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Article
Application of Factorial Design for Optimization of Flow-Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Tetracycline in Some Pharmaceutical Formulations
تطبيق تصميم المضروب لإيجاد الظروف المثلى للحقن الجرياني المطيافية الضوئية لتقدير التتراسايكلين في بعض التركيبات الدوائية

Author: Chinar Mohammed Risheed جنار محمد رشيد
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2013 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 56-62
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

A simple and rapid flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of tetracycline (TC) has been developed. The method is based on the injection of 150 μl standard or sample solution into a distilled water carrier stream which merged at the merging zone with ferric nitrate solution with the optimum flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, subsequently the reaction will occur inside the reactor coil, forming brown color product that monitored at 418 nm. The flow injection experimental conditions were optimized by means of full factorial design. Under the optimum conditions, calibration graph was obtained over the range 2.0-120 μg/ml with a detection limit of 1.0 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient and molar absorptivity were 0.9994 and 4.343x103 L/mol.cm respectively. The results showed a good precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the determination of tetracycline in pharmaceutical formulations and showed good agreement with those obtained by the standard method at 95% confidence level, with a sample throughput of 60/h.


Article
Evaluation of The Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection of Carbon Steel in 0.5M Nacl Using Experimental Design

Author: Aprael Sarkis Yaro
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 2176-2182
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study examined the effect of Temperature (T); flow rate(F); and pH ; on the zinc consumption as sacrificial anode in cathodic protection of steel pipe carrying saline solution (i.e., 0.5 M NaCl) using a 23 factorial design. Rates of zinc consumption during cathodic protection were measured by weight loss technique and it ranges from 7.5x10-3 to 98.9x10-3 g/cm2.day. For the system under investigation, the cell responsible for cathodic protection is Zn/NaCl/Fe It was found that both temperature and flow rate increases the zinc consumption while pH decreases it sharply.It was found also that the interaction between the temperature and pH is the dominant term compared with other interactions.

هذه الدراسة اختبرت تأثير درجة الحرارة ،سرعة جريان سائل المحلول الملحي وحامضيته على استهلاك الزنك كمضحي انودي في عمليه الحماية الكاثوديه لأنبوب حديدي بأستعمال تقنية تصميم التجارب.ان معدلات استهلاك الزنك اثناء عمليه الحماية الكاثودية تم قياسها بتقنية الفقدان بالوزن و كانت مدياتها تتراوح بين 0.0075 و 0.0989 غم/سم2.يوم. الخلية الكهروكيميائية المسؤوله عن الحماية الكاثودية في النظام قيد الدراسة كانت زنك/محلول ملحي/حديد.لوحظ ان درجة الحرارة و سرعة جريان السائل تزيد من استهلاك الزنك كمضحي انودي بينما حامضية السائل تقلل من ذلك بشدة.كذلك لوحظ ان التداخل بين درجة الحرارة و حامضية السائل هي السائدة مقارنة مع بقية التداخلات.


Article
Experimental Investigations of Hole - EDM to Optimize Electrode Wear through Full Factorial of Design of Experiment
دراسة تجریبیة لإنتاج الثقوب بالتشغیل بالتفریغ الكھربائي للحصول على امثل قیمة لبلى الألكترود من خلال استخدام طریقة تصمیم التجربة كامل التحلیل

Authors: Shukry H. Aghdeab --- Laith A. Mohammed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 13 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2572-2579
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a process where the material removal of theworkpiece is achieved through high frequency sparks between the tool (electrode) and theworkpiece immersed into the dielectric solution. It is commonly used to produce mouldsand dies, to drill small, burr free holes and to make prototypes for the aerospace andelectronics markets. In this work, micro-holeswere fabricated on copper alloys by usingEDM. The output responses investigated was electrode wear weight (EWW). Fullfactorial of Design of Experiment (DOE) module in Minitab was used as a principalmethodology to examine the effects of current and machining time over output responses.Experimental results indicate that the EWW was mainly affected by current, and can bereduced by increasing the current parameter. Minimum EWW (0.12gm) obtained at 10A.


