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Article
Theoritical and Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Mixing Alcohol with Gasoline Fuel in Si Engine
دراسة نظرية وعملية لخصائص الإحتراق ونواتجه عند خلط الكحول مع البنزين في محركات الإتقاد بالشرارة

Authors: Fouad A. Saleh فؤاد علوان صالح --- Ahmad M. Faik احمد منير الدين فائق
Journal: Journal of Al-Ma'moon College مجلة كلية المأمون ISSN: 19924453 Year: 2010 Issue: 15-E Pages: 95-105
Publisher: AlMamon University College كلية المامون الجامعة

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Abstract

Alcohol is a very attractive alternative for fuel. It is a supplemental source to fossil-derived fuels, and has the potential to reduce emissions from motor vehicles. In the present work, the effect of blending alcohol with gasoline fuel on the performance and exhaust emission from SI engine has been investigated. Flame conditions (temperature and speed) have been modeled in addition to cylinder pressure and nitric oxides formation. Isooctane fuel and methyl alcohol have been used with blending ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% by mass. The obtained results show that flame speed is increased and flame temperature is decreased with increasing blending ratio, since the heat content of alcohol is less than that of gasoline. And cylinder pressure is decreased with increasing blending ratio due to the decrement in flame temperature. And for the exhaust gases, it is shown that increasing blending ratio will decrease CO emissions, which represents an environmental benefit.

يمثل الكحول بديلاً جيداً للوقود. فله إمكانية تخفيض إنبعاثات العادم من محركات الإحتراق الداخلي. في هذا البحث، تم دراسة تأثير مزج الكحول مع البنزين على نواتج الإحتراق في محرك الإشتعال بالشرارة. ظروف اللهب (درجة الحرارة وسرعة اللهب) تمت دراستها بالإضافة إلى الضغط داخل الإسطوانة ومعدل تكوين أكاسيد النايتروجين. تم استخدام الآيزوأوكتان والكحول المثيلي بنسب خلط كتلية (10%، 20%، و30%). وقد أظهرت النتائج المستحصلة أن سرعة اللهب تزداد ودرجة الحرارة تتناقص بزيادة نسبة الخلط، بسبب إنخفاض المحتوى الحراري للكحول مقارنة بوقود البنزين. كما أن ضغط الإسطوانة يتناقص مع زيادة نسبة الخلط بسبب التناقص في درجة حرارة اللهب. وفيما يخص نواتج الإحتراق فالنتائج أظهرت أن زيادة نسبة الخلط تؤدي إلى تراجع في تكوين أول أوكسيد الكاربون وأكاسيد النايتروجين وهذا بحد ذاته يمثل منفعة بيئية كبيرة.

Keywords

Fuel --- وقود


Article
Monitoring and Control the Supply of Fuel in Baghdad using RFID

Authors: Mohannad M. Hasan1 --- Fawzi M. Al-Naima
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 114-122
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Nowadays, there are no accurate records of the various quantities of fuel being dispensed at the Iraqi fuel stations. All such reports are usually paper-based and are missing the required precision to control this valuable commodity, which could lead to misuse or illegal sale of fuel. This paper presents a control system based on RFID technology to monitor the supply and dispensing of vehicle fuel in Baghdad. The system consists of RFID readers attached to fuel dispensers and pumps, and RFID tags assigned to the vehicles and the trucks used for delivering fuel to the fuel stations. A hardware part is connected to conventional fuel dispensers and machines, located at both the stations and the fuel refineries or depots, which makes them work under the control of the RFID system, without the need to rebuild new dispensers. The designed system database is a centralized one located on a cloud server, in order to allow fuel stations to communicate with it and do the required transactions. Throughout this system, different reports can be generated, which can give important online statistics about the movement of fuel supplies over the city.


Article
Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Solid Fuel-Rich Propellant for Ram Rocket Applications

Authors: Amer D. Zmat --- Mumtaz Y. Rejab --- Adil A. AI-Hemiri
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 633-640
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Five formulations of fuel-rich propellant consisting hydroxy-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based polymer, ammonium perchlorate (AP) and magnesium (Mg) or aluminum (Al) as additive have been processed and investigated. Theoretical calculations of flame temperature and gas composition were determined by NASA-273 computer code. The sustained ignition / combustion of such propellant is possible with long duration pyrotechnic igniters. The experimental investigations of the effect of solid particle size range and content on fuel ballistic and mechanical properties have revealed that a considerable enhancement may be obtained with fine particle size and high content percent. High air-to-fuel ratio increases the combustion efficiency in the ramjet-mode resulting in higher specific impulse.

