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Article
Design of Horizontal Well Program for Ajeel Field

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Abstract

Horizontal wells are of great interest to the petroleum industry today because they provide an attractive means for improving both production rate and recovery efficiency. The great improvements in drilling technology make it possible to drill horizontal wells with complex trajectories and extended for significant depths. The aim of this paper is to present the design aspects of horizontal well. Well design aspects include selection of bit and casing sizes, detection of setting depths and drilling fluid density, casing, hydraulics, well profile, and construction of drillstring simulator. An Iraqi oil field (Ajeel field) is selected for designing horizontal well to increase the productivity. Short radius horizontal well is suggested for the developing the field since many drilled vertical wells are exists A soft string model was programmed to predict the imposed loads on suggested drillstring. Six operating conditions of drillstring includes rotating off bottom, pick up without rotation, slack off without rotation, pick up with rotation, slack off with rotation, and sliding ,were considered. Also, two buckling modes of drill string were estimated. According to drillstring simulator results, short radius well of build rate 90 deg/100 ft could be implemented without exceeding the strength limits of the suggested drillstring.


Article
The Effect of In-situ Stress on Hydraulic Fractures Dimensions

Authors: Mohammed Al Humairi --- Hassan Abdul Hadi حسن عبد الهادي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Pages: 113-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Understanding of in-situ stress profiles and orientations plays a vital role in designing a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment. This paper is an attempet to examine the effect of lithology and in situ stress on geometery of hydraulic fractures. A hydraulic fracturing design simulator software called FracproPT with various capabilities for designing most of hydraulic fracture was used for simulate and optimize the hydraulic fracturing. For studying purpose, three different cases of stress gradient contrast between different formations are considered in this study (0.4, 0.5 and 0.75 psi/ft). The results obtained from the simulator showed that lithologies surrounding the pay zone have an effect on the fracture’s height, width, and length. Also, Maximum height is achieved when the stress contrast between the pay zone and the surrounding layers is very small.


Article
Hydrodynamics Behaviour of Single and Multi Fracture with Different Orientations in Petroleum Reservoir

Authors: Dr. Ahmed K. Alshara --- Dr. Falah A. Abood --- Amani Jalil Al-Husseini
Journal: Basrah Journal for Engineering Science مجلة البصرة للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: Print: 18146120; Online: 23118385 Year: 2019 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-16
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The studying of fluid flow throughout fracture in the reservoir is one of the most vital subjects attracted much attention from engineers and geologists. In the present paper, the Dual Porosity-Dual Permeability (DPDP) model has been applied to represent the fluid flow within the fractured reservoirs. This work aimed to demonstrate the utility of the fractures in the petroleum reservoir and how could be used the positive effect of these fractures on the productivity as well. The productivity of single-phase fluid flow within the single horizontal fracture, multi horizontal fractures, and inclined fracture with different orientations (20o, 30o, 45o, and 70o) have been implemented by using ANSYS-CFX program and compared with the productivity of conventional (without fractures) reservoirs. In addition to, visualize the velocity streamlines within fracture and matrix zones for the DPDP model. To verify this work the comparison has been made with published paper, which studies the fluid flow through fractures, and a good agreement has been obtained with each other. The study indicates that the presence of macro scale fractures in petroleum reservoirs contributes to increasing the total productivity of these reservoirs. Clearly, the productivity index of multi-horizontal fractures domain is more than twice of nonfractured domain. It is also clear that, when comparing the fractured and nonfractured reservoir, the improvement percentage of the productivity index reaches to (71.8) for a single horizontal fracture with 9 ft length. While this percentage would be about (116.88) if the fracture is inclined with 20o.


Article
EVALUATION THE PRECISION OF " DOCTORE TEST" FOR MERCAPTANS DETECTION IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTS BY SULPHIDE ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODE
تقييم طريقة (فحص الدكتور) لتقدير المركبتانات في المنتوجات النفطية باستعمال قطب الكبريتيد الانتقائي.

Author: TAHSEEN A. ZAIDAN تحسين علي زيدان
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2007 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 41-44
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Mercaptan sulphur in petroleum products ( Motor fuel, kerosene, aviation fuel ,….etc) were detected with standard test method of British Institute of Petroleum ( IP) that marked by the number IP-30 . The detection of this method was qualitatively and the precision has not been established. In this research a précised results were tabulated for the IP-30 test method, using sulphide ion selective electrode. A comparable results of quantitative value for mercaptans of IP-30 test method now are available.

