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Article
Monogenean Infections on Fishes from Darbandikhan Lake in Kurdistan Region, Iraq
الإصابات بديدان المونوجينيا على أسماك بحيرة دربنديخان في إقليم كوردستان، العراق

Authors: Younis S. Abdullah --- يونس صابر عبدالله --- Shamall M. A. Abdullah شمال محمد امين عبدالله
Journal: Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة البصرة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18175868 Year: 2013 Volume: Special Issue: 1 Pages: 117-131
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

A total of 226 freshwater fishes, belonging to 14 species, were collected from Darbandikhan Lake, southeast of Sulaimania city, Kurdistan region, Iraq, from March 2012 to the end of October 2012. The fishes were examined for monogeneans parasites. The study revealed the existence of 25 species of parasites including 20 species of Dactylogyrus, three species of Dogielius and two species of Gyrodactylus. Five species of these parasites (D. dyki, D. persis, D. mascomi, D. suchengtaii and G. molnari) were recorded for the first time in Iraq, and four species (D. barbiodies, D. formosus, D. lenkorani and G. sprostonae) were recorded in Kurdistan region. Also, some fish species were recorded as new hosts for some parasite species. The present study revealed that D. suchengtaii and D. carassobarbi had the highest prevalence f 100% and 90.90%, respectively in the lake.

تم جمع 226 سمكة تعود إلى 14 نوعاَ من الأسماك، جمعت من بحيرة دربنديخان، جنوب شرقي محافظة السليمانية، أقليم كوردستان العراق، خلال الفترة المحصورة بين شهر آذار 2012 وحتى نهاية شهر تشرين الأول 2012. فحصت الأسماك للتعرف على ديدان المونوجينيا التي تصيبها. أظهرت النتائج وجود 25 نوعاً من هذه الطفيليات، تضمنت 20 نوعا من الجنس Dactylogyrus وثلاثة أنواع من الجنس Dogielius ونوعين من الجنس Gyrogactylus. تم تسجيل خمسة أنواع من هذه الطفيليات لأول مرة في العــراق (D. dyki و D. persis و D. mascomai و D. suchengtaii و G .molnari), وتسجيل أربعة أنواع لأول مرة في إقليم كوردستان (D. barbiodies و D. formosus و D. lenkorani و G. sprostonae). كما تم تسجيل بعض أنواع الأسماك كمضيفات جديدة لبعض أنواع الطفيليات. بينت الدراسة الحالية أن Dactylogyrus suchengtaii و D. carassobarbi كانتا أكثر الطفيليات إنتشاراً في البحيرة بنسبة 100% و 90.90% على التوالي.


Article
Evidence-based health policymaking in Iraqi Kurdistan: Facilitators and barriers from the perspectives of policymakers and advisors
صنع السياسات الصحية القائمة على الأدلة في كوردستان العراق: الميسرون والحواجز من وجهة نظر صناع السياسات والمستشارين

Authors: Rod Sheaff --- Michael P. Fuller --- Namir G. Al-Tawil --- Sherzad Shabu
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2015 Volume: 19 Issue: 3 Pages: 1075-1083
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Evidence from research is underutilized in policy and practice in the majority of developing countries including Iraq. This aim of this study was to assess the role of research in health policy making in Iraqi Kurdistan context and identify the main barriers and facilitators for enhancing such role. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2013 and March 2014 in the three governorates of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Erbil, Duhok and Sulaimaniyah. The study participants included 10 key health informants and three health advisors. Two types of combined questionnaires for health policy makers and health advisors were used for data collection.Results: Conferences and seminars were the main sources of scientific evidences identified by health policymakers (80%), followed by consultants (70%). Different jargons/discourse was the main obstacle in consulting researchers (90%), followed by lack of tradition in collaborating (70%). Collection of specialists/advisors, followed by professional associations, scientific committees and international organizations/UN agencies were the main groups identified by health advisors to build bridges between the scientific community and policymakers.Conclusion: Policymakers very rarely consult researchers directly in their decision making. There is poor networking among researchers, policy-makers, practitioners and representatives from civil society which has its negative impact on evidence-based policymaking. There is obviously a lack of any sort of program of funded research that can inform policymaking.