يتناول هذا البحث تصنيع و دراسة الخصائص المقذافية و الميكانيكية لخمسة انواع من الوقود الفني المخصص لتطبيقات النفث التضاغطي. أنجزت الدراسات النظرية لهذه الأنواع الخمسة من الوقود باستخدام البرنامج المعروف (273 – NASA). لقد وجد إن سرعة الاستجابة للمشاعل و استمرارية الاحتراق تعتمد على زمن تأثير المشعل البايروتكنيكي. الدراسات العملية لتأثير الحجم الحبيبي لمساحيق المواد الصلبة المضافة أثبتت انه كلما كان الحجم الحبيبي قليل و كانت نسبة المواد الصلبة عالية نحصل على مواصفات مقذافية وميكانيكية أعلى. أما التجارب العملية باستخدام نسبة هواء إلى وقود عالية نسبيا فقد أظهرت زيادة في كفاءة الاحتراق و بالتالي الحصول على دفع نوعي أعلى.


Article
Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Exhaust and Noise Emissions from 4-Stroke S.I.Engine

Authors: Maher A.R. Sadiq --- Yassar K. Ali --- Aimen Rashad Noor
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 7 Pages: 1438-1450
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Considering pollution problems and energy crisis today, investigationshave been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components incombustion products and decreasing fuel consumption by using renewablealternative fuels. In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline onthe exhaust emissions and noise level has been experimentally investigated atvarious engine loads.Results of the engine test indicated that using ethanol-gasoline blended fuelsincreases the power output of the engine dramatically (up to 50 %). While the COand HC emissions decrease as a result of the leaning effect caused by the ethanoladdition; and the CO2 emission increases because of the improvement ofcombustion. Also, it was noted that the noise level emission increases slightly withthe increase of ethanol content. Finally, the results showed that ethanol can be usedas a supplementary fuel to gasoline in modern spark ignition engines without majorchanges, and it can help to save our environment from toxic pollutants and to savea considerable part of the available oil.


Article
Effects Of Biodiesel Fuel Upon The Exhaust Emission And The Performance Of Compression Ignition Engine
تأثير وقود البيوديزل على انبعاثات وأداء مكائن الاحتراق الداخلي

Authors: Ayad M. Salman إياد محمود سلمان --- Eiman Ali Eh. Sheet إيمان علي إحسان شيت
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 107-123
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Biodiesel is a renewable source of energy since it is made of renewable sources such as corn and soybeans, thus reduces the dependence on oil and eliminates the monopoly of certain countries on oil. This research studied effects of three types of fuel, biodiesel from new oil, biodiesel from waste cooking oil and diesel fuel on engine performance and emissions. A diesel engine and a gas analyzer is used in this research. The effect of each fuel on the performance of the engine at different set of speeds at a fixed throttle setting (full throttle and medium throttle) is studied, with the recording of amounts of gas emissions from the exhaust, and compare the results obtained for these cases. Also obtained a set of fuel characteristics to help with the calculations for better understanding of fuels through various experimentations.The results showed that waste cooking oil performance is a mediate one between new oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The emissions of waste cooking oil biodiesel are low with consideration to its efficient combustion. Biodiesel in general has a higher brake power and torque because it is clean burning and has a smoother running.Key words: Biodiesel fuel, diesel fuel, exhaust emission, diesel engine performance.

الوقود الحيوي (الديزل الحيوي) يعتبر مصدر طاقة متجددة حيث يصنع من مصادر قابلة للتجدد مثل الذرة وحب الصويا، هذا يخفض الاعتماد على النفط ويزيل احتكار بعض البلدان للنفط. في هذا البحث تم دراسة تأثير ثلاثة أنواع من الوقود هي الديزل الحيوي من زيت نقي والديزل الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي ووقود الديزل على أداء وانبعاثات الغازات من المحرك عمليا باستخدام محرك ديزل ومحلل غازات مختبريه. تم حساب تأثير كل نوع من الوقود المستخدمة على أداء المحرك لمجموعة من السرع المختلفة ولوضع صمام الخنق بحالتين خنق تام وخنق متوسط حيث تم تسجيل كميات انبعاث الغازات من العادم. وكذلك تم الحصول على مجموعة من خصائص الوقود وبمساعدة الحسابات لفهم أفضل للوقود من خلال التجارب المختلفة. بينت النتائج إن أداء وقود الديزل الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي يتوسط بين أداء الوقود الحيوي الجديد ووقود الديزل. انبعاثات الوقود الحيوي من مخلفات زيت الطهي هي الأقل نتيجة احتراقه الكفؤ. عموما الديزل الحيوي له عزم وقدرة كبح أعلى من وقود الديزل بسب احتراقه النظيف والدوران المنتظم.


