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Article
SYNTHESIS OF MUTUAL PRODRUG OF P-AMINO SALICYLIC ACID

Authors: Ahmed D. Jassim --- Ahlam J. Qasir
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 7-13
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is one of the most widespread disease in the world, and can be deadly in patientswith AIDS worldwide. The course of treatment is long (3-9) months, often need combinationtherapy to decrease microbial resistance, some of these drugs have serious side effects andundesirable physicochemical properties like, gastric irritation, short T1/2 (pas), hepatic toxicity andextensive metabolism by the liver (INH), through N-acetyl transferase enzyme.So by using this approach we hope reduction of gastrointestinal toxicity of PAS and reductionof intestinal acetylation of Isoniazid. This drug was synthesized by amidation of free amine groupof INH with free carboxyl group of glycine from one side and amidation of carboxyl group of PASafter protection of it, and amino group of glycine from other side, here amidation was done by usingcoupling agent (DCC) using conventional solution method and it was identified by the followingmethods: melting point, thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and theelemental analysis(CHN). The synthesized compound showed better partition coefficient comparedwith the original apromoiety (PAS,INH).

أن مرض التدرن هو احد الأمراض المنتشرة عالميا وباستطاعته أن يفتك بالأشخاص المصابين بمرض العوزالمناعي أن مدة العلاج غالبا ما تكون طويلة تتراوح من3 اشهر إلى 9 أشهر و تحتاج إلى مزيج من العلاجاتلتقليل مقاومة البكتريا.أن البعض من هذه العلاجات تحملتأثيرات جانبية خطرة و خواص فيزوكمياوية غير مرغوبفيها مثل حامض الباراامينوسالسلك يعمل على تخدش جدارالمعدة والمثال الأخر هو الايزونيازيد الذي يعمل على تسممالكبد وتأثره السريع بعمليات الايض بواسطة أنزيم(إن-استيل ترانسفريس). لذلك باستخدام هذه الطريقة نتوقعالتقليل من تأثير الباراامينوسالسلك أسد على جدار المعدةواختزال عمليات الايض السريع للايزونيازايد.ان المركب المخلق صنع على شكل مركب امايدبواسطة ربط مجموعة ألامين الحرة للايزونيازايد معمجموعة الكاربوكسيل من الطرف الأول للحمض الكلايسينوربط مجموعة الكاربوكسيل لحامض الباراامينوسالسلك معمجموعة ألامين للطرف الثاني للكلايسين.ان عملية صنع(DCC) مركب الامايد تمت بواسطة استخدام عامل الرابطبواسطة طريقة الطور السائل وتم استخدام التقنيات التاليةللتعرف على المركب الناتج مثل:قياس درجة الانصهار،كروماتوغلرافيا الطبقة الرقيقة، مطياف الأشعة تحت(P.C) الحمراء، التحليل الدقيق للعناصر أن معامل الانتشارللعقار المصنع هو أفضل أصلا من المواد المكونة له

Keywords

Mutual prodrug --- PAS --- INH


Article
MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC QUANTIFICATION OF THE SKELETAL MUSCLE GLYCOGEN CONTENTS WITH AGING

Author: Huda R Kareem هدى رشيد كريم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-35
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundSkeletal muscle fibers contain about 2% of its weight is glycogen, this glycogen used to keep the muscle functioning if it fails to receive sufficient oxygen. PAS stain is useful in detecting cytoplasmic accumulation of glycogen. Glycogen had been studied in skeletal muscles under various state of muscle activities and nutritional states but glycogen quantification with aging is not clearly defined till now.ObjectivesQuantification of the mean glycogen concentration in skeletal muscles fibers stained with PAS stain in various age groups by microspectrophotometry.MethodsThe tibialis anterior muscle of 20 Albino male rats (rattus rattus norvegious) of neonate, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18- months were selected. Paraffin blocks were performed, sectioned and stained with PAS stain.Analysis of the PAS stained sections by microspectrophotometry at 510 nm wave length. For the test group, mean absorbance, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, and mode values were estimated and compared with the control groups.ResultsA significant difference in PAS absorbtion between test and control groups, and among different age groups, being increased with age.ConclusionThe variation in PAS absorbtion with aging indicates that the glycogen content in skeletal muscle increase with aging, this could be due to the influence of age on skeletal muscle glucose transport and glycogen metabolism.Key wordsSkeletal muscle, PAS, Glycogen, Microspectrophotometry


Article
IS PEDIATRIC APPENDICITIS SCORE SUFFICIENT TO MAKE THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS AMONG CHILDREN?

