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Article
The Impact of Obesity on Some Reproductive Hormones in Infertile Men

Authors: Mahdi Abdulwahed Mahdi --- Ruwaidah Fawziy Khaleel --- Mutaz Sabah Ahmeid
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2017 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 44-51
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Obesity, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health .The effects of obesity on male reproduction have been less well studied than those on female reproduction, but there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that obesity has an adverse effect on male reproduction However, a little is known about the effect of obesity on male reproductive system and infertility. Infertility is defined as inability to achieve conception within one year. It has not yet been clearly established how excess adiposity relates to the biological changes that underlie male infertility, although there are several theories worth exploring. The endocrine abnormalities associated with obesity in women are well known with an increase in androgen metabolism and changing in reproductive hormones in over weight and obese men.


Article
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TURMERIC ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SEMEN IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQI INFERTILE MEN

Author: Rehab Sh Al-Maliki رحاب شفيق المالكي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 105-110
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Contamination of semen with sexually and none sexually transmitted bacteria plays an important role in male infertility, contaminating bacteria should be eradicated by antibiotics, but most of bacteria become resistant to available antibiotics. Therefore most researchers search to find other antibacterial agents.Objective: To evaluate the frequency of bacteria in semen of infertile men and investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of turmeric (AET) on certain isolated bacteria from semen of infertile men compared with that of doxycycline as a standard antibiotic.Methods: Forty two semen samples obtained from infertile men attending The Higher Institute of Infertility Treatment and Assisted Reproductive Technology were evaluated bacteriologically using standard bacterial culture. Then investigated the antibacterial activity of AET on certain isolated bacteria from semen of infertile men compared with doxycycline using disc diffusion method.Results: Out of 42 semen samples of infertile men, 35(83.03%) were infected with different bacterial species (spp.) accompained with highest incidence rate. The overall frequency of N.gonorrhea and S.epidermides was 8(19%) and for remaining bacterial isolated from semen (S.aureus, G.vaginalis and E.coli) were 6(14.28%). Comparable antibacterial activity of ATE and doxycycline was found to be evident against most isolated bacteria (P<0.001) in mean inhibition zones of AET between Gram’s positive and Gram’s negative bacteria (23.35±0.68 and 8.35±1.52, respectively).Conclusion: Most of isolated bacteria from semen of infertile males had high frequency, which were generally accepted as pathogenic bacteria. Antibacterial activity of AET was comparable with doxycycline against most isolated bacteria and it was found more effective on Gram’s positive than Gram’s negative bacteria.Keywords: Turmeric, pathogenic bacteria, semen, infertile men


Article
Assessment of Psychosocial Status and Spiritual Beliefs of a Sample of Infertile Men in Baghdad City/Iraq

Author: Mohammad Abdulbaqi Abdulmohsin
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 139-144
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Infertility is considered one of the most important marital problems which may lead to separation between spouses, especiallyin male societies either by the request of the wife or negatively effect on the man’s psyche, and in this case, the man initiates to terminate themarried life, away from the painful situation he suffers. Objective: This cross‑sectional descriptive study aims to identify the infertile men’spersonal‑demographic characteristics, in addition to determine the psychosocial status and spiritual beliefs. Materials and Methods: Thestudy consists of 150 patients selected randomly from the fertility center and infertility treatment/Kamal Al‑Samurai hospital in Baghdadcity, the data were collected by direct interview with those patients by using a questionnaire. Results: Most of the infertile men were at agegroup (20–30) years, duration of marriage (1–5 years), had primary infertility. As overall assessment, the study stated that the majority ofthe sample was in fair psychological condition, good social condition, and spiritual beliefs in good condition. In addition, the results showthat no significant difference between some personal‑demographical characteristics (age husband, duration of marriage, type of infertility,husband occupation, residential area, degree of relationship, smoking habit, take of medicines, chronic diseases, and erectile dysfunction) withpsychological and social status. Conclusions: The problem of infertility is one of the most difficult problems facing newly married couplesthat cause negative psychological and social effects.