الخلاصة:والمطابقة لطريقة (IP- تعد طريقة "فحص الدكتور" المعروفة بطريقة المعهد البريطاني للنفط ( 30مقياسًا تحليليُا نوعيًا سريعًا للكشف عن تواجد (ASTM-D484- القياسي الأمريكي للفحص والمواد ( 52. RSH بعض مركبات الكبريت المهمة في المنتوجات النفطية وخاصة المركبتانتم في هذا البحث توسيع مدى الفائدة من استخدام هذه الطريقة وتحويلها من طريقة تحليلية نوعيةإلى طريقة تحليلية كمية، باستخدام قطب الكبريتيد الانتقائي لتقدير المركبتان في نماذج منتوجات نفطيةأعطت كشفًا تحليليًا نوعيًا عن المركبتان. لقد تم مطابقة قيم المركبتان التي تعطي كشوفًا موجبة أو سالبةمع تراكيز محسوبة من المركبتان باستخدام قطب الكبريتيد الانتقائي، لذا يمكن اعتبار طريقة فحص الدكتورطريقة تحليلية كمية سريعة لتعيين المركبتان في مختبرات السيطرة النوعية في مصافي النفط.


Article
EFFICENCY OF LOCAL ISOLATES BACTERIA EFFICENCY OF LOCAL ISOLATES BACTERIA
كفاءة سلالتي البكتريا المحلية Pseudomonas aeruginosa في معالجة مياه المخلفات النفطية Serratia ficaria

Author: أمل علي حسين
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 96-109
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

الخلاصةتم أختبار قابلية نوعين من البكتريا المحلية في معالجة مياه المخلفات النفطية المطروحة من مصفى الدورةالواقع عند الجزء الجنوبي من مدينة بغداد على الضفة اليمنى من نهر دجلة، إذ تم معالجة المخلفات النفطيةباستخدام تقنية المزارع الخليطة بإضافة العزلتين API المتجمعة في الحوض المسمىوأعتمد على أكثر من مؤشر Serratia ficaria (AA و ( 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AA22)لتعيين ومعرفة كفاءة عملية المعالجة ومقارنة هذه المؤشرات مع نظيرتها في المياه المعالجة بالكائناتالمجهرية المستخدمة في المصفى (اللقاح التجاري المكون من الابتدائيات). وجد أن الخليط المكون من عزلتيالبكتيريا هو الأكفأ في معالجة مياه المخلفات (في ظروف التجربة) والتخلص من أكبر قدر من المواد الصلبةوالهيدروكاربونات، إذ انخفض المتطلب الحيوي والكيميائي للاوكسجين من 7.27 ملغم/ لتر و 800 ملغم/ لترالى 3.73 ملغم/ لتر و 600 ملغم/ لتر على التوالي و للقاح التجاري 175 ملغم/ لتر و 849 ملغم/ لتر بعد انكانت 461 ملغم/ لتر و 868 ملغم/ لتر على التوالي.

ABSTRACTTow strains of local bacteria were investigated used in treatment of petroleumwastewater discarded from Al-Dora refinery located in the southern part ofBaghdad city on the right bank of river Tigris. The petroleum waste accumulatedin the tank API was treated with mixed bacterial culture by adding Pseudomonasaeruginosa (AA22) and Serratia ficaria (AA39). More than one indicator was used todetermine the efficiency of treatment process. These monitors were compairedwith these of water treatment with microorganism cells used in the refinery(commercial inoculums of protozoa). The treatment with mixed culture of twoisolates was found to be more efficient as the biological and chemical demand ofoxygen decreased from 7.27 mg/L and 800mg/L to 3.73 mg/L and 600mg/Lrespectively, in comparison with treatment of wastewater with the commercialinoculums 4.1 mg/L, 175mg/L respectively. The suspended and dissolved solidswere reduced to 81 mg/L, 800mg/L respectively and for the commercial inoculumsfrom 461 mg/L, 868mg/L to 175 mg/L, 849mg/L respectively.