Authors: Ali F Abdullah علي فاروق عبد الله --- Firas M Katoof فراس مجيد --- Basim Sh Ahmed باسم شهاب احمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 195-199
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Children with acute abdominal pain represent most of the admitted cases to the pediatric surgical department, one third of these cases are acute appendicitis. Early diagnosis of “no appendicitis” or “appendicitis” on the basis of pediatric appendicitis score could potentially save emergency department's time and resource use and could avoid time cost and risks for further evaluation.Objective:Evaluation of Samuel scoring system in diagnosing children with acute appendicitis and their need for surgery.Methods:One hundred and twelve patients aged between 5 to 15 years who presented with abdominal pain suggestive of acute appendicitis were studied. A complete data from patients were analyzed by using Samuel score. The clinical findings used by previously mentioned scoring system were analyzed to determine reliability of pediatric appendicitis score (PAS). The Final diagnosis was determined by histopathological report for patients' undergone appendicectomy.Results:The mean (median, SD) score for children with acute appendicitis and non-acute appendicitis were 4.9 (5, 1.8) and 4.6 (5, 1.7) respectively. No variable (of the known signs and symptoms regarded as pathognomonic for acute appendicitis) shows a significant value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A PAS of ≥ 4 had a sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive value (PPV), and Negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.78, 0.27, 0.87, and 0.16 respectively.Conclusion:The diagnosis of acute appendicitis and the need for surgery is still a matter of clinical judgment which can be built with practice, and although the PAS could provide useful diagnostic information in children with suspected acute appendicitis, it cannot be used as sole method for determining the need for surgery.Key words:Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), acute appendicitis, appendicectomy.


Article
"Le Visage Politique du Romantisme "

Author: Ahmed Abide Abass
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2012 Volume: 1 Issue: 12 Pages: 507-522
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

La production littéraire du romantisme ne peut pas échapper aux boulversements vécues par la France au cours du XIX siècle qui a connu une politique oscillatoire entre la liberté et la dictature ,c ´est pourquoi cette production devait s´adapter aux exigences et aux préocupatios de l´individu. La culte des passions,et des sensibilités,exige de l´individu des sentiments capables de le guider à de grandes actions .où les français ont cherché dans une passé glorieux, la consolation et l´oubli des malheurs (actueles).


Article
Evaluation of Pediatric Appendicitis Score in Predicting Appendicitis

Author: Maha A.Lattuf AL-Rudaini* , Kawthar Fakhri Khalaf Al-Bayati**, Zaidoon Moayad Younis Altaee***
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 255-260
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of acute appendicitis carries significant difficulties, particularly in very young ages on which the history and physical examination are difficult. The clinical challenge is to diagnose appendicitis early enough to prevent perforation, while minimizing the number of negative appendicitis that are performed. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis is primarily clinical and the clinical scoring systems have been investigated as alternatives or adjuncts to diagnostic imaging. OBJECTIVE: Is to establish the accuracy and applicability of using pediatric appendicitis scoring system (PAS) in evaluating acute appendicitis in pediatric age group.METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Al-Khansaa Teaching Hospital and Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, from January 2014 till November 2015. The study includes 143 patients aged from (3-13) years old referred from pediatric emergency unit or outpatient clinic with suspicion of acute appendicitis. All the obtained data were analyzed using pediatric appendicitis score (PAS) system which classifies the patients into 3 groups: Group (1): Patients with scoring (1-3) includes 38 patients, Group (2): Patients with scoring (4-6) includes 20 patients, while Group (3): Patients with scoring (7-10) includes 85 patients. Surgery was done to all patients of group 3 and thirteen patients of group 2. All removed appendices were sent for histopathological study.RESULTS: The median age of the 98 operated on patients was (8.9 years ± 2.6). The histopathological results of appendicitis were confirmed in 89 patients underwent surgery (five patients of group 2 and 84 patients of group 3), while negative histopathological result of appendicitis is seen in nine (9.2%) patients. There is significant association of positive histopathological findings with high PAS (≥7) scoring (p<0.0001). The 8 parameters of PAS system shows accuracy as following: the right lower quadrant tenderness, anorexia and hop tenderness shows accuracy of 90.8%, 87.8% and 86.7% respectively, while leukocytosis, fever and nausea/vomiting shows accuracy of 83.7%, 80.6% and 63.3% respectively. Migration of pain and PMN neutrophilia shows the lowest accuracy rate. The sensitivity of PAS system was 94.4%, the specificity was 88.9%, the PPV was 98.8%, the NPV was 61.5% with overall accuracy of PAS system was 93.9%.CONCLUSION: PAS system is easy, simple and useful tool in pre-operative diagnosis of acute appendicitis and can be used by pediatricians to reduce the number of admission to the hospital. Patients with scores of ≥ 7 show high probability of appendicitis and early operation is indicated, while patients with score of ≤3 rule out this disease. The CT scan and diagnostic laparoscopy is advocated for patients with score of (4-6).