Keywords

Health policy --- Kurdistan region --- Erbil --- Iraq


Article
Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Hawler Medical University Students
انتشار تدخين السجائر بين طلاب جامعة هولير الطبية

Authors: Khalis Bilal M.Ali --- Abubakir M. Saleh --- Samir Mahmood
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 57-62
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing countries. This study estimates the prevalence of smoking and assesses the socio-demographic correlates of smoking among Hawler Medical University students in Erbil city.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted during March - April 2007 on 600 students in Hawler Medical University. A systematic stratified sampling method was used. A special questionnaire was used. Data on age and sex of the students, name of college, number of cigarette smoked per day, and age of starting smoking were obtained.Results: out of the 587 respondents, 72 students were smokers giving a prevalence rate of 12.3%.The prevalence of smokers were much higher in males than females (23.9% and 1.9%, respectively). The highest rate of smokers was among the age group 24-26 year in both sexes. 50% of students started smoking at the age of 18-22 years.Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking is comparatively higher taking into consideration that the study was conducted on students of medical and allied health sciences and that more than half of students started smoking during study years. The study recommends integrating health awareness programmes about smoking hazards in the medical education curriculum.


Article
The reality of tourism in the Kurdistan region of Iraq for the period (2007-2014)
واقع السياحة في إقليم كوردستان العراق للمدة (2007-2014)

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Abstract

Kurdistan Region has multiple tourist and complementary rarely What we find together in one Region or state,Of rivers, forests, diverse climate all year round province, That can make them a new tourist destination, In spite of the provision of the Kurdistan Region on many tourism potential, but the tourism sector indicators remain far from the value of,And the importance of those resources that are available, and this situation necessitate a rethink in the tourism sector.Through this research was reached several conclusions, one of the important a large deficit in the tourist offer was, as well as lack of interest in tourism marketing.The research found a set of proposals was the most important of which is the development of clear investment plan in the field of tourism and encourage the private sector to invest in the tourism sector in order to develop it.

يتمتع إقليم كوردستان بمقومات سياحية متعددة ومتكاملة نادرا ما نجدها مجتمعة في إقليم واحد أو دولة، من أنهار، غابات، ومناخ متنوع على مدار السنة ....، التى يمكن أن تجعل منها وجهة سياحية جيدة، وعلى الرغم من ذلك تبقى مؤشرات القطاع السياحى بعيدة كل البعد عن قيمة وأهمية تلك الموارد المتوفرة، وهذه الوضعية تستدعى إعادة التفكير في القطاع السياحي.ومنخلال هذا البحثتمالتوصلإلىاستنتاجاتعدة،كانمنأهمها وجود عجز كبير في العرض السياحى وكذلك عدم الاهتمام بالتسويق السياحي.كماتوصلالبحثإلىمجموعةمنالمقترحاتكانمنأهمهاهي وضع خطة استثمارية واضحة في مجال السياحةوتشجيع قطاع الخاص للاستثمار في القطاع السياحي من اجل تطويره.


Article
ACNE VULGARIS: THE PREVALENCE, SEVERITY AND THE ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN A DISTRICT OF KURDISTAN REGION/ IRAQ
حب الشباب: معدل الانتشار والشدة والعوامل المقترنه بهما