Article
Investigation of Azoospermia Factor Microdeletions in Infertile Men in Diyala Governorate

Authors: Muthanna A. Al-Mahdawi --- Ahmed Ali Al-Azzawi --- Hussain Kh. Kadhem
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-49
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Y chromosomes microdeletions (YCM) are the most frequentlyobserved structure abnormalities in the male specific region (MSY), 15% of totalprimary spermatogenic failure cases are related to at least 6 known major YCMpatterns. These microdeletions present in 5-10% of infertile men and they arevery rare in fertile and normospermia men.Objectives:This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of AzoospermiaFactor (AZF)region microdeletions in a sample of Diyala governorate infertilemen.Subjects and Methods: An included 80 infertile men who had been referredto private clinics of New Baquba as a test group and 20 proven fertile men as acontrol group. Tests included seminal fluid analysis, sex hormones profile andpolymerase chain reaction using specific tagged sites.Results: Showed that eleven infertile men (13.75%) had AZF microdeletions,while no microdeletion were found in control group. Seven (63.6%) microdeletionswere in AZFc sub-region while 2(18.1%) microdeletions were in AZFbcand AZFb each. This study showed that men with sperm count below <5 millions/ml should be evaluated for Yq11 microdeletions before attempting any surgicalor hormonal treatment or attending assisted reproductive techniques.Conclusion:AZFc is the dominance pattern of microdeletions in Diyala governorateinfertile males and AZFa pattern of microdeletions is the rarest pattern, also geneticscreening for long arm of Y chromosome microdeletions should be listed in the routinetests for men who suffer from azoospermia prior to providing ART service orsurgical treatments.


Article
Relationship of Seminal plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) with LH and FSH Levels in Serum with Sperm Function Parameters in Different Groups of Infertile Men

Authors: Fahad D. Oleiwi --- Hayder A. L. Mossa --- Mohammad O. Selman
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-69
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Oxidative stress (OS) plays a vital role in human reproduction. Itrises as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) productionand/or reduced total antioxidant capacity (TAC) protection. Oxidative stress mediateddamages to the plasma membrane of the spermatozoa may account for defectivespermatozoa function parameters that are observed in a high percentageof infertile patients.Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between level of seminalplasma TAC in relevance to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulatinghormone (FSH) in serum with the assessment of routine spermatozoaparameters in different groups of infertile men.Subjects,Materials and Methods: Blood and semen samples were collected fromthe infertile and fertile subjects. The total number of samples were (80), the infertilemen were divided into three groups (azoospermic, oligozoospermic andasthenozoospermic) each with (20) sample, and (20) as fertile men. Then the levelsof serum hormones and seminal plasma TAC were measured using EnzymeLinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).Results: The results of hormonal levels in serum showed that there were highlysignificant difference (P<0.001) in the levels of FSH and LH between controlgroup and infertile groups. In this study its appear that there were a highly significant(p<0.001) difference in the level of TAC between study groups and controlgroup which were increased among normozoospermic men and decreased amonginfertile groups. The lower limit of TAC were seen in asthenozoospermic men.The results of this study also showed that there were a relationship between TACof seminal plasma and hormonal levels, it is appear that TAC are negatively correlatedwith LH and FSH.Conclusions: From the results obtained it could be concluded that; LH and FSHhave an effect on male fertility via regulation of seminal plasma TAC. On theother hand seminal plasma TAC are negatively correlated with the number of immotilespermatozoa and positively correlated with concentration, progressivelymotile and morphologically normal spermatozoa.