Article
Catalysts Regeneration Using Laser Technique in Petroleum Industry
تنشيط العوامل المساعدة باستخدام تقنية الليزر في الصناعة النفطية

Authors: Adawiya J. Haider --- Khalid A. Sukkar --- Duha S. Ahmed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 4 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 715-722
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The catalyst cost regards one of the most important obstacles in petroleum industry. Therefore, the regeneration of catalysts could be more economic process to get high performance and low cost. In this work, three types of catalysts were investigated: Pt/A2lO3 (spent catalyst from reforming unit/Al-Doura Refinery), prepared Pt/A2lO3(Doura) and Pt/HY. The performances of catalysts (activity, selectivity and catalyst stablity) were studied using n-heptane as feedstock under reforming conditions. The operating pressure kept constant at atmospheric pressure, and the operating temperature 500 oC. The liquid flow was 0.4 l/h. The amount of catalyst was 50 gm, H2/H.C ratio used was 2 for all experimental runs.The catalyst of reforming process has been successfully regenerated using laser technique. This technique regards as a new approach for catalyst regeneration in petroleum industry to remove carbon deposits. On the other hand, this regeneration technique shows a great potential for economical processes in petroleum refineries. The results show that the best operating conditions for the regeneration process were: laser power of 13 watt and regeneration temperature of 650 oC. From the results of catalyst characterization it was concluded that the structures and morphology of all catalysts types did not effected or destroyed through using laser power.

تعتبر كلف شراء العوامل المساعدة من اهم الصعوبات التي تواجهها الصناعة النفطية، لذلك فان عملية تنشيط العوامل المساعدة واعادة استخدامها تكون طريقة عملية لتحسين الاداء والجانب الاقتصادي. في هذا البحث تم دراسة ثلاثة انواع من العوامل المساعدة التي تستخدم في وحدات التهذيب : مستهلك من مصفى الدورة Pt/A2lO3 و Pt/HY و Pt/A2lO3(Doura) كعوامل مساعدة محضرة. حيث تم دراسة فعالية وانتقائية ومدى فقدان الفعالية لهذه العوامل المساعدة من خلال استخدام الهبتان الاعتيادي كمادة اولية لتفاعلات التهذيب.أجريت التجارب تحت ضغط جوي اعتيادي ودرجة حرارة oC500 ومعدل جريان 4 لتر/ساعة للهبتان و 50 غم من وزن العوامل المساعدة ونسبة (HC/H2) تساوي 2 لجميع التجارب. اظهرت النتائج نجاح استخدام تقنية الليزر في تنشيط العوامل المساعدة المستخدمة في وحدات التهذيب، وتعتبر هذه الطريقة اسلوباً متطوراً لازالة الترسبات الكاربونية من سطح العمل المساعد في االصناعة النفطية. كما تعتبر هذه التقنية مجدية اقتصادياً في المصافي النفطية. اظهرت النتائج ان افضل ظروف التنشيط هي قدرة الليزر 13 واط تحت حرارة oC 650 . من خلال دراسة مواصفات العوامل المساعدة تم الاستنتاج بعدم تأثر التركيب الداخلي والتركيب السطحي لجميع العوامل المساعدة المستخدمة في التجارب خلال تعرضها لاشعة الليزر.


Article
Reduction of Sulfur Compounds from Petroleum Fraction Using Oxidation-Adsorption Technique

Authors: Ban Jaber Ibrahem --- Nada Sadoon.Ahmedzeki
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Oxidation of sulfur compounds in fuel followed by an adsorption process were studied using two modes of operation, batch mode and continuous mode (fixed bed). In batch experiment oxidation process of kerosene with sulfur content 2360 ppm was achieved to study the effect of amount of hydrogen peroxide(2.5, 4, 6 and 10) ml at different temperature(40, 60 and 70)°C. Also the effect of amount acetic acid was studied at the optimal conditions of the oxidation step(4ml H2O2 and 60 °C).Besides, the role of acetic acid different temperatures(40, 60, 70) °C and 4ml H2O2, effect of reaction time(5, 30, 60, 120, 300) minutes at temperatures(40,60) °C, 4ml H2O2 and 1 mlHAC) and effect of reaction temperature were studied. The results showed that the percentage removal of sulfur compounds increases with the increasing amount of hydrogen peroxide and amount of acetic acid also the percentage removal of sulfur compounds increases by addition acetic acid, reaction time up to 300 minutes and reaction temperature. In the fixed bed adsorption process, the oxidized kerosene having sulfur content being reduced to 939.28 ppm, was let to flow through a bed of 10Ni/γ-Al2O3. The results showed that a sulfur removal of 95.38% was obtained. By this the total sulfur removal of 98.38% was obtained from the two consecutive processes. The resultant fuel had only 43.47 ppm. Also a study of the capability of the same bed to desulfurize raw feed of kerosene of 2360 ppm of sulfur compounds was investigated. 43.3% removal of sulfur compounds was achieved which reflects the catalytic properties of the adsorbent which could act as an oxidative adsorptive material. The results showed that by increasing feed flow rate, the breakthrough curve becomes steeper. Also the maximum removal of sulfur compounds was obtained in the case of bed height 20 cm and flow rate 0.3 l/hr.


