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Article
Effect of Adenosine Triphosphate on in vitro Fertilization in Mice as a model for Human Being

Authors: Muhannad A. Mashkor Muhammad-Baqir M-R. Fakhrildin --- Muhammad –Baqir M-R Fakhrildin --- Nawal K. Al-Ani
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-29
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Back ground:Optimal IVF and embryo culture conditions depend on the composition of culture media being the most important determinants of successful in vitro interaction of the gametes and subsequent embryo development. ATP is fundamental factor to maintain the life, by providing energy, and controlling the cell function and metabolism.Objective:To investigate the effect ATP supplied to culture medium on fertilization rate and in mice as model for human being.Materials and Methods:The female mice (90) were superovulated using superovulation program (SOP) to produce large number of oocyte were divided into three groups, G1 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro alone (control) , G2 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro using SMART enriched with ATP(1.25mM). While, G3 inseminated with vassal sperm in vitro using SMART medium enriched with ATP (2.5mM). Mouse spermatozoa were collected from both vas deferens. Then sperm parameters were assessed after 30 min. IVF technique was performed for 3 groups.Results: The results of the present study appear, significantly increment (P<0.05) in the IVF (%) was observed when using 2.5 mM ATP as compared to 1.25 mM ATP and control group.Conclusions: The result showed that addition of high ATP concentration (2.5 mM) enriched to the culture medium improved percentage of in vitro fertilization.

Keywords

ATP --- in vitro fertilization --- mice.


Article
THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CULTURE MEDIA ON IN VITRO FERTILIZATION OF MICE

Authors: Mohammed A. Ibrahim --- Hazim I. Al-Ahmad --- Wasnaa H. Mohammed
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 147-150
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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The effect of different types of media on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of mice oocyte wasinvestigated. IVF was carried out in RPMI-1640 medium at recommended temperature (37 C) andpH (7.4). The obtained results showed that 63.73% of used oocytes were fertilized, and thepercentage of abnormal embryos was 27.58%. While, using other culture media at sametemperature and pH, gave low percentage of fertilization and higher yield of abnormal embryos.Thus, using Medicult IVF, Earl s and TCM-199 were gave fertilization percentages equivalent to38.75, 42.42 and 61.45% respectively; whereas, the percentages of abnormal embryos were 32, 35.7and 33.89 % respectively.The reported results indicate that composition of various types of culture media have significanteffect on the rate of fertilization and abnormal embryos.


Article
THE EFFECT OF CHANGES IN CULTURE MEDIA, pH AND TEMPERATURE ON IN VITRO FERTILIZATION AND PREIMPLANTATION EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF MICE
أثير التغييرات في الأوساط الزرعية والباهاء ودرجة الحرارة على الاخصاب الخارجي وتطور الأجنة قبل الانغراس في الفئران

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ABSTRACTThe present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different typesof culture media, degrees of temperature of culture medium and wide range ofpH within culture medium on the percentages of in vitro fertilization of mouseoocytes and embryonic development. Nine hundred and twenty four oocyteswere recovered from eighty one superovulated mice. Groups of mature oocyteswere incubated with active spermatozoa within different culture media (Ham’sF-10, Medi-Cult. IVF, TCM-199, Earl’s + TCM-199 and RPMI-1640) atdifferent degrees of temperature (36, 37, 38 and 39), as well as, the pH of culturemedium was changed (range: 6.9-8.1) in 5% CO2 for 18-20 hour. Percentages ofin vitro fertilization and abnormal embryonic development were assessed.The best results for IVF and normal embryonic development wereachieved with RPMI-1640 medium at temperature 37 oC and acidity (7.3-7.4) ofmedium. However, best results for in vitro development of mouse embryos wereobtained by using TCM-199 medium and Ham’s F-10 medium at temperature36 oC and acidity (7.3-7.4). In conclusion, the mouse spermatozoa and oocytesare highly sensitive to changes in the environmental conditions. In addition,conditions of culture medium and its selection are may be the main limitedfactor for improvement in vitro fertilization and embryonic development inmice. Further biochemical and molecular studies are recommended to assess theeffect of culture medium on content of RNA and protein synthesis of differentstages of mouse embryo.Key words: Superovulation, in vitro fertilization and embryonic development.PDF created