Article
Assessment Of Lipid Peroxidation And Glutathione Levels In Serum And Seminal Plasma For Unexplained Infertile Men In Thi-Qar Governorate
تقییم مستوى الأكسدة الفوقیة للدھون والكلوتاثیون في المصل والبلازما المنویة لحالة عقم الرجال الغیر المفسر في محافظة ذي قار

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Abstract

Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting couple to achieve spontaneouspregnancy in one year. unexplained male infertility (UMI) is reserved for infertile of unknown originand accounts for 6-27% of infertile men with normal semen analyses on two or more occasions withno demonstrable physical or endocrine abnormalities and female factor infertility has been ruled out.Oxidative stress (OS) is a consequence of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygenspecies(ROS) and the body’s antioxidant defense mechanisms. However oxidative stress(OS) is acommon pathology seen in approximately half of all infertile men. It has been shown that reactiveoxygen species (ROS) can lead to deleterious effects on a range of sperm parameters. The monitoringof MDA levels in different biological systems can be used as an important indicator of lipidperoxidation .Humans have developed a highly ,organized and complex antioxidant defense systemto protection cells and organ systems of the body against reactive oxygen species(ROS) such asglutathione is capable of reducing ROS levels and lipid peroxidation..Serum and seminal plasma MDA was significantly increased in unexplained infertile(smoker andnonsmoker)groups when compared to fertile (smoker and nonsmoker)groups. The serum andseminal plasma glutathione were significantly decreased in unexplained infertile( smoker andnonsmoker)groups when compared to fertile (smoker and nonsmoker)groups. The decrease inantioxidant levels appears to be mainly a consequence of increased oxidative stress.

العقم ھو عدم قدرة الزوجین الناشطین جنسیاً وبدون استخدام موانع الحمل على حدوث الحمل التلقائي في سنة واحدة. العقم الذكوري٢٧ ٪ من الرجال الذین یعانون من العقم مع تحالیل السائل المنوي - یشیر لعقم غیر معروف السبب, وبمعدل ٦ (UMI) غیر المفسرالطبیعي في مناسبتین أو أكثر بدون أي تشوھات جسدیة أو ھرمونیة ظاھریة واستبعاد عامل العقم عند النساء. الإجھاد التأكسديوآلیات الدفاع المضادة للأكسدة في الجسم. ومع ذلك ، (ROS) ھو نتیجة لعدم التوازن بین إنتاج أنواع الأكسجین التفاعلیة (OS)ھو حالة مرضیة شائعة تظھر تقریبا في نصف الرجال المصابین بالعقم. لقد ثبت أن أنواع الأكسجین (OS) فإن الإجھاد التأكسديیمكن أن تؤدي إلى تأثیرات ضارة على مجموعة من معاییر الحیوانات المنویة. یمكن استخدام مراقبة مستویات (ROS) التفاعلیةفي أنظمة بیولوجیة مختلفة كمؤشر مھم على بیروكسید الدھون. لقد طور البشر نظام دفاع مضاد للأكسدة عالي التنظیم MDAقادر على الحد Glutathione مثل الجلوتاثیون (ROS) ومنظم لحمایة خلایا الجسم وأنظمة الجسم ضد أنواع الأكسجین التفاعلیةو بیروكسید الدھون . ROS من مستویاتو الجلوتاثیون (malondialdehyde)MDA كان الھدف من الدراسة ھو تحدید مستوى بیروكسید الشحوم كما ھو محدد من قبلفي المصل والبلازما المنویة للرجال ذات العقم غیر المفسر مقارنة مع الرجال الخصبین. Glutathioneالمصل والبلازما المنویة بشكل كبیر في مجموعات العقیم غیر المفسر (المدخن وغیر المدخنین) بالمقارنة مع MDA وجد زیادةالمصل والسائل المنوي) بشكل ملحوظ في ) Glutathione المجموعات الخصبة (المدخنة وغیر المدخنین). انخفض الجلوتاثیونمجموعات العقم (المدخن وغیر المدخنین) غیر المبررة بالمقارنة مع المجموعات الخصبة (المدخنة وغیر المدخنین). ویبدو أنالانخفاض في مستویات مضادات الأكسدة ھو أساسا نتیجة لزیادة الإجھاد التأكسدي.