Article
Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) in the Tigris River through Passing Baghdad Province
تحديد المركبات الاروماتية الحلقية في مياه نهر دجلة خلال مروره بمحافظة بغداد

Authors: Luma H. A. Al-Azawii لمى حسين علي العزاوي --- Muhnned R. Nashaat مهند رمزي نشأت --- Muhammad N.Al-Azzawi3 محمد نافع العزاوي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 2B Pages: 1372-1384
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Tigris River receives many pollutants while passing through Baghdad province due to increasing of population, discharge of untreated industrials, agricultural wastes on the river. The present study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 on the Tigris River starting from Al-Muthana Bridge to Al-Zaufurania city before it's jointed with Diyalla Tributaries. Six stations were chosen on the Tigris River along Baghdad city. The study was included measuring the bimonthly concentrations and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the samples of surface water. The sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by USEPA as priority pollutants (Naphthalene, Acenaphthalene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Flouranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(b)flouranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and Inden(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) were detected. The highest value of total PAHs was 0.279 ppm recorded during August 2013 whereas the lowest value was 0.007 ppm during October 2013 at Al-Durah power plant discharge sit. The lowest value of (0.0002) ppm was recorded for Fluorene and Fluoranthene, while the highest value of (0.2) ppm for Naphthalene at Al-Durah power plant sit.

يستلم نهر دجلة العديد من الملوثات خلال مرورهِ في مدينة بغداد بسبب الزيادة في الكثافة السكانية وقذف المخلفات (غير المعالجة) الصناعية والزراعية بشكل غير مراقب في مياه النهر.أجريت الدراسة الحالية للفترة من كانون الثاني 2013 ولغاية كانون الاول 2013,على نهر دجلة ابتداءً من جسر المثنى الى منطقة الزعفرانية قبل التقاءهِ برافد ديالى بحوالي 10 كم وبواقع 6 محطات موزعة على طول النهر داخل مدينة بغداد. اجريت النمذجة كل شهرين ولمدة اثنى عشر شهراً. تم تحديد ستة عشر مركباً من المركبات الهيدروكاربونية الحلقية المتعددة الانوية والمدرجة ضمن قائمة الملوثات الاولية من قبل وكالة حماية البيئة USEPA وهي:نفثالين ,اسنفثالين, اسينفثين, فلورين, فيناثرين, انثراسين, فلورانثين, بايرين, بنزو(أ) انثراسين, كرايسين, بنزو(ب) فلورانثين, بنزو(ك) فلورانثين, بنزو(أ) بايرين, ثنائي بنزو( أ,ه)انثراسين, بنزو( ج,ه,ا) بيرلين, اندين(1,2,3) بايرين. وقد بلغت اعلى قيمة للهيدروكاربونات الاروماتية المتعددة الانوية الكلية 0.279 جزء بالمليون خلال شهر اب واقل قيمة 0.007 جزء بالمليون خلال شهر تشرين الاول 2013 عند موقع محطة كهرباء الدوره. سجل في الماء اقل تركيز (0.0002 جزء بالمليون) للفلورانثين والفلورين بينما سجل اعلى تركيز (0.2 جزء بالمليون) للنفثالين عند نفس الوقع.

Keywords

PAHs --- petroleum --- oil spill --- Tigris River.


Article
EFFECT OF USING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPANSIVE SOIL

Authors: Adel H. Majeed --- Muhannd W. Majeed
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 5 Pages: 171-183
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Expansive soil is the soil that its volume changes according to the changing of moisture content included in it. When the soil absorbs water this will lead to increase its volume and vice-versa. The swelling of soil leads to structural damage such as kerbs swelling, cracking in borders and reinforced foundation and finally leads to deformation in floors and doors, these deformations may be light, moderate and heavey according to the value of swelling. In this research, the expansive soil "that is brought from Karkuke province" has initial plasticity index (P.I) is (98), Liquid limit (L.L) is (163), and plastic limit (P.L) is (65). In order to improve the properties of expansive soil, petroleum products have been added to the soil in different percentages (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) by soil weight. These different products such as: Kerosene, Gasoil, and Cut-back asphalt (MC-30) are brought from AL-Durra Oil Refinery in Baghdad.. After done all the laboratory tests on this type of soil with different percentages of adding petroleum products, it will be noted that the addition of 10% by soil weight of kerosene reduces the liquid limit (L.L