(Culture medium) أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة تأثير أنواع مختلفة من الأوساط الزرعيةعلى النسب المئوية للأخصاب الخارجي (pH) ومدى واسع من الباهاء (Temperature) ودرجات الحرارةفي الفئران. فقد أستردت (Embryonic development) وتطور الاجنة (In vitro fertilization)تسعمائة وأربع وعشرين بويضة من أحدى وثمانين أنثى فأر محفزة هرمونياً لاحداث افراط الاباضةثم حضنت مجاميع البويضات الناضجة مع نطف نشيطة في عدة أوساط زرعية .(Superovulation)و (Earl’ + TCM- و ( 199 (TCM- و ( 199 (Medi-Cult. IVF) و (Ham’s F- وتشمل ( 10وبدرجات حرارية متعددة ( 36 و 37 و 38 و 39 ) ه م، بالاضافة الى احداث تغييرات ،(RPMI-1640)8.1 ) الوسط الزرعي وبظروف حضن هي 5 % من غاز ثاني أوكسيد الكاربون – في باهاء (المدى 6.920 ساعة. تم تقييم النسب المئوية لاخصاب البويضات وتطور الاجنة خارج الجسم في – لفترة 18 (CO2)الفئران.تم تحقيق أفضل النتائج للأخصاب الخارجي وتطور الاجنة الطبيعي بأستخدام الوسط7.4 ). وعلى أي – وبدرجة حرارة ( 37 ) ه م وحموضة الوسط الزرعي ( 7.3 (RPMI- الزرعي ( 1640TCM-) حال تحققت أفضل النتائج بالنسبة لنمو الاجنة خارج الجسم باستخدام الوسطين الزرعيين7.4 ). نستنتج ان – وبدرجة حرارة ( 36 ) ه م وحموضة الوسط الزرعي ( 7.3 (Ham’s F- 199 ) و ( 10نطف وبويضات الفئران ذات حساسية عالية للتغييرات في الظروف المحيطة. كذلك تعتبر ظروف الوسطالزرعي واختيارها هو عامل محدد رئيس لتحسن الاخصاب الخارجي وتطور الاجنة خارج الجسم فيالفئران. نوصي باجراء دراسات جزيئية وكيموحيوية أضافية لتقييم تأثير الوسط الزرعي على محتوى الرنالمختلف مراحل أجنة الفئران. (Protein synthesis) وتصنيع البروتين (RNA)


Article
Effect of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Foenugreek oil extract on some parameters of sperms and in vitro fertilization in mice
تاثير المستخلص الزيتي لبذور نبات الحلبة على بعض معايير النطف والاخصاب خارج الجسم في الفئران

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Abstract

This project, aims to study the effect of trigonella seeds oil extract on body weight , testes weight and some parameter of reproductive system in male mice , and on In vitro fertilization (IVF) , cleavage stages of embryos in females. Fifteen adult (8-9 weeks) males and females mice were divided into three groups , each group containing 5 mice , first and second groups were treated with (2 and 4 mg/kg body weight) of Trigonella oil extract (intraperitonally) while the third group treated with normal saline as control group . After 35 days of treatment with Trigonella the animals (male and female) were sacrificed by dislocation of cervical vertebrate. Isolated sperms from tail of epidydymis were used for the following tests. Sperm motility, dead / live sperm, sperm abnormalities and serum ws collected to assay testosterone. Isolatation of ova from oviduct after micing in 500µl of TCM-199 media serum blood to assay FSH and LH .

