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Article
Nickel Recovery From Residue of Heavy Oil Using Nitric Acid

Authors: Khalid M. Mousa --- Fouad A. A. Al-saady --- May E. Mahmood
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2011 Volume: 136 Issue: 3 rd Pages: 87-96
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

The fly ash of the residue of fired power station contains percentage of some valuable material. Their recovery is important regarding the environmental limitations and economically .The process of nickel recovery from ash using nitric acid was conducted. The effect of temperature ,acid concentration and time was studied and the limiting step was found .

Keywords

nickel --- leaching --- ash


Article
Effect of leaching with magnetized water on three saline soils

Authors: Khalida Abdul-Karim Hassan --- Farhad Ali Hashim Sarwar Mohammed Rasheed Ahmed
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2019 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 19-27
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

A column experiment was conducted to investigate the efficiency of magnetized water on leaching individual ions from saline soils. The study involved three different saline soils ranging between 38.14-85.91 dS.m-1 leached with magnetized water (MW) or non-magnetized well water (WW). Treatments in triplicate were arranged and successive effluents were collected and analyzed. Results showed that EC decreased to 2.99–3.29 dS.m-1 mostly during the first two volumes and was greater under MW treatment. Higher amount of Na+ was leached under the first three volumes, but later the decrease was small. Amount of Na+ leached was higher from S1 followed by S2 then S3. Sodium (Na+) decreased from 718.58, 549.03 and 419.85 mmolc L-1 for S1, S2 and S3, respectively to less than 50 mmolc L-1 at PV5. Calcium (Ca+2) and magnesium (Mg+2) concentrations decreased then followed by increase at the last pore volume. Most of chloride (Cl-) removal from the soil was during PV1, indicating that the source of Cl- was highly soluble salts. Magnetic water treatment proved to be efficient in leaching salts.


Article
STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF LEACHING ON TREATED GYPSUM-RICH SOIL

Author: Ali Nasir Ibrahim
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 162-173
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This wok focus on improving the permeability properties of gypseous soil by mixing the soil with three types of stabilizer materials, which are silicone oil, sodium silicate and bentonite. Four soil samples were prepared, first untreated soil, second mixture of 70% gepseous soil and 30% silicone oil, third mixture of 70% gypseous soil and 30% sodium silicate and forth mixture of 70 % gypseous soil and 30% bentonite . The leaching tests were conducted for all prepared soil using oedometer-permeability leaching device. The results show that the coefficient of permeability decreases with increasing of time, dissolved gypsum and leaching strain, this may attribute to the fact that the stabilizer materials fill the pores that produce from gypsum dissolution after leaching, thus in turn reduce the water fluctuate in the soil which minimize the gypsum dissolution.On the other hand the stabilizer materials work as an impermeable layer to prevent direct contact of water and gypsum particles. Where the leaching strain increases with increasing of dissolved gypsum as the leaching process continues. This behavior may be attributed to the continuous dissolution of gypsum that causes correspond a continuous settlement. Also leaching strain increases with void ratio increasing as the leaching process continue, where the continuous gypsum dissolution leads to increase in void ratio due to presence of pores. The treated gypseoussoil has less void ratio in comparison to untreated soil, due to reduction in gypsum dissolution for treated gypseous soil and thus in turn reduces leaching strain. Sodium silicate shows high efficiency in reducing coefficient of permeability compared to silicone oil and bentonite.


Article
LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF GYPSEOUS SOILS

Authors: Yasir Mawla Al-Badran --- Ahmed Abd Al-Azal Al-Mufty --- Isam Hamed Nashat
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (Part-5) Pages: 119-126
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The construction of many major projects is located on many areas of gypseous soils in Iraq, which present about 20 % of Iraqi land. In many projects buildings on gypseous soils suffered from cracks, tilting, collapse and leaching the soil, because by dissolution of gypsum. The collapse of gypseous soil can be divided into two types, first, the soaking collapse, which is caused by soaking the dry soil or partly saturated soil with water, and under specific pressure, without flow of water, second, the leaching collapse, which caused by flow of water through the soil under any specific. The major purpose of this research is to investigate the leaching collapse and permeability of gypseous soils. Undisturbed block samples of a gypseous soil were obtained from Al-Tharthar area, Iraq. The gypsum content was found to be about 75%. An experimental investigation was made through carrying out several series of tests on these samples. Also, a series of leaching tests were carried out using special oedometer cells at different stresses. Results of leaching tests showed that the strains due to leaching would be higher if the OCR equal to 1. When the OCR exceeds unity, an increase in void ratio occurs and leaching strains become insignificant.