Authors: ZEYAD S. AL-DABBAGH زياد صميم الدباغ --- SAMIM A. AL-DABBAGH صميم أحمد الدباع --- KAMIL R. F. CHALKY كامل جلكي
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2016 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-68
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder among secondary school students. It is frequently complained by students in our locality without being properly studied. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and severity of acne vulgaris and factors affecting them among secondary school students in a district of Kurdistan Region, Iraq.Methods: A cross sectional design was performed. A multistage random sample of 575 secondary school students of both genders selected from 6988 students in Amedi district/ Duhok Governorate. All Students were clinically examined and interviewed for data collection regarding socio- demographic variables of age, gender, ethnicity, residence and family income. Also information was collected regarding parental history of acne, self excoriative behavior and make up use among females. Their nutritional status was measured by the body mass index. The severity of acne was assessed by using Global Acne Grading system. Data were collected and analyzed by using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 22).Results: The results revealed prevalence rates of 71.7% and 87.8% by self–reporting and by clinical examination respectively. The mild, moderate and severe forms were found respectively in 90.8%, 9% and 0.2% of students diagnosed with acne vulgaris. Papules and comedones were the most prominent acne lesions. No statistically significant associations were detected between prevalence or severity of acne vulgaris and socio demographic factors of age, gender, ethnicity, residence and body mass index. Family history of acne vulgaris was significantly associated with severity (p <0.05) but not with the prevalence (p>0.5). Conclusions: The study demonstrated a high prevalence of acne vulgaris with substantial genetic role in the severity of the disease.

حب الشباب: معدل الانتشار والشدة والعوامل المقترنه بهما


Article
Types of Anaemia and its Correlation with Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis among Kurdish Population of Iraq

Authors: Hisham A. Getta --- Najmaddin Khoshnaw --- Alaa Fadhil Alwan --- Sundus F.A --- et al.
Journal: Iraq Joural of Hematology المجلة العراقية لامراض الدم ISSN: 20728069/25432702 Year: 2016 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 114-128
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune diseasecharacterized by articular and extra-articular manifestation as weight loss, fatigue, malaise, andanemia.Objectives: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of different types of anemia and itscorrelation with the disease activity among patients with RA in Sulaymaniyah province and todetermine the associated risk factors.Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study carried out in Sulaymaniyah general medicalHospital for periods from October-2014 to the end of June-2015.A convenient sample of 100rheumatoid arthritis patients were selected from patients seen in the rheumatology clinic. Onehundred healthy voluntary controls of same age groups were selected and same parameters fordiagnosis of anemia are used in both groups.Results: The prevalence of all types of anemias among the rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patientswas 40% which more than that found in control group. The common types of anemia was anemiaof chronic disease (28%), iron deficiency (10%), thalassemia minor (1%), and megaloblasticanemia 1%. We found a significant correlation of RA with each low hemoglobin, low hematocrit,high leucocyte count and high ESR. Anemia among RA patients in our study was significantlymore prevalent among low socioeconomic status patients. The majority of RA patients hadmoderately or high active disease, which revealed no association between disease activity andanemia (p value=0.3).Conclusion: the prevalence and types of anemias among RA patients in Sulaymaniyah wascomparable to that found in other studies and it was two times common than the normal healthypeoples. In our study we concluded that little evidence found between disease activity andanemia.


Article
PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT AMONG CHILDREN IN DUHOK, KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ
معدل الانتشار و عوامل الخطورة للسمنة وزيادة الوزن لدى الأطفال في دهوك, أقليم كوردستان-العراق

Authors: ARY H. MOHAMMED اري حبيب محمد --- SAMIM A. AL-DABBAGH صميم احمد الدباغ
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2009 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 92-105
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Background There has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among children in several developing countries, having resulted in an increase of potentially severe medical and psychological complications, in addition of being a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Despite that, few studies have been conducted in Iraq in general and Kurdistan Region in specific.Objectives The aim of this study is to compute the prevalence of obesity and overweight in children in Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, and to assess factors leading to these conditions. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional community based study design was adopted for this study which was performed during a 4 month period in 2006. Body mass index (BMI) cut-off points defining obesity and overweight were applied. A total of 820 children in the age group of 2-8 years were included from thirty administrative sectors of Duhok city chosen randomly by multistage cluster sampling. Information about risk factors was obtained by direct interview of parents. Results the present study shows that the prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age) were 8.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Significant association was found between obesity/overweight status and the following factors: number of main meals and snacks per day, frequency of consumption of fried foods, fatty dairy products, soft drinks, sweets and meat, low level of physical activity and parental overweight status. No significant associations were found, however, with parental level of education, socio-economic status, and main type of feeding during infancy.Recommendations Authors recommend that more attention should be paid by health authorities to this important health problem including the endorsement of a well designed preventive program.