الهدف من هذا البحث , دراسة تاثير المستخلص الزيتي لنبات الحلبة على وزن الجسم ووزن الخصى وبعض معايير النطف في ذكور الفئران , وعلى الاخصاب الخارجي ومراحل تطور الجنين في الاناث . استخدم للدراسة 15 ذكر وانثى بالغة باعمار (8-9 اسابيع) من الفئران قسمت الى ثلاثة مجاميع , كل مجموعة تضم 5 فئران , عوملت مجموعتان بتركيزي 2 و 4 ملغم من المستخلص الزيتي لنبات الحلبة /كغم من وزن الجسم عن طريق الحقن داخل الخلب البريتوني . وعوملت المجموعة الثالثة بالمحلول الملحي الفسيولوجي كمجموعة سيطرة . قتلت الحيوانات (الذكور والاناث) بعد 35 يوم من المعاملة عن طريق فصل الرقبة . عزلت النطف من ذيل البربخ وتم اجراء الفحوصات التالية , حركة النطف , نسبة النطف الحية والميتة وتشوهات النطف .


Article
Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) in Prediction of Oocyte Quality and in Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Outcome

Authors: Aseel N. Kamil --- Basil OM Saleh --- Nada F Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 551-561
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that serum Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels could be of great importance for understanding the relationship with oocyte quality for IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of serum level of AMH in differentiation of infertile female patients with good quality oocytes, who are good responder and ready to enter the IVF cycles.OBJECTIVE:This study included 25 infertile females classified into two groups: (15) females with Tubal obstruction and 10 females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Also, nineteen fertile females were served as controls.METHODS:Investigation included serum measurements of AMH, Inhibin B, FSH, LH, E2, Prolactin and TSH on day 3 of previous menstrual cycle, serum measurement of progesterone (P4) on day 21 of previous menstrual cycle (before starting ovulation induction). Also AMH, Inhibin B and E2 were measured on day of hCG administration (after long ovulation protocol). RESULTS: The mean (±SD) value of serum AMH was significantly decreased in female patients after ovarian stimulation protocol compared to that before ovarian stimulation,(P< 0.01). Also, the mean (±SD) value of serum AMH of female patients with good quality oocyte was significantly higher than that of those with bad quality oocyte, (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that measurement of serum AMH is good marker in prediction of good responder infertile females for IVF technique after ovarian stimulation protocol.


Article
Oocytes Extraction from Iraqi Local Goat Ovaries by Using Aspiration and in vitro Fertilization Techniques

Authors: Talib A. Jaayid --- Tahir A. Fahid --- Nisreen Y. Jasim
Journal: Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة البصرة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18175868 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 28-42
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was conducted on 72 local slaughtered female goats, 144 ovary were collected from the different places of the city of Basrah, a local slaughterhouse, Basrah markets and agriculture station for scientific research at the university of Basrah. Oocytes was obtaining from the ovaries by using aspiration technique and the number of it was 1044 after the division of ovarian follicular depending on the size of its diameter into two group, one < 2 mm and the second > 2.5 mm and the rate of oocytes obtained from follicles with a diameter < 2 mm (22.7%), while the rate of oocytes obtained of follicles with a diameter > 2.5 mm (77.2%) .these oocytes is divided depending on the number of layers of granulosa cells that surround it to: -1-Typical oocytes that contain all layers of the granulosa cells, and its rate was (10.44%). 2 – Oocytes that invested with more than 3 layers of granulosa cells, and its rate was (48.84%). 3 – Oocytes are partially surrounded by granulosa cells and its rate was (25.67%). 4 – denuded oocytes from granulosa cells was (15.80%). The highest rate of oocytes that reached to the stage of maturation were from oocytes that surrounded by more than 3 layers of granulosa cells (82.44%). These oocytes incubated for maturation in TCM-199 medium in 39 ᵒC, 5% CO2 and 96% humidity for different periods (24,25,26 and 27) hours in order to determine the optimal time for maturation was obtained at the highest rate of maturity (18.29%) within 27 hours of incubation, mostly from the follicles with diameter> 2.5 mm where the rate (19.10%).Fertilized with sperm capacitated in vitro and the rate of fertilized oocytes (53.43%). Fertilized oocytes were cultured for 168 hours after fertilization at a temperature 39 ᵒC, 5% CO2 and 96% humidity to cleavage up blastocyst stage, which was represented (40%) and stage of morula which was represented (31.42%).


