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Article
Determination of the Optimum Conditions for the Production of Gamma Alumina (ɤ-Al2O3) By the Precipitation Method of the Sodium Aluminate Solution

Authors: Alaa D. Jawad Al-Bayati --- Habaib A. Majeed Al-Taee --- Ibtehaj Faisal Abdulraheem
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-86
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Design of experiments (DOE) was made by Minitab software for the study of three factors used in the precipitation process of the Sodium Aluminate solution prepared from digestion of α-Al2O3 to determine the optimum conditions to a produce Boehmite which is used in production of ɤ-Al2O3 during drying and calcination processes, the factors are; the temperature of the sodium aluminate solution, concentration of HCl acid added for the precipitation and the pH of the solution at which the precipitation was ended. The design of the experiments leads to 18 experiments. The results show that the optimum conditions for the precipitation of the sodium aluminate solution which leads to the production of gamma alumina are 6.5 pH, Temperature of solution is 90 C and the concentration of the hydrochloric acid (HCl) is 21%. While all other conditions lead mainly to other phases of alumina which is mainly epsilon- alumina (ε-Al2O3).

Keywords

Gamma alumina --- Precipitation --- XRD


Article
Effect of the Forming Conditions in the Production of Gamma Alumina Catalyst Support on the Crushing Strength Property

Authors: Riad Ahmed Saleh رياض احمد --- Ibrahim Richeh --- Alaa Dhari Jawad علاء ضاري
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted for the determination of the effects of the forming conditions in the production of Gamma Alumina catalyst support on the crushing strength property. Eight variables were studied , they are ;binder content which is the sodium silicate , Solvent content which is the water, speed of mixing , time of mixing, drying temperature , drying time , calcinations temperature and the calcinations time Design of the experiments was made by using the response Surface method in Minitab 15 software which supply us 90 experiments .The results of this investigation show that the crushing strength for the dried Gamma alumina extrudate was affected by the drying temperature and the drying time only and there is no interaction effect between the variables studied.Furthermore, the results show that, the crushing strength for the calcined extrudate was affected by the speed of mixing only and the optimum speed is 900rpm.The maximum crushing strength of 38.38 after calcinations and 11.865 Kg/mm after drying were obtained.


Article
Influence of Calcination Temperature of Prepared Aluminum Hydroxide on the Activity of Active Gamma Alumina Oxide on the Dehydration of Ethanol

Author: Khalid Khazzal Hummadi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2005 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 368-383
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract


Article
The Effect of Temperature on the Synthesis of Nano-Gamma Alumina Using Hydrothermal Method

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Abstract

Nano gamma alumina was prepared by double hydrolysis process using aluminum nitrate nano hydrate and sodium aluminate as an aluminum source, hydroxyle poly acid and CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as templates. Different crystallization temperatures (120, 140, 160, and 180) 0C and calcinations temperatures (500, 550, 600, and 650) 0C were applied. All the batches were prepared at PH equals to 9. XRD diffraction technique and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy were used to investigate the phase formation and the optical properties of the nano gamma alumina. N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) was used to measure the surface area and pore volume of the prepared nano alumina, the particle size and the morphology of the surface of nano gamma alumina were estimated using AFM and SEM techniques ,respectively. All the samples represented pure nano gamma alumina with high crystalline and irregular hexagonal structure shape. The best results obtained were 456.5 m2/gm surface area, 0.49 cm3/gm pore volume, and 59.26 average particle size for the sample prepared at 180 0C crystallization temperature, and 500 0C calcinations temperature with nano spherical surface structure.