الخلفية: هناك تزايد سريع في معدل انتشار السمنة و زيادة الوزن لدى الطفال في بعض الدول النامية, مع زيادة نسبة المضاعفات الصحية والنفسية الشديدة المصاحبة لها. اضافة الى زيادة نسبة الاصابة و الوفاة عند البلوغ. بالرغم من ذلك هناك عدد قليل من الدراسات التي اجريت حول هذا الموضوع في العراق بشكل عام و في أقليم كوردستان بشكل خاص.الأهداف: يهدف هذا البحث الى دراسة معدل انتشار السمنة و زيادة الوزن لدى الطفال في مدينة دهوك بأقليم كوردستان-العراق, اضافة الى دراسة عوامل الخطورة لها.المواد والطرق: تم تطبيق نمط الدراسة المقطعية لهذا البحث و اجرى في مدة أربعة أشهر من عام 2006. استخدم البحث مقياس معامل كتلة الجسم BMI لتعريف السمنة و زيادة الوزن. تم شمل 820 طفل من الفئة العمرية 2-8 سنة في هذا البحث من ثلاثين منطقة ادارية في مدينة دهوك أُختيرت بطريقة الاعتيان العشوائي المتعدد المراحل. أُخذت المعلومات المتعلقة بعوامل الخطورة عن طريق المقابلة المباشرة مع الوالدين.النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة بأن معدل انتشار زيادة الوزن والسمنة لدى الأطفال كانت 8,3٪ و 7,9٪ على التوالي. وجد ارتباط معنوي بين زيادة الوزن لدى الأطفال و العوامل التالية: عدد مرات تناول الوجبات الرئيسية والبينية يومياً, كثرة تناول الأغذية الدهنية والمقلية, المشروبات الغازية, الحلويات واللحوم, مستوى النشاط البدني وكذلك زيادة وزن الوالدين. كما ولم يوجد ارتباط معنوي مع المستوى التعليمي والثقافي للوالدين, المستوى المعيشي والاقتصادي, والنمط الرئيسي للرضاعة.التوصيات: توصي الدراسة بان تولي السلطات الصحية مشكلة زيادة الوزن لدى الأطفال أهمية أكبر مع اعتماد برنامج وقائي جيد التصميم.


Article
An outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis among internally displaced persons from the Nineveh governorate reported by Duhok Preventive Health Department from 2015 to 2017

Authors: Berivan O. Rashid --- Zeyad S. Al-Dabbagh --- Sirwan M. Aswad --- Samim A. Al-Dabbagh --- et al.
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2020 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 153-159
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iraq, mainly in central and southern regions. The disease is, however, lower or rare in Kurdistan region of Iraq; which is situated to the north of the country. After the summer of 2014, there was a massive displacement of population to Kurdistan, mainly from the central region. The aim of this work was to investigate the outbreak reported by Duhok preventive health department among internally displaced persons from Ninewa to Duhok governorate between 2015-2017.Methods: A cross sectional study design was conducted on the records of internally displaced persons from Nineveh governorate who were diagnosed clinically as cutaneous leishmaniasis by Duhok health authority. Information regarding age, gender, occupation, places of current residency, expected vector exposure, displacement date and status, number of lesions, and date of onset.Results: A total of 451cases were reported during the study period. The mean age was 22.7±17.1 years, and about 69% of cases were in the age group of 5-44 years. The mean number and SD of lesions was 3.6 (±4.2), with a range of 1-35lesions. Three quarter of patients were off camps during diagnosis. Cases were mainly encountered in autumn. All, except 17, have suspected vector exposure outside Duhok governorate. No significant variation was noted regarding gender, age, occupation, urban/rural residency, and displacement status.Conclusion: A significant outbreak has occurred in Duhok, an area not known to be endemic with the disease. Close surveillance and strict preventive measures are highly recommended.