Article
Risk of birth defects and other childhood adverse outcome associated with in vitro fertilization

Authors: Adnan M. Hamawandi --- Khalid H. Salih --- Hind N. Ayoub --- Amanj R. Zangana
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 40-46
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:In vitro Fertilization (IVF) is an important alternative for infertile couples, there is anincrease in the number of children conceived by IVF worldwide.Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the risk of birth defects and adverse outcome amonginfants and children conceived by in vitro fertilization in Sulaimani-Iraq.Patients and Methods:This case-control study was carried out on 160 children, 75 were product ofIVF(using ICSI) and 85 were product of natural conception. Data collectedregarding mother age, father age, duration of infertility before pregnancy with theindex child, any complication during pregnancy, age of the child, gender, mode ofdelivery, gestational age, weight at delivery, history of neonatal admission andit’s cause, admission to hospital after neonatal period, and history of surgicaloperation. All children were examined for any gross anomaly, cardiovascular,respiratory, gastrointestinal, skeletal, urological and neurologic abnormality.Results: IVF was a risk factor for prematurity (OR, 7.844 95% CI 3.025 - 20.339) ,LBW (OR, 4.645 95% CI 2.038 -10.587), Congenital anomaly (OR, 1.362 95% CI 0.720 -2.576), predominance of male gender (OR, 1.340 95% CI 0.719-2.498), neurodevelopmentaldelay(OR,1.333 95% CI 0.672- 2.646), admission to NICU (OR,1.703 95%CI 1.052-2.758 ), C/S delivery (OR, 1.972 95% CI 1.507-2.581), and childhoodhospitalization (OR, 1.193 95% CI 0.838-1.696), also there was statistically significantassociation with multiple pregnancy.Conclusions:IVF carries increased risk of LBW, prematurity, congenital anomaly, neuro-developmentaldelay, admission to NICU, childhood hospitalization, C/S as a mode of delivery andpredominance of male gender.


Article
Study the effects of glutathione on fertility potential in vitro of male diabetic induced mice
دراسة تاثير الكلوتاثايون على فعالية الاخصاب الخارجي لذكور الفئران المصابة بداء السكر

Authors: ماريا بازيني --- نبيل خلف العاني --- نياف نضال كاظم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 46-51
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Diabetes has been found to induce various subtle molecular changes important, for sperm quality and function: The mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyun- saturated fatty acids, making them particularly sensitive to the deleterious effects of lipid peroxidation, which may result in irreversible loss of motility and a low level of fertilizing capacity. An antioxidant, glutathione (GSH) a polypeptide is important in biological oxidation-reduction reactions and improves sperm motility.Objective:The study was aimed to investigate the effects of GSH injection on healthy and diabetic male mice fertilization potential in vitro following in vitro fertilization (IVF)Materials and Methods:Inducing diabetes in mice through intra peritoneal alloxan injection. The treatment with GSH divided into two periods 10 and 20 days, studying the in vitro fertilization outcomes.Results:Glutathione daily IV injected in a period of 10 to 20 days for the diabetic induced male mice significantly increase the sperm concentration and motility and decrease the abnormal and dead sperms percentages in treated group compared to untreated group. The Fertilization rate was significantly (P<0.05)increased in mice treated with GSH compared to untreated one.Conclusion:Glutathione injections may decrease the oxidative stress caused by diabetes and enhance the in vitro fertilization potentials in male mice.