Article
The effect of oxidative stress on semen parameters of normal & infertile men in Tikrit city
أثر الاكسدة على معايير السائل المنوي للرجل العادي والعقم في مدينة تكريت

Authors: Azzawi M. Had --- Dkhel Haussin Hadri --- Mossa M. Marbut موسى محمود، دخيل حسن ، عزاوي حادي
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2011 Volume: 1 Issue: 171 Pages: 1- 11
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Infertility is one of commonest disorders that effect young men and women. It is defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse. It affects 10–15 % of all couples. Apart from conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocele, cryptochildism, infection, obstructive lesion, trauma, tumors, and a new important cause was addressed and may be regarded as causative agents which are the oxidative stress and male infertility, oxidative stress a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant substance in body. Also, antioxidant capacities in spermatozoa and seminal plasma were lower in males who had infertility or sub fertility. Despite the common association between compromised sperm quality and oxidative damage, men are rarely screened for oxidative stress nor treated for this condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress and male infertility. The study conducted on 22 infertile men and 15 normal healthy fertile married subjects as control. All patients were married for at least two years and had no children. Study samples were obtained from infertile clinic in Tikrit teaching hospital from 1-11- 2009 to 1-9-2010. Semen specimens were collected from all patients and control subjects after at least 3 days of sexual abstains in sterile containers. Semen parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines (WHO Lab.). Zinc, Mg, MDA, and glutathione were determined in the blood serum & seminal fluid. There are a significant differences regarding ejaculate volume, sperm count, motility, normal & abnormal morphology between infertile men & control subjects. There is a significant different between infertile men & control subjects in regard to zinc concentration in semen. Also, there is a significant different between infertile men & control group in regard to Mg concentration in seminal fluid. Moreover, there is significant increase in semen glutathione in control fertile subjects as compare to infertile men.
There is significant reduction in semen MDA concentration of control subjects comparing with infertile men. There is significant reduction in serum glutathione in infertile men as compare control subjects. There is also, a significant increase in serum MDA in infertile men as compare to control subjects. There is no significant difference between infertile men & control subjects in regard to FSH concentrations in blood serum. There is no significant different between infertile men & control group in regard to LH concentrations in blood serum. The mean & SD values of serum testosterone in control subjects & infertile patients are 10.996±1.13 & 7.24±0.78. There are significant difference regarded serum testosterone between infertile men & control subjects.