Article
Anemia & sociodemography in Gall stone patients in Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan R. Iraq

Authors: Fadladdin N. Shakor --- Faraidoon F. Askander --- Chro Husein Aziz
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit University المجلة الطبية لجامعة تكريت ISSN: 18131638 Year: 2020 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-62
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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ABSTRACT Background: Background: Gallstones (GS) are the most common biliary pathology. Socio-demography risks differ from place to another and generally anemia is not a clear predisposing factor for most of cholelithiasis.The Aim: to explore the association between GS patients with sociodemography & anemia .Patients and Methods: The present prospective study was conducted from July 2018 to December 2018 in the private surgical clinic in collaboration with hematological section of Nwa medical laboratory .One hundred sixty five patients were included in the study. Collected data noted in pre designed form including history, physical examination, Body mass index (BMI), Complete Blood Count. Patients with low hemoglobin (Hb) levels sent for peripheral blood film examination to hematopathologist to detect types of anemia. Ultrasonography (U.S.) for number & size of the stones are performed. Gallstone incidence according to other factors was analyzed. All statistical analysis was performed with the use of Statistical Package for Soscial Science (SPSS) version 23.0 software.Result: Gallstones was three times more common in females & in the middle of fourth decade of life. Nine in ten were above normal BMI and 2/3 of the patients were pre-obese and obese. One fifth has hypertension. Married ladies with parity were 93%, those with more than 3 children forms half of married ladies. Sonographically 2/3 of the patients had multiple stones. The Mean Hemoglobin ±SD. was 13.0 ±1.72 gm/dl. (8.2 -17).Peripheral blood film examination for the anemic patients 43 (26%) showed hypochromic microcytic anemia (58%), followed by normochromic normocytic anemia (35%) and no case of hemolytic anemia. Conclusion: Female sex, age, High body mass index, occupation, education, parity & hypochromic microcytic anemia are risk factors for Gallstone formation in our community. Some of these risks can be treated & prevented.


Article
Larger Foraminifera (Foraminifera) from the Former Qulqula Conglomerate Formation, Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq
الفورامنيفيرا الکييرة الکبيرة (الفيولينيدى، سورتيدي و نيوميو ليتيدي) ضمن تکوين قلقلة المدملکاتي السابق، اقليم کردستان، شمال شرق العراق

Author: Imad M. GhaforMushir M. Qadir عماد محمود غفور مشير مصطفى قادر
Journal: Iraqi National Journal of Earth Science المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الارض ISSN: 16823222 Year: 2009 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-54
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The most recent studies reformed the occurrence of Qulqula Conglomerate Formation where they combined with Red Bed Series. The present palaeontological study, in the type locality, aids the recognition of the formation. Twenty species from the three families of Alveolinidae, Soritidae and Nummulitidae are described and figured from the former Qulqula Conglomerate Formation (present Red Bed Series) in Kurdistan Region, Northeastern Iraq. These assemblages indicate the age of the source area as Late Paleocene _ Middle Eocene age. The vertical and lateral distributions of the assemblages are discussed. The pebbles and boulders that bearing the recognized assemblages are derived by erosion from the source area (affiliated to Walash _ Naoperdan Group) and deposited during later ages (younger ages) that more likely they deposited during Late Eocene age

معظم الدراسات الحديثة دمجت تواجد تكوين قلقلة المدملكاتى مع سلسلة الطبقات الحمراء، . الدراسة الحالية تؤيد هذا الدمج, وعليه تم دراسة ثلاثة عوائل تابعة للفورامينفرا القاعية ا لكبيرة. تم تشخيص 20 نوعاَ داخل الحصى والجلاميد المتواجدة ضمن تكوين قلقلة المدملكاتى تعود الى عمر الباليوسين المتاخر – _ الايوسين الاوسط. ان دراسة التوزيع الافقى و العامودى للحصى والجلاميد الحاملة للفورامنيفرا القاعية الكبيرة تشير الى كونها قد تعرت من الصخور المصدرية (بعمر الباليوسين المتاخر– _ الايوسين الاوسط) والتى قد تكون صخور مجموعة والا ش نوبردان, وترسبت ضمن صخور ما يسمى تكوين قلقلة المدملكاتى خلال الا يوسين المتاخر او ما بعد ذالك.

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