Article
Effect of Cryopreservation on Sperms Function Parameters and In vitro Fertilization Rate in Mice
تأثير التجميد على وظائف النطف والإخصاب خارج الجسم في الفئران

Author: Ilaf Hassan Hadi ايلاف حسن هادي
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2013 Volume: 37 Issue: 2 Pages: 218-225
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (-196ºC) on sperm quality (concentration, motility, morphology) and in vitro fertilization rate (IVF), 24 hours post insemination in mice. The sperms were obtained from caudal epididymis of 20 mature male mice and prepared by Direct Activation Technique after cryopreservation followed by insemination the oocyte of 20 female mice using in vitro fertilization procedure. Results showed that there were significant (P > 0.05) decrease in sperms concentration, motility and morphology post cryopreservation. In addition, the results demonstrated that cryopreservation significantly decreased (P > 0.05) fertilization rate in treated mice (36%) compared to control mice (56%). It is conclusion that frozen sperm can be used without compromising pregnancy chances.

أجريت الدراسة لبيان تأثيرتجميد نطف الفئران في سائل النتروجين بدرجة حرارة (-196º) مئوية على وظائف النطف (تركيز النطف ونشاطها والمظهر الخارجي) وعلى معدل الاخصاب خارج الجسم بعد مرور 24 ساعة بعد التلقيح في الفئران. تم الحصول على النطف من ذيل البربخ لذكور 20 فأرة وإجريت عملية تنشيط النطف بعد تجميدها في سائل النتروجين ثم إجراء الاخصاب خارج الجسم لبويضات 20 انثى. أظهرت النتائج وجود تأثيراً تثبيطياً معنوياً 0.05)>(P في تركيز النطف ونشاطها والمظهر الخارجي ومعدل الإخصاب خارج الجسم (36%) بعد مرور24 ساعة من التجميد عند مقارنتها مع مجموعة السيطرة (56%). لذلك يمكن الاستنتاج ان التجميد بسائل النتروجين لا يعطي فرص فعالة لحدوث الحمل


Article
Risk factors for development of transient tachypnea of newborns
عوامل الخطورة لنشوء حالات تسارع التنفس المؤقت للأطفال الحديثي الولادة

Author: Ghaith W. Hamdoon غيث وضاح حمدون
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2018 Volume: 40 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-19
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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ABSTRACTBackground: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a frequently encountered form of neonatal respiratory distress. The underlying mechanism involves residual lung fluid that is delayed in clearance. TTN primarily occurs soon after birth and can last from 24 to 72 hours. Risk factors for TTN include elective cesarean section, male sex, late prematurity, low birth weight, macrosomia, polycythemia, maternal asthma and maternal diabetes. Treatment is often supportive with observation and potential oxygen supplementation.Objective: To identify the risk factors associated with development of transient tachypnea of newborns who were delivered either normally or through cesarean section, at 36 weeks or beyound and to compare the results with those of others.Patients and methods: This is a case -control study of 200 newborns suffering from respiratory distress during a period from the 1st of September 2011 to the 1st of September 2013 in the neonatal intensive care unit at AL-Kansaa Teaching hospital in Mosul. The perinatal history of newborns was analyzed. TTN was diagnosed on clinical basis and by exclusion of other diseases affecting the respiratory system including sepsis. The study included 200 healthy newborns as control.Results: Multivariate analysis identified that the development of TTN was significantly associated with elective cesarean section 56% (p-value=0.001), male sex 66.5% (p- value=0.001), late prematurity 21% (p-value=0.009), maternal diabetes 8% (P-value=0.014), maternal asthma 10.5% (p-value=0.01), birth asphyxia (low APGAR score) 9.5% (p-value=0.005), low birth weight 16.5% (p-value=0.003), prolonged labor or using (forceps or vacuum) 22% (p-value=0.037) and in vitro fertilization 2.5% (p-value =0.024).Conclusion: Transient tachypnea of newborns is strongly related to elective cesarean section, male sex, late prematurity, maternal diabetes, maternal asthma, birth asphyxia, low birth weight (1500-2500g), prolonged labor or using forceps or vacuum and in vitro fertilization.