العقم هو واحد من أشيع الاضطرابات التي أثر الرجال الشباب والنساء. ويعرف بأنه عدم القدرة على الحمل بعد 12 شهرا من الجماع دون موانع العادية. فإنه يؤثر على 10-15٪ من جميع الأزواج. وقد وجهت وبصرف النظر عن الأسباب التقليدية لعقم الرجال مثل دوالي الخصية، cryptochildism، العدوى، وآفة معرقلة، والصدمات النفسية، والاورام، وقضية جديدة مهمة ويمكن اعتبارها العوامل المسببة التي هي الاكسدة والعقم عند الذكور، الاكسدة نتيجة لل عدم التوازن بين أنواع الاكسجين التفاعلية (ريوس) ومادة مضادة للأكسدة في الجسم. أيضا، وكانت القدرات المضادة للأكسدة في الحيوانات المنوية والبلازما المنوية أقل من الذكور الذين لديهم العقم أو الخصوبة الفرعية. على الرغم من ارتباط مشترك بين نوعية الحيوانات المنوية للخطر والضرر التأكسدي، ونادرا ما يتم فحص الرجال للالاكسدة ولا يعامل لهذا الشرط. والهدف من هذه الدراسة هو البحث في العلاقة بين الاكسدة والعقم عند الذكور. في دراسة أجريت على 22 رجلا يعانون من العقم، و 15 صحي طبيعي خصبة المواضيع المتزوجة من السيطرة. كانت متزوجة جميع المرضى لمدة سنتين على الأقل وليس لديه أطفال. وقد تم الحصول على عينات الدراسة من عيادة العقم في مستشفى تكريت التعليمي from 1-11 - 2009 إلى 2010/1/9. وقد تم جمع عينات السائل المنوي من جميع المرضى والضابطة بعد 3 أيام على الأقل من الامتناع الجنسي في حاويات معقمة. وقد تم تحليل السائل المنوي وفقا لمعايير منظمة الصحة العالمية (WHO) المبادئ التوجيهية (منظمة الصحة العالمية مختبر). تم تحديد والزنك، والمغنيسيوم، نجمة داود الحمراء، والجلوتاثيون في السائل المنوي ومصل الدم. وهناك اختلافات كبيرة بشأن حجم السائل المنوي، عدد الحيوانات المنوية، الحركة، طبيعي وغير طبيعي التشكل بين الرجال يعانون من العقم والضابطة. هناك اختلافات معنوية بين الرجال يعانون من العقم والضابطة فيما يتعلق تركيز الزنك في السائل المنوي. أيضا، هناك اختلافات معنوية بين الرجال يعانون من العقم والمجموعة الضابطة في ما يتعلق تركيز المغنيسيوم في السائل المنوي. وعلاوة على ذلك، فإن هناك زيادة كبيرة في الجلوتاثيون المني في مراقبة المواد الخصبة مقارنة بالرجال القادرين على الإنجاب.
وهناك انخفاض كبير في تركيز المني من نجمة داود الحمراء الضابطة مقارنة مع الرجال يعانون من العقم. هناك انخفاض كبير في الجلوتاثيون مصل الدم لدى الرجال يعانون من العقم كما قارن بين الأشخاص الخاضعين للمراقبة. وهناك أيضا، إلى زيادة كبيرة في نجمة داود الحمراء في الدم لدى الرجال يعانون من العقم مقارنة كما للسيطرة على المواد الدراسية. ليس هناك فرق كبير بين الرجال يعانون من العقم والضابطة فيما يتعلق بتركيزات FSH في مصل الدم. ليس هناك اختلافات معنوية بين الرجال يعانون من العقم والمجموعة الضابطة في ما يتعلق تركيزات LH في مصل الدم. القيم المتوسطة والتنمية المستدامة من هرمون التستوستيرون المصل في الضابطة والمرضى يعانون من العقم هي 10.996 ± 1.13 و 7.24 ± 0.78. هناك فرق كبير التستوستيرون المصل يعتبر بين الرجال يعانون من العقم والضابطة


Article
Molecular Typing of Toxoplasma Gondii Isolated from Infertile Men and Its Effect on the Reproduction
التنميط الجزيئي للمقوسة الكونيدية المعزولة من الرجال الذين يعانون العقم ومدى تأثيره على الإنجاب

Authors: Nazar Sh. Mohammed نزارشياع محمد --- Farhan A. Risan فرحان عبود رسن --- Salwa S. Muhsin سلوى صبر محسن
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2018 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 - Part 1 Pages: 141-152
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Seminal fluid and blood samples were collated from sixty 20-60 years aged and attended Teba Center for Children and ICSI/ in Babylon Province during the period from 1st June 2016 to 1st February 2017. The same number of samples were also taken from 60 age matched apparently healthy individuals to act as a control group. Anti IgG levels were measured in the sera of both groups to detect the presence of Toxoplasma infection, while seminal fluid samples were examined to detect infertility. Toxoplasma gondii genotype was applied by using nested PCR to detect SAG2 gene. Gene sequencing technique infection was performed for detection occurrence of mutation in the mitochondria of the sperm. Results confirmed that the age group (20-40years) was significantly more prone P<0.05 to infective with T. gondii where the percentage of seropositivty was 65% (39 patients) while it was 35% (21 individuals) in the apparently healthy control group. Concerning the residence, there was a highly significant difference (P < 0.006) where the percentage of seropositivty was 68% in idiveduals living in rural areas while it was 32% among those living in the urban areas. Genotyping showed that presence in two strains of Toxoplasma which has been found in males infected with Toxoplasmosis. Type I was found in 10 persons (17%) while type II was found in 50 persons (83%) and the difference between two strains was significant (P<0.05). Oligospermia has recorded the highest number of positive cases among patients (92%; 55 cases), in comparison with negative cases (8%; 5 cases), Asthenospermia showed significant P<0.05 decrease (35%; 21 cases) in comparison with negative (65%; 39 cases). Mutation occurs with Oligospermia of both of types I and II of T. gondii strains in 2 cases only, which was found on DN2 gene with a highly significant P<0.01 difference of positive cases (3%; 2 cases), and negative cases (97%; 58 cases). The mutation in single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNP G4580A site, showed that G was converted to A that was recognized at nt 4580 in the ND2 region. This evolution was experiential in oligozoospermic samples (code 010830). This SNP is a synonymous substitution that occurred in the third position of methionine codon, changing the codon from ATG to ATA.