Article
Experimental Investigations of Hole - EDM to Optimize ElectrodeWear through Full Factorial of Design of Experiment
دراسة تجريبية لإنتاج الثقوب بالتشغيل بالتفريغ الكهربائي للحصول على امثل قيمة لبلى الألكترود من خلال استخدام طريقة تصميم التجربة كامل التحليل

Authors: Shukry H. Aghdeab --- Laith A. Mohammed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 2 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 372-379
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a process where the material removal of the workpiece is achieved through high frequency sparks between the tool (electrode) and the workpiece immersed into the dielectric solution. It is commonly used to produce moulds and dies, to drill small, burr free holes and to make prototypes for the aerospace and electronics markets. In this work, micro-holes were fabricated on copper alloys by using EDM. The output responses investigated was electrode wear weight (EWW). Full factorial of Design of Experiment (DOE) module in Minitab was used as a principal methodology to examine the effects of current and machining time over output responses. Experimental results indicate that the EWW was mainly affected by current, and can be reduced by increasing the current parameter. Minimum EWW (0.12gm) obtained at 10A.

يعد التشغيل بالتفريغ الكهربائي من العلميات التي يتم فيها ازالة المعدن من المشغولة من خلال حصول شرارت عالية التردد بين الأداة (الألكترود) والمشغولة المغمورة في محلول. تستخدم هذه العمليات عادة لإنتاج القوالب والثقوب الصغيرة الخالية من الحافات الخشنة وعمل النماذج المستخدمة في الصناعات الفضائية والإلكترونية. في هذا العمل، تم تصنيع ثقوب مايكروية في سبائك النحاس باستخدام التفريغ الكهربائي. تم دراسة وزن البلى في الألكترود كمؤثر فاعل. تم استخدام نموذج تصميم التجربة كامل التحليل في برنامج (Minitab) كطريقة عمل رئيسية لدراسة تأثير التيار وزمن التشغيل على البلى في الألكترود. اظهرت النتائج العملية إن البلى في الألكترود يتأثر بشكل أساسي بالتيار ، ويمكن تقليل تأثيره بزيادة عامل التيار. تم الحصول على اقل بلى الألكترود (0.12gm) عند قيمة تيار 10 أمبير.


Article
Phenyl Thiourea as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Strong Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Aprael S. Yaro ابرائيل سركيس يارو --- Dhuha A. Abdulaaima
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2012 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The inhibitive action of Phenyl Thiourea (PTU) on the corrosion of mild steel in strong Hydrochloric acid, HCl, has been investigated by weight loss and potentiostatic polarization. The effect of PTU concentration, HCl concentration, and temperature on corrosion rate of mild steel were verified using 2 levels factorial design and surface response analysis through weight loss approach, while the electrochemical measurements were used to study the behavior of mild steel in 5-7N HCl at temperatures 30, 40 and 50 °C, in absence and presence of PTU. It was verified that all variables and their interaction were statistically significant. The adsorption of (PTU) is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on the adsorption process showed that the adsorption process is exothermic, spontaneous and represents mixed chemical and physical adsorption for PTU on the metal surface.


Article
Polyvinyl Alcohol – Sodium Nitrite Water Soluble Composite as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Simulated Cooling Water

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Abstract

The inhibitive action of polyvinyl alcohol –sodium nitrite (PVASN) composite on the corrosion of mild steel in simulated cooling water (SCW) has been investigated by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization. The effect of composite concentration (PVA/SN) , pH, and exposure time on corrosion rate of mild steel were verified using 2 levels factorial design and surface response analysis through weight loss approach, while the electrochemical measurements were used to study the behavior of mild steel in (SCW) with pH between 6 and 8 and in absence and presence of (PVA) in solution containing different concentration of NaNO2. It was verified that all three main variables studied were statistically significant while their interaction is less pronounced.


Article
Effect of Current and Duty Factor for Different Electrode Shapes on Material Removal Rate in EDM

Authors: Shukry H. Aghdeab --- Nagham G. Ghazy
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 633-640
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper discusses the performance of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process by changing the bottom shape of the electrode, including two stages: designing the electrodes by turning process then the resulted electrodes were used to machine the workpiece by EDM. The effect of electrode shape on material removal rate (MRR) has been investigated for material of CK 60 carbon steel for workpiece and material of brass for electrode. The shapes of the electrode bottom were flat, conical (with 90º apex angle) and round (with 8 mm radius) of constant diameter electrode of 16 mm. Experiments were repeated for three current values of (10, 20 and 42 A) and three duty factor values of (0.4, 0.8, and 1). The results of experiments showed the main effect of current and duty factor on MRR. From experimental work, it is found that for most of experiments flat electrode gives highest MRR as compared to the two other shapes. A mathematical model was developed by factorial design to predict the values of MRR for different electrode shapes, currents, and duty factors by the Minitab Statistical Software (MSS).

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