Article
omparative study between pectoralis and leg muscles in flying and running/walking birds in two different ages ( post-hatching and mature )
راسة مقارنة بین عضلات الصدر و الأرجل في الطیور الطائرة و غیر الطائرة في عمرین ( ﻎﻟﺎﺑﻟا و سﻘﻔﻟا دﻌﺑ ) نﯾﻔﻠﺗﺧﻣ

Author: Taghreed H.A-ameer رﯾﻣﻷا دﺑﻋ دﻣﺎﺣ دﯾرﻐﺗ
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal of pure science(quarterly) مجلة القادسية للعلوم الصرفة (فصلية). ISSN: 19972490 Year: 2015 Volume: 4 Issue: 20 Pages: 39-48
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Received: 9/2/2014 accepted: 21/4/2014 Hashim M.A-kareemAiyar2007@yahoo.comBiology Department , Collage of Science , Al-Qadissiya UniversityAbstractThis study deals with a number of skeletal muscles in two types of birds ; flying (pigeon )and running (chicken ) types . The total number of the studied birds was 30; 15 were chickenand 15 were pigeons. Some of the physiological and histological characteristics of the musclefibers (red, white, and intermediate ), the percentage of fibers diameter in the studiedmuscles, and the change noted in the muscle weight with advancing age had been calculated.The species of the chicken in this study was Gallusdomesticus , while the species of thepigeons was Columbia livia.The muscles that is used in the study were : pectoralis muscle , femortibialis, triceps,biceps brachii, extensor carpi radialis muscle, and gastrocnemius muscles in two age groupsof birds; ( 3-6 ) and ( 6-12 ) months .The results had shown that the skeletal muscles in birds consist of heterogenous mixture ofthe three types of muscle fibers ( red, white, and intermediate ) and that the size of the whitemuscle fibers in pectoralis muscle of both types ( chicken and pigeons ) and in both agegroups used in this study was about 75% of the total size of the muscle i.e. the white fibers arethe predominant type of fibers in this muscle, while the red fibers forms about 25% of thetotal size.

تناولت ھذه الدراسة عدداً من العضلات الھیكلیة في نوعین من الطیور الطائرة (الحمام ) و غیر الطائرة (الدجاج ). العدد الكلي للطیور المستعملة 30طائرا,15 من الدجاج و 15 من الحمام مقسمة الى مجموعتین (3-6) (6-12)شھراً . تمت ﻲﻓ فﺎﯿﻟﻷا رﺎﻄﻗأ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ بﺎﺴﺣ و ﺔﯿﻄﺳﻮﻟا و ﺾﯿﺒﻟا و ﺮﻤﺤﻟا ﺔﯿﻠﻀﻌﻟا فﺎﯿﻟﻸﻟ ﺔﯿﺠﯿﺴﻨﻟاو ﺔﯿﺠﻠﺴﻔﻟا ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺨﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ ﺔﺳاردالعضلات المستعملة في الدراسة و التغییر الذي یلاحظ في أوزان العضلات مع التقدم في عمر الطائر . الدجاج المستعملفي الدراسة من جنس domesticus Gallus , أما الحمام المستعمل فھو من جنس livia Columbia . العضلات المستعملة في الدراسة ھي : العضلة الصدریةmuscle Pectoralis , العضلة الفخذیة الساقیة muscle femortibialis , extensor carpi radialis ﺔﻄﺳﺎﺒﻟا ﺔﯾﺮﺒﻌﻜﻟا ﺔﯿﻐﺳﺮﻟا ﺔﻠﻀﻌﻟا , gastrocnemius muscle ﺔﯿﻣأﻮﺘﻟا ﺔﻠﻀﻌﻟا ,.triceps muscle ساﺮﻟا ﺔﯿﺛﻼﺛ ﺔﻠﻀﻌﻟاو , biceps brachii muscle ﺔﯾﺪﻀﻌﻟا ساﺮﻟا ﺔﯿﺋﺎﻨﺛ ﺔﻠﻀﻌﻟا ) ﺔﯿﻠﻀﻌﻟا فﺎﯿﻟﻸﻟ ﺔﺛﻼﺜﻟا عاﻮﻧﻷا ﻦﻣ ﺲﻧﺎﺠﺘﻣ ﺮﯿﻏ ﻂﯿﻠﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺐﻛﺮﺘﺗ رﻮﯿﻄﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔﯿﻠﻜﯿﮭﻟا تﻼﻀﻌﻟا نأ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟا تﺮﮭظأالحمر و البیض و المتوسطة ), و إن حجم الألیاف العضلیة البیض في العضلات الصدریة في نوعي الطیور (الحمام و الدجاج ) و للفئتین العمریتین المستعملتین في الدراسة كان حوالي %75 من الحجم الكلي للعضلة أي أن الألیاف البیض ھي السائدة في العضلات الصدریة بینما تشكل الألیاف العضلیة الحمر نسبة %25 من الحجم الكلي لھذه العضلة.