Article
Optimization for leaching kinetics of vanadium pentoxide from thermal power plants fly ash using Taguchi approach

Authors: Mohammed Jasim Kadhim --- Mohammed Hliyil Hafiz --- Rania Ali Abbas
Journal: Dijlah Journal مجلة دجلة ISSN: 44446583 Year: 2019 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 39-46
Publisher: Dijlah University College كلية دجلة

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Abstract

In order to reduce the environmental impact due to land disposal of heavy oil fly ash from ther- mal power plants and to valorize this waste material, recovery of vanadium was investigated using leaching processes (alkaline leaching). The recovery of vanadium has been adjusted via two stages. The first stage done was the thermal treatment process (burning process) at 650 and 850°C in order to reduce the carbonaceous fraction. The second stage established was the selection of sodium hydroxide for vanadium leaching. It was found to be the more selective for vanadium versus other transition metals is with addition of different percentage of sodium carbonate. Addition of sodium carbonate was found to be effective oxidant agent to increase the leaching efficiency. The optimal leaching solution was 80%vol. NaOH + 20%vol. Na2CO3. Taguchi design of experiments was applied to determine the optimum conditions for vanadium leaching. These are 4 M concentration, 2 h leaching time, 100:1 liquid to solid ratio.

Keywords

Vanadium --- Heavy fuel --- Fly ash --- Leaching --- Recovery


Article
Reduction of Iraqi Sand to Produce Silicon with High Purity

Authors: Sami I. J. Al-rubaiey, --- Zahraa M. Abd Ali
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2020 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 98-105
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This study deals with extraction of silicon from Iraqisand. The sand was supplied by State Company forMining Industries from Um-Erdhuma Formation in AnbarProvince. It is found that Iraqi sand has 98% of silica(SiO₂).Pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy processeswere applied for extraction of silicon by reduction andleaching respectively. Reduction was carried out in analumina crucible by using magnesium powder withparticle size of 75μm as reducing agent under argon gas.Several parameters were studied to determine the bestresults that affected the extraction of silicon. Theseparameters involved the reduction temperatures(750,850,950) ̊C and ratio of Mg/SiO₂ (2:1, 2.5:1,3:1).The best conditions for the reduction of Iraqi sand toproduce silicon were, at 850 ̊C, 2:1 Mg/SiO₂ with 99.3%purity and at 950 ̊C, 3:1 Mg/SiO₂ with 99.2 %purity.Leaching processes were done for purification ofproduced silicon by using 4:1 volume ratio of 4M HCland 4M CHᴈCOOH respectively for one hour at 70 ̊C.Additional purification step was done by using H₂SO₄acid, which was diluted by 1:4 ratio for three hours at100 ̊C.


Article
Cement Based Solidification/Stabilization Leaching Performances of Selected Heavy Metal Ions under Different pH Extractions

Authors: Basim A. Hussain --- Shahlaa E. Ebrahim --- Abbas H. Sulaymon
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2019 Volume: 37 Issue: 2 Part (c) special Pages: 268-247
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

bstract- Liquid to solid partitioning as a function of pH leachingProcedure LSP EPA method 1313 was carried out to test theeffectiveness , performance and efficiency of the cement-basedsolidification / stabilization (S/S) of heavy metals contaminated sandsamples using Ordinary Portland Cement OPC type A . Two cementbased mix designs ( 7 and 25 % ) have been applied to (S/S) sandcontaminated samples with different heavy metal ions ( Pb , Cu , Cr , andCd ) having the following concentrations ( 500 , 1500 and 3000 mg / kg). Fixed water to cement ratio of 0.45 was maintained for all theexperiments. Effective retention levels for the heavy metal ions wasachieved using a 25 % OPC mix ratio to (S/S) the contaminated sampleseven when the extraction solutions were of pH levels as low as 2.Leaching experiments showed that as the pH level of the extractionsolution is reduces and as the OPC content in the (S/S) samples is reducedthe more heavy metal ions that can leach out. Up to 80 % of chromium,cadmium, lead, and copper ions leachability can be prevented whenhigher cement content is introduced to the solidification / stabilizationprocess under the same pH extraction. Acidic extraction effects andsolubilized the Calcium – Silica – Hydrate (C-S-H) gel that is created bythe OPC binder, which holds, and contain the heavy metal ions and thusresults in more release of those ions into the extraction solutions. Thealkaline environments provided by the cement binder are believed to haveparticipated in the precipitation of several metal ions such as cadmiumand lead io, leading to their less detection in the leaching extracts.Alkaline extraction experiments (pH 8-13) showed that the mobility of themetal ions under the same experimental conditions followed the order ofpb> Cr > Cu > Cd in samples of various cement contents