Article
Study the Effect of The Initial Temperature of Diesel Fuel Upon Engine Performance, By Using CI Engine.

Author: Karam Dhafer Abdullah.
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2016 Volume: 272 Issue: 13 Pages: 183-199
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

In my work , I investigates the effect of initial temperature of diesel fuel upon engine performance and emissions by using CI engin , with different diesel fuel cetane number ( 56 , 54 , 53 ) , from the results it showing us that the brake power is increasing with the engine speed and the increasing is (64.66 %) at maximum load with respect with brake power at minimum load ,also measuring the brake torque and it is found from the results the brake torque is increasing with the engine speed at minimum and maximum load and from the results it is found that the brake torque is increasing about (63.902 %) when compare it with brake torque at minimum load ,fuel consumption(kg/hr) is increasing with the engine speed but decreasing when increasing cetane number with the following values (6.631%,7.843%,9.15%) for cetane number ( 53,54,56 ) , and the brake specific fuel consumption also decreasing about (6.065%,6.98%,8.654%) for Cetane number (56,54,53) respectively , the thermal efficiency it is found to be increased with the engine speed and for different fuel cetane number with the following percentage (5.96%,6.837%,8.498%) for Cetane number (53, 54 , 56) respectively, The ( CO2 ) emissions is increased with the engine speed and when the Cetane number increased about (11.35%,9.457%,11.065%) for cetane number (56,54,53) respectively , The (CO) emissions is decreased when the Cetane number increased about (24.165%,20.581%,21.7%) for Cetane number (56,54,53) respectively , The (HC) emissions is decreased by increasing fuel Cetane number about (8.695%,10%,9.586%) for Cetane number (53 , 54 , 56) respectively.


Article
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ATOMIZING SPRAY FROM DIESEL INJECTORS USING ALGAE AND BIODIESEL FUELS

Author: Noor M. Jasim
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2019 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 127-139
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Fuel atomization in diesel compression ignition engines is significantly affected on the performance, evaporation, self-ignition, and emissions of the engine. Therefore, the quality of the spray atomization has to study at first. Algae-Derived renewable diesel fuel in a single hole nozzle atomizer has been chosen as an alternative fuel for diesel. The differences in physical properties of algae-derived renewable diesel, biodiesels (from palm and cooked oil) and pure diesel are effected on both spray characteristics and the internal nozzle flow. Numerical simulations are presented in this study using Eulerian-Eulerian technique to model the spray-gas interaction. The spray moments model has been used to characterize the spray parameters. First, the model is validated against the spray tip penetration of diesel spray characteristics obtained from the experimental data conducted in house-code using constant volume spray chamber and the results show a good agreement. Then, comparisons were made among the selected fuels. The numerical simulations show that the algae-derived renewable diesel is very similar to pure diesel and can be used as an alternative fuel.


Article
EFFECT OF SPEEDS AND SOURCE OF FUEL ON THE EMISSIONS OF 4-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE OF AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS BY DIFFERENT LOADS IN LABORATORY IN WINTER AND SUMMER SEASON.

Authors: DR. Naseer Salman Kadhim --- Abdulqader G. AL-Bakry
Journal: Diyala Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة ديالى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20739524 Year: 2016 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 22-35
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted at Heat Laboratory - College of Engineering - University of Baghdad during 2013. Three local diesel fuel included Baiji, Daura, Basrah were used in this study. The tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of speeds and loads and winter and summer season on the diesel engine emissions of agricultural tractors with different types of local fuel.Results were showed that the lowest rate of hydrocarbons (HC) was in Daura fuel in summer. Lowest rate of carbon monoxide (CO) was in Daura fuel in summer. Best rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) was in Daura fuel in summer. Lowest ratio of hydrocarbons was in Daura fuels at 2000 r.p.m at 2 N.m in summer. Lowest rate of carbon monoxide was in Daura fuel at 3000 r.p.m at 8 N.m in summer. Highest rate of carbon dioxide was in Daura fuel at 2000 r.p.m at 10 N.m in summer


Article
Exhaust Analysis and Performance of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Run on Dual Fuels Mode
تحليل أداء وملوثات محرك ديزل أحادي الاسطوانة يعمل بنظام وقود ثنائي

Author: Miqdam Tariq Chaichan
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Pages: 873-885
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Generally fossil based fuels are used in internal combustion engines as an energy source. Excessive use of fossil based fuels diminishes present reserves and increases the air pollution in urban areas. This enhances the importance of the effective use of present reserves and/or to develop new alternative fuels, which are environment friendly. Use of alternative fuel is a way of emission control. The term “Alternative Gaseous Fuels” relates to a wide range of fuels that are in the gaseous state at ambient conditions, whether when used on their own or as components of mixtures with other fuels. In this study, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to use LPG in dual fuel mode to study the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics. The primary fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), was mixed with air, compressed, and ignited by a small pilot spray of diesel. Dual fuel engine showed a reduction in oxides of nitrogen in the entire load range. The brake thermal efficiency improved by 3% in dual fuel mode, especially at low load, and also reduced the hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and CO2 emissions.