Article
Synthesis of Nano Crystalline Gamma Alumina from Waste Cans

Authors: Nada Sadoon Ahmedzeki --- Sattar Jalil Hussein --- Waqar Abdulwahid Abdulnabi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2018 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study waste aluminium cans were recycled and converted to produce alumina catalyst. These cans contain more than 98% aluminum oxide in their structure and were successfully synthesized to produce nano sized gamma alumina under mild conditions. A comprehensive study was carried out in order to examine the effect of several important parameters on maximum yield of alumina that can be produced. These parameters were reactants mole ratios (1.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5), sodium hydroxide concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 55%) and weights of aluminum cans (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g). The compositions of alumina solution were determined by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); and maximum yield of alumina solution was 96.3% obtained at 2 mole ratios of reactants, 40% sodium hydroxide concentrations and 10g of aluminum cans respectively. Gamma alumina was acquired by hydrothermal treatment of alumina solution at pH 7 and calcination temperature of 550 ºC. The prepared catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/ desorption isotherms, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed good crystallinity of alumina as described by XRD patterns, with surface area of 311.149 m2/g, 0.36 cm3/g pore volume, 5.248 nm pore size and particle size of 68.56 nm respectively.


Article
DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM OPERATING CONDITIONS IN THE GRANULATION OF GAMMA ALUMINA CATALYST SUPPORT

Authors: Ahmed Saleh احمد صالح --- Ibrahim Richeh --- Alaa Dhari Jawad علاء ضاري
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Granulation Technique for Gamma Alumina Catalyst Support was employed in inclined disk granulator (IDG), rotary drum granulator (RD) and extrusion – spheronization equipments .Product with wide size range can be produced with only few parameters like rpm of equipment, ratio of binder and angle of inclination. The investigation was conducted for determination the optimum operating conditions in the three above different granulation equipments.Results reveal that the optimum operating conditions to get maximum granulation occurred at ( speed: 31rpm , Inclination:420 , binder ratio:225,300% ) for the IDG,( speed: 68rpm , Inclination: 12.50 , binder ratio: 300% ) for the RD and ( speed:1200rpm , time of rotation: 1-2min )for the Caleva spheronizer used in the extrusion spheronization method. These results are compatible with similar works on granulation of different materials.


Article
The Effect of Crystallization Time and Acid Type on the Synthesis of Nano-Gamma Alumina Using Double Hydrothermal Method

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Abstract

Double hydrothermal method was used to prepare nano gamma alumina using aluminum nitrate nano hydrate and sodium aluminate as an aluminum source, CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) as surfactant, and variable acids: weak acids like; citric, and acitic acids, and strong acids like; hydrochloric and nitric acids as a bridge between aluminum salts and surfactant. Different crystallization times 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs were applied. All the batches were prepared at pH equals to 9. XRD diffraction technique was used to investigate the crystalline nano gamma alumina pure from surfactant. N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) was used to measure the surface area and pore volume of the prepared nano alumina, the average particle size and the morphology of the surface of nano gamma alumina were estimated using AFM and SEM techniques, respectively. The sharpness of the peaks increased with increasing of crystallization time. The surface area, pore volume, and average particle size were decreased with increasing crystallization time. The best result of surface area was 383 m2/gm obtained using citric acid at 12 hr crystallization time, while the best results of pore volume and average particle size were 0.54cm3/gm and 72.37nm obtained using hydrochloric acid at12 hr crystallization time. Low agglomeration with hexagonal structure obtained using weak acids, while agglomeration occurred and clusters formed using strong acids.


Article
Effect of Wood Flour Addition on the Pore Volume and BET Surface Area Properties of the Prepared Gamma Alumina (ɤ-Al2O3) Extrudates Used in Catalyst Carriers
تأثير إضافة طحين نشارة الخشب على خواص حجم المسام والمساحة السطحية نوع BET لمبثوقات الكاما ألومينا المستخدمة كحامل للعوامل المساعدة