الخلاصةالخلفية: تعتبر حالات تسارع التنفس المؤقت للأطفال الحديثي الولادة من الحالات الشائعة كجزء من حالات عسر التنفس للأطفال الحديثي الولادة. الآلية التحتية لعِلم الأمراض تَتضمّن تأخر إزالة سائل الرئة المتبقيِ، مبدئيا حالات تسارع التنفس المؤقت للأطفال الحديثي الولادة تحدث مباشرة بعد الولادة وممكن أن تستغرق من أربعة وعشرون إلى إثنان وسبعون ساعة. عوامل الخطورة لحالات تسارع التنفس المؤقت للأطفال الحديثي الولادة تشمل كلا من العمليات القيصرية الإختيارية والذكور، وحالات الربو القصبي للأمهات، حالات الإختناق الولادي، الخديج ذو الحجم الكبير، والولادات ذات الأوزان القليلة، حالات داء السكري للأمهات وحالات الولادات المتعسرة وأخيرا الإخصاب الصناعي. علاج هذه الحالات لايحتاج سوى المتابعة ومراقبة الطفل مع الحاجة لإستعمال الأوكسيجين في بعض الأحيان.الهدف: إن هدف هذه الدراسة هو تشخيص عوامل الخطورة لحالة تسارع التنفس المؤقتة لدى الأطفال المولودين حديثا سواء عن طريق الولادة الطبيعية أو الولادة القيصرية ومقارنة نتائج البحث مع نتائج البحوث الأخرى.المرضى وطريقة البحث: هذه الدراسة هي دراسة العينة والشاهد عليها وقد تم إجراءها في وحدة الخدج في مستشفى الخنساء التعليمي للأطفال في الموصل وللفترة إبتدءا من الأول من شهر أيلول 2011 وحتى الأول من أيلول 2013, حيث تم إختيار عينة من 200 طفل حديث الولادة من كلا الجنسين أعمارهم ستة وثلاثون أسبوع فأكثر أدخلوا إلى وحدة الخدج لإصابتهم بعسر التنفس، وكان تشخيص متلازمة تسارع التنفس المؤقت معتمدا على الأعراض السريرية للمريض ومختبريا وبإستخدام التصوير الشعاعي، وتم إستبعاد إصابة المريض بالأمراض التنفسية الأخرى وحالات تسمم الدم الخمجي وتم أخذ عينة أخرى مكونة من 200 طفل حديث الولادة أصحاء ولا يعانون من أي شي من أجل المقارنة.النتائج: بعد أن تم إجراء الدراسة على تلك العينة من المرضى ومقارنتها بالأطفال الأصحاء وإستبيان المعلومات وتحليلها تبين بأن حدوث حالات تسارع التنفس المؤقت كان أشد إرتباطا بالعمليات القيصرية الإختيارية 56%، والذكور66,5% من دون الإناث، كذلك كان له إرتباطا معنويا بالولادة المبكرة (36 أسبوع) 21% وحالات داء السكري والربو القصبي لدى الأمهات (8% و 10,5 % وبالتتابع) وكذلك حالات الإختناق الولادي 9,5% والولادات ذات الأوزان القليلة (1500-2500غم) وحالات الولادات المتعسرة 22% وأخيرا الإخصاب الصناعي 2,5%.الإستنتاجات: إن حالات تسارع التنفس المؤقت كان لها إرتباطا معنويا بالعمليات القيصرية الإختيارية والذكور والولادات المبكرة وداء السكري وحالات الربو لدى الأمهات كذلك حالات الإختناق الولادي والولادات المتعسرة وأخيرا الإخصاب الصناعي.

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From To Submit

2019 (1)

2018 (2)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

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