يسنخدم الوقود الاحفوري بشكل عام كمصدر طاقة لمحركات الاحتراق الداخلي، وتسبب الاستخدام المفرط لهذا الوقود بنضوب معظم مصادرة اضافة الى تلوث الهواء في المساحات المدينية، ولهذا تركز الأهتمام على الاستخدام الفعال للمصادر الحالية للطاقة أو تطوير مصادر وقود جديدة، تكون صديقة للبيئة. إن استخدام الوقود البديل هو طريقة للسيطرة على التلوث، وتعبير " الوقود الغازي البديل" يرتبط بعدة أنواع من الوقود تكون بالحالة الغازية في ظروف الجو الأعتيادية، سواء استخدمت بمفردها أو مشتركة ومخلوطة مع وقود أخر.في هذة الدراسة، تم تحوير محرك ديزل أحادي الاسطوانة ليستخدم الغاز النفطي المسال باسلوب الوقود الثنائي، لدراسة خصائص الأحتراق كأداء وملوثات المحرك. يتم خلط الغاز النفطي المسال (الوقود الابتدائي) بالهواء، يضغط بعدها ثم يشعل بواسطة كمية صغيرة من وقود ديزل محقون. أظهر محرك الوقود الثنائي نقصانا في ملوثات أكاسيد النيتروجين لكافة الاحمال المستخددمة، كما تحسنت الكفاءة الحرارية بمقدار 3% في هذة الحالة، كما قلت ملوثات الهيدروكاربونات غير المحترقة وأول أكسيد الكاربون وثاني أكسيد الكاربون.


Article
Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Used vegetable Oil
انتاج وقود الديزل الحيوي من الزيوت النباتية المستعملة

Authors: Tariq M. Naife --- Haider Abdul Kareem Al Jendeel --- Hussain K. Hussain
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 1371-1377
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Used vegetable oil was introduced to transesterfication reaction to produce Biodiesel fuel suitable for diesel engines. Method of production was consisted of filtration, transesterfication, separation and washing. Transesterfication was studied extensively with different operating conditions, temperature range (35-80oC), catalyst concentration (0.5-2 wt. % based on oil), mixing time (30-120 min.) with constant oil/methanol weight ratio 5:1 and mixing speed 1300 rpm. The concentration of Fatty acid methyl esters (Biodiesel) was determined for the transesterficated oil samples, besides of some important physical properties such as specific gravity, viscosity, pour point and flash point. The behavior of methyl esters production and the physical properties of Biodiesel were studied with the different operating conditions. The results show that increasing methyl esters concentration with increasing temperature and catalyst concentration and the transesterfication is a second order reaction The research aiming to recycle spent cooking oils to prevent pollution of soil and water, and converting them to Biodiesel fuel with low emissions

تم ادخال الزيت النباتي المستعمل لتفاعل الاسترة التبادلية لانتاج وقود حيوي مناسب لمكائن الديزل. ان طريقة الانتاج تضمنت الترشيح, الاسترة التبادلية, الفصل والغسل. درست الاسترة التبادلية على نطاق واسع بمختلف الظروف التشغيلية, مدى درجة حرارة (35-80م) , تركيز العامل المساعد (0.5-2 % نسبة وزنية) , زمن خلط (30-120 دقيقة) بنسبة وزنية ثابتة زيت الى الميثانول 5:1 وسرعة خلط 1300 دورة بالدقيقة. حدد تركيز الديزل الحيوي لنماذج زيت الاسترة التبادلية , اضافة الى بعض اهم الخواص الفيزياوية مثل الكثافة النوعية, اللزوجة, نقطة الانسكاب و نقطة الوميض. لقد تم دراسة سلوك انتاج الاسترات المثيلية والخواص الفيزياوية لوقود اليزل الحيوي بمختلف الظروف التشغيلية. اظهرت النتائج زيادة تركيز الاسترات المثيلية بزيادة درجة الحرارة وتركيز العامل المساعد وان حركية التفاعل الاستري من الرتبة الثانية. البحث يهدف الى تدوير زيوت الطبخ المستهلكة لمنع تلوث التربة والماء, وتحويلها الى وقود الديزل الحيوي ذو الانبعاثات المنخفضة

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