Author: Alaa D. Jawad Al-Bayati علاء ضاري جواد البياتي
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 11 Pages: 179-191
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effect of Wood Flour addition to the gamma alumina powder used in the preparation of gamma alumina (ɤ-Al2O3) catalyst carrier extrudates on the pore volume and BET surface area physical properties was investigated. Two parameters which are size of wood flour particles and its quantity were studied. The sizes of wood flour particles used are 150 µm, 212 µm and 500 µm and the weight percentage added to the gamma alumina powder during the preparation of the extrudates are (1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). The results showed that the addition of wood flour to the gamma alumina powder in order to get gamma alumina extrudates used as catalyst carrier is one of the successful methods to improve the pore volume and BET surface area of the alumina extrudates. The size of wood flour particles and its quantity have main effect on the above texture properties. The smaller the size of wood flour leaded to higher BET surface area, where maximum BET surface area of 127.3 m2/g was got with addition 10% by weight wood flour of 150µm particle size. BET surface area for the same addition percentage of 10% resulted to 114.5m2/g and 105.2m2/g when adding wood flour of 212 µm and 500 µm particle sizes respectively. The weight percentage of wood flour addition has an effect on the BET surface area, where the 3% addition gives maximum BET surface area when the size of the wood flour particles is 500 µm. Regarding the pore volume property for the gamma alumina prepared extrudates, the results showed that the pore volume of the extrudates increased to 0.83 cm3/g and 1.0 cm3/g when 10% wood flour of 150 µm and 500 µm particle sizes were added respectively. The maximum BET surface area was reached when 10% wood flour of 150 µm particle size was added, and the maximum pore volume was reached when 10% wood flour of 500 µm particle size was added, the increase percentage for the BET surface area and pore volume is more than 40% and 400% respectively.

تم إجراء هذا البحث لمعرفة تأثير إضافة طحين نشارة الخشب إلى مسحوق ألكاما ألومينا ( ɤ-Al2O3) المستخدم في تحضير مبثوقات الحامل للعوامل المساعدة الكاما ألومينا على خاصيه المساحة النوعية (BET) وحجم المسام . تم دراسة تأثير متغيرين وهما الكمية وحجم الدقائق لطحين نشارة الخشب المضافة الى مسحوق الكاما الومينا ، حيث تم استخدام حجوم دقائق طحين النشارة بمقدار 150 µm، 212 µm و 500 µm، بينما النسب الوزنية المضافة الى مسحوق الكاما الومينا المستخدم في تحضير العجينة لانتاج مبثوقات الكاما ألومينا كانت (1%، 3%،5% و 10%). أظهرت النتائج إن إضافة طحين نشارة الخشب الى مسحوق الكاما الومينا عند تحضير العجينة المستخدمة لانتاج مبثوقات الكاما الومينا من اجل استخدامها كحامل للعوامل المساعدة ومن اجل تحسين خواص حجم المسام والمساحة السطحية نوع BET هي عملية ناجحة في تحسين الخواص النسيجية أعلاه عند تحضير المبثوقات، وإن حجم دقائق طحين النشارة المستخدمة وكميتها لها تأثير أساسي على الخواص النسيجية اعلاه. كلما كان حجم دقائق طحين الخشب أصغر يؤدي إلى مساحة سطحية نوع BET أعظم ، حيث تم الحصول على أعظم مساحة BET بمقدار127.3 م2/غم عند اضافة 10% وزنا نشارة خشب ذات حجم 150 µm عندما كان حجم دقائق طحين النشارة 150 µm ومساحة نوعيه (BET) بقيم 114.5 م2/غم و 105.2 م2/غم عندما كانت حجوم دقائق طحين نشارة الخشب هي 212 µm و 500 µm على التوالي. إن متغير نسبة طحين نشارة الخشب المضافة له تأثير على المساحة السطحية نوع BET ، حيث تم الحصول على مساحة عظمى عند اضافة 3% طحين خشب ذو حجم دقائق µm .500 فيما يخص خاصية حجم المسام للمبثوقات كاما الومينا المحضرة فقد أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن حجم المسام ازداد الى 0.83 سم3/غم و1.0 سم3/غم عند إضافة 10% طحين خشب ذو حجم دقائق 150 µm و500 µm على التوالي. أعظم مساحة نوعية (BET) تم التوصل اليها كانت عند اضافة 10% طحين خشب ذو حجم دقائق 150 µm واعظم حجم مسام تم التوصل اليه كان عند اضافة 10% طحين خشب ذو حجم دقائق 500 µm ، أن نسبة الزيادة في المساحة النوعية كانت اكثر من 40% ونسبة الزيادة في حجم المسام كان اكثر من 400%.

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