Article
Leaching Behavior of Gypseous Soils

Authors: Ala N. Al-Jorany --- Yousif J. Al-Shakarchi --- Mahdi O. Karkush
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 3077-3089
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A series of laboratory tests were carried out on disturbed soil samples containing different gypsum contents. The soil samples were obtained from al-Jazeera south-west of Iraq. Tests were performed to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. In addition; permeability-leaching tests were conducted by using oedometer and large-scale Rowe cell apparatus to obtain the variation of the coefficient of permeability, dissolved gypsum and leaching strain with time. All samples were tested under similar conditions, e.g. the hydraulic gradient, vertical stress and leaching period. The soil samples designated N1, N2, and N3 are obtained from depths (0.5-0.75), (1.0-1.25), and (3.25-3.5) m and having gypsum content (31.43), (51.37), and (4.86) percentage respectively. Results of experimental work show that the coefficient of permeability, the percentages of dissolved gypsum and leaching strain measured from the oedometer test are higher than that measured from large-scale Rowe cell test for the same soil sample. The gypseous soil with higher gypsum content exhibited significant amount of leaching strain.

اجريت سلسلة من الفحوص المختبرية على عينات مشوشة من التربة ذات محتوى جبسي مختلف. تم الحصول عليالعينات من منطقة الجزيرة جنوب-غرب العراق. تم اجراء الفحوص الرئيسية للخواص الفيزياوية والميكانيكية لعينات التربة لغرض تصنيفها والاستفادة من نتائج هذه الفحوص في تفسير تصرف التربة إثناء عملية غسل الأملاح القابلة للذوبان من التربة. بالإضافة إلى ذلك تم أجراء فحص النفاذية-الغسل باستخدام جهاز الاوديوميتر وخلية رو ذات القياس الكبير لغرض حساب تغيير معامل النفاذية ونسبة الجبس المذاب وانفعال الغسل مع الزمن. تم فحص جميع العينات تحت نفس الظروف من الإجهاد العمودي والانحدار الهيدروليكي وفترة الغسل. استخدمت ثلاثة عينات من التربة في هذه الفحوص وتم ترقيمها 1N و2N و3N والمستخرجة من الأعماق (0.75-0.5), (1.25-1.0) و (3.5- 3.25) متر وذات محتوى جبسي (31.43), (51.37) و ((4.86 بالمائة على التوالي. إن معامل النفاذية ونسبة الجبس المذاب وانفعال الغسل التي تم الحصول عليها من فحص الاوديوميتر هي أعلى من تلك التي تم الحصول عليها من فحص خلية رو. هذا وان الانفعال بالغسل كبير في التربة ذات المحتوى الجبسي العالي.


Article
PREDICATION COLLAPSE OF GYPSEOUS SOILS DUE TO WETTING
تخمين انهياريه التربة الجبسية بواسطة الغمر

Authors: Baydaa Hussien Moula --- Namir K. Al- Saoudi
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2010 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 157-164
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

The gypseous soils are considered as one type of collapsible soils ; this is because the gypsum present between the soil particles provides an apparent cementation in the form of bonds that tightened the soil particles together. Upon wetting , these bonds are lost gradually leading to the collapse phenomena.The collapsibility of gypseous soils may occur under conditions that of flowing water, the flowing water will tend to wash salts present in the soil particles.The collapsing behavior of this type of soil generally occurs when the water is introduced into the soil . technically , the collapsible soil obtains some of its strength from cemented / bonding between the soil particles . in the arid region / Middle East , the Aeolian sand which was loosely placed, and upon some cementation , process may become a collapsible soil (high strength when it is dry ) . some cracking of building in this region , however, may be attributed to the introduction of water / moisture after the building is occupied .i.e. settlement of the soil after water is introduced via gardening , drainage, cooking water, bath, sewer line, septic bed, ect., from this research we get that the greater the collapse potential , the greater is the collapse and the damage to structures built on such soils. The soils with Cp less than 1 generally cause no problems to foundations . for Cp =1 to 5 , these will be moderate trouble to the foundation. For Cp≥5 , these there would be trouble if precautions are not taken in the design and construction.

تعتبر الترب الجبسية إحدى أنواع الترب الانهيارية وذلك لاحتوائها على نسب عالية من مادة الجبس والذي يعطيها قوة وترابط بين ذراتها فعند الغمر سوف تفقد هذا الترابط تدريجيا مؤديا حدوث ظاهرة الانهيار .انهياريه تلك الترب تحدث نتيجة لجريان الماء فيها عن طريق رش الحدائق , البزل , مياه الطبخ , الحمامات وأنابيب المياه الصحي والذي يسبب غسل الأملاح الموجودة بين ذراتها مسببا التصدعات في الأبنية الموجودة على تلك الترب في تلك الأماكن. على الرغم من أبداء تلك الترب مقاومة عالية عندما تكون جافة كما هو حال الترب الموجودة في المناطق الجافة والشرق الأوسطية, إن النتائج التي تم استحصالها في هذا البحث أن تربة ذات انهياريه عالية أذا كانت قيمة طاقة الانهيار C.P. عالية, حيث تم حصر قيمها بين 1-5 % وتم اعتبار الترب ذات C.P≥5 ترب ذات مشاكل مما يستدعي اتخاذ الاحتياطات اللازمة في التصميم والإنشاء عليها


Article
Study Of The Chemical Durability And Hazardous Ionic Leaching Of(Soda-Lime) Glas
دراسة المتانة الكيماوية وضرر النضوح الأيوني لزجاج الصودا - لايم

Authors: Sanaa A. A. Hafad --- Abd al khalaq F. Hammod --- Huda A. Hussain
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 15 Pages: 2751-2759
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Huge amounts of glass materials being applied in medical, pharmaceuticaland chemical aqueous solutions; this requires the study of chemical stability of glass at the exposed surfaces with these solutions where the leaching takes place. The leaching of the glass ions will transport these ions to the solutions stored in the glass containers; leading to changes in the chemical composition in the order of part per million that causes hazardous effect with time. The present work investigates the leaching chemical properties of the soda-lime Iraqi glass containers. The effect of the pH of contact solution andannealing of glass on leaching rates is studied. Ionic leaching shows lower rate with PH of the solutions at the ‘safe zone’: (6>PH>8.5). Annealing increases the leaching rates and reduces of the chemical durability of glass. Increasing annealing time led to further increase the leaching rate. In addition, the increase in the exposed surface area also increases leaching rates.

أن المدى الواسع لتطبيقات المواد الزجاجية في أساليب حفظ المحاليل الطبيةوالصيدلانية و الكيماوية يتطلب دراسة مدى الثباتية الكيماوية لايونات الشبيكة الزجاجية المكونة لهذا النوع من الزجاج وذلك من خلال التماس الحاصل بين المحاليل الكيماوية والسطوح الزجاجية المعرضة لمثل هذه المحاليل محدثة نضحا أيونيا . أن هذا النضح سيؤدي إلى انتقال تلك الايونات إلى المحاليل المخزونة مما يغير في التركيب الكيماوي لتلك المحاليل ولو بنسبة جزء من المليون , ولكن تأثيرها سيكون مؤثرا بصورة سلبية بمرور الزمن .يتعرض العمل الحالي الى تشخيص الخواص الكيمياوية لزجاج الاواني العراقيةالمصنوع من (الصودا–لايم) حيث تم دراسة تصرف النضح الايوني للزجاج وتأثير الدالة الحامضية والقاعدية للمحلول المسبب للنضح ,وأثر المعاملة الحرارية للزجاج على معدلات النضح الايوني لايونات لشبيكة الزجاجية وتبين من خلال النتائج إن النضح الايوني يكون في 8.5 ). وقد تغير - أقل مدياته عند قيم الدالة الحامضية التي تبتعد عن المنطقة الامنة مابين ( 6 معدل النضح وأزداد بشكل كبير لمديات الدالة الحامضية التي هي أقل من 6 أو القاعدية التيهي أعلى من 8.5 , وكذلك أدت المعاملة الحرارية (التلدين) الى زيادة معدل النضح وقللت من المتانة الكيمياوية للزجاج , وأن الزيادة في زمن المعاملة الحرارية قد زاد من معدلات النضحز كما أن الزيادة في المساحة السطحية المعرضة قد أدت الى زيادة معدل النضح .

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