عينات السائل المنوي والدم تم جمعها من ستين من الرجال المرضى الذين كانوا يعانون العقم والمصابين بداء المقوسات والذين تتراوح أعمارهم ما بين 20-60 سنة والتي أخذت من مركز طيبة للأطفال والحقن المجهري / بابل خلال الفترة من 1 حزيران 2016 إلى شهر 1 تشرين الأول 2017. تم أخذ نفس العدد العينات أيضا من 60 من الأفراد الأصحاء كمجموعة سيطرة. تم فحص مصول كلا المجموعتين للتحري عن إصاباتهم بالمقوسة الكونيدية، في حين تم فحص عينات السائل المنوي للتحري عن حدوث العقم. وكذلك تم تطبيق التنيمط الجيني للمقوسة الكونيدية باستخدام تفاعل البلمرة المتداخل nPCR للكشف عن جين SAG2. وأيضاُ إجراء تقنية التتابع الجيني للكشف عن حدوث طفرة في التتابع الجيني لميتوكوندريا الحيوانات المنوية. وأكدت النتائج أن الفئة العمرية (20-40) كانت أكثر أستعداداً للأصابة بشكل معنوي P <0.05 بين المجموعة المدروسة حيث بلغت النسبة المئوية للايجابية المصلية لللأضداد النوعية للمقوسة الكونيدية 65٪ في حين بلغت مجموعة السيطرة 35٪، وكان هناك فرق معنوي عالي بين سكان الريف 68٪ والحضر 32٪، P < 0.006)) وفقا للإقامة. كما كان هناك فرق معنوي عالي جدا P < 0.001 بين النوع الثاني 50 (83٪)، وفقط 10 (17٪) من النوع الأول، P = 0.001. لسلالات المقوسة الكونيدية . وقد سجلت قلة النطاف Oligospermia أكبر عدد بين حالات المرضى 55 (92٪)، مقارنة مع الحالات السالبة 5 (8٪)، في حين أظهرت مجموعة وهن النطاف Asthenospermia بعدم وجود فرق معنوي 21 (35٪) مقارنة مع الحالات االسالبة 39 (65٪)، P <0.05. وقد حددت الدراسة ان هنالك حدوث طفرة مع حالة قلة النطاف Oligospermia من كلا نوعي السلالات الأول والثاني للمقوسة الكونيدية في 2 من الحالات فقط، والتي حددت على الجين DN2 مع فارق معنوي كبير P <0.01 2 (3٪)، بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة 58 (97٪). وكانت الطفرة في الموقع G4580A، وأظهرت الدراسة تحول الكوانين G إلى الأدنين A هذه الطفرة التي تم إثباتها في الموقع 4580 على الجين ND2. هذا التحول كان في عينات oligozoospermic (رمز 010830). للنيكليوتايدات المفردة تعددة الأشكال SNP والتغير الذي حصل في المركز الثالث من كودون ميثيونين، وتحول الكودون من ATG إلى ATA.

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