% and 18.2% with generalized ones. 'Polyspike-wave' activity was observed in 9.8% of patients and all of them have genrralized seizuresCONCLUSION:At least three commonly encountered ictal patterns were identified. They are distinct, may be readily recognizable and showed their prevalence in King's telemetry.


Article
The significance of EEG recording in confirming the diagnosis of epilepsy in cases referred for the 1st time

Authors: QASSIM HADI AL-AWADI --- ALA KHALIL AL-BIEROUTI
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 77-85
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: To discuss the significance of EEG as a routine clinical diagnostic tool in first recording of newly discovered or suspected cases of epilepsy.Method: The study has included 246 patient referred for the first time in year 1992 by neurologist and psychiatrist to a private EEG clinic with good description suggesting the diagnosis of epilepsy, the cases were 124 females and 122 males. The positive specific + nonspecific and the negative recording results were correlated according to the type of seizures, sex and age of the patients and then compared with other studies to see how much EEG recording is précised in confirming the clinical diagnosis of epilepsy.Result: The EEG recording for the 1st time of 246 patient showed 141 (57.4%) cases had positive findings including specific and non-specific abnormality while 105 patients (42.6%) had no evidence suggestive of epilepsy similar result of 60 % had been found by Kugler 1964. Conclusion: Although EEG has an important rule in confirming the clinical diagnosis of epilepsy it has failed in many ways to satisfy early expectation as a diagnostic aid but it can merely serve to diminish the probability of its existence.


Article
BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACE: ANALYSIS OF SEGMENTED EEG SIGNAL CLASSIFICATION USING SHORT-TIME PCA AND RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS

Authors: Hema C.R. --- Paulraj M.P --- Nagarajan R --- Sazali Yaacob --- et al.
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 77-85
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Brain machine interface provides a communication channel between the human brain and anexternal device. Brain interfaces are studied to provide rehabilitation to patients withneurodegenerative diseases; such patients loose all communication pathways except for theirsensory and cognitive functions. One of the possible rehabilitation methods for these patients isto provide a brain machine interface (BMI) for communication; the BMI uses the electricalactivity of the brain detected by scalp EEG electrodes. Classification of EEG signals extractedduring mental tasks is a technique for designing a BMI. In this paper a BMI design using fivemental tasks from two subjects were studied, a combination of two tasks is studied per subject.An Elman recurrent neural network is proposed for classification of EEG signals. Two featureextraction algorithms using overlapped and non overlapped signal segments are analyzed.Principal component analysis is used for extracting features from the EEG signal segments.Classification performance of overlapping EEG signal segments is observed to be better interms of average classification with a range of 78.5% to 100%, while the non overlapping EEGsignal segments show better classification in terms of maximum classifications


Article
Ensemble Classifier for Eye State Classification using EEG Signals

Author: Ali Adel Al-Taei
Journal: journal of the college of basic education مجلة كلية التربية الاساسية ISSN: 18157467(print) 27068536(online) Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 99/ علمي Pages: 43-50
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The growing importance and utilization of measuring brain waves (e.g. EEG signals of eye state) in brain computer interface (BCI) applications highlighted the need for suitable classification methods. In this paper, a comparison between three of well-known classification methods (i.e. support vector machine (SVM), hidden Markov map (HMM), and radial basis function (RBF)) for EEG based eye state classification was achieved. Furthermore, a suggested method that is based on ensemble model was tested. The suggested (ensemble system) method based on voting algorithm with two kernels: random forest (RF) and Kstar classification methods. Performance was tested using three measurement parameters: accuracy, mean absolute error (MAE), and confusion matrix. Results showed that the proposed method outperforms the other tested methods. For instance, the suggested method’s performance was 97.27% accuracy and 0.13 MAE.

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