Article
Effects of The Black cumin seeds (Niqella sativa Linn.) on Endometrial Mucins of Mature Rats; Histochemical Study

Author: Ahmed, J. Hassan * د. احمد جليل حسن
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2005 Volume: 47 Issue: 2 Pages: 179-185
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Nitre I la sativa Linn is a well known herb that is used by different societies, as food additive and as a medicinal herb: it used as a galactagouge for lactating women, and has long been described as an abortifacient-emmenagouge.Aim of the work: is to investigate the effect of crude black seeds on the endometrium and the pattern of it’s mucins, during the different phases of the Estrus cycle, making use of some special stains for the histochemical demonstration of mucins.Materials <6 Methods.'Crude Nieella sativa Linn, seeds were administrated for ten days, by an orogastric tube, on single regular daily dosage to properly selected mature Norway albino female rats. Animats were subdivided into subgroups, according to phases of the estrus cycle. Utera of these animals were routinely processed for carbohydrate histochemical (d-PAS, d AB2.5-PAS & A li 1.0) studies using carnoy's fixative, paraffin embedded sections. Experimental specimens were compared with that of control subgroups.Results: Results showed marked production of diastase fast-PAS reactive non-alcianophilic neutral mucins, with inhibited production of sulphated highly acidic mucins among the surface lining and the glandular epithelial cells, at Estrus. Effects of such changes in the pattern of endometrial mucins on the state of fertility, was discussed.Keywords: Nigella Sativa, Linn., Metrial gland, Endometrial Histochemistry. Sialomucins, Fucomucins, Sulphated mucins. d-PAS, AB2.5PAS, AB1.0.Introduction


Article
Pathological study on mice intestine experimentally infected with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O26
دراسة مرضية على امعاء الفئران المصابة تجريبيا بالاشيريشيا القولونية الفارزة لسموم (stx) العترة O26

Authors: Kh. H. Al- Jeboori خليل حسن زناد --- A. S. Jarad احمد سامي جراد
Journal: Al-Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences مجلة الانبار للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 19996527/27070603 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-68
Publisher: University of Fallujah جامعة الفلوجة

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Abstract

Mice infected with STEC O26 (2.5×108 C.F.U/ml) to study the pathological changes in intestine due to infection. The gross pathological changes in the small and large intestine were characterized by variable degrees of hyperemia with engorgement semisolid stool was present in the proximal half and fully formed feces in distal colon. The histopathological changes were characterized by, intestine with all stages of sloughed, eroded and complete necrosis of the villi also diffusion together, necrosis the epithelial cells lining the intestinal glands, diffuse inflammation, and crypt abscesses. Moreover, increase in the goblet cells as well as depletion at late stage. In conclusion, The experimental mice infection with STEC O26 induced a significant pathological changes in intestine

لقد تم استخدام الفئران لاستحداث الاصابة بالبكتريا الفارزة للـ(stx) النمط العتري O26 وبالجرعة (2.5×108C.F.U/ml) وذلك لدراسة التغيرات المرضية العيانية والمجهرية للامعاء بسبب الاصابة. اظهرت نتائج الفحص المرضي العياني للامعاء الدقيقة (الاثني عشر) والغليضة (الاعور والقولون) بدرجات متفاوتة من التغيرات واشتملت احتقان دموي، وتكون البراز بشكل اقرب للسائل في النصف العلوي من القولون مع تكون كامل للبراز في الجزء الاخير من القولون. التغيرات المرضية النسجية تميزت الامعاء بانسلاخات وتنخرات في الطبقات الظهارية للامعاء، مع تنخر الزغابات المعوية واتحادها مع بعضها، وانتشار الخلايا الالتهابية في جميع طبقات النسجية للامعاء، مع خراجات متعددة في داخل الطبقة الظهارية، مع فرط في تنسج وافراز مخاط الخلايا الكأسية في المراحل الاولية للاصابة، ونضوبها في المراحل المتأخرة للاصابة. في الختام اظهرت الدراسة ان العترة O26 مسبب مرضي مهم لاصابة الاطفال والاصابة التجريبية لها في الفئران سببت تغيرات وافات مرضية مهمه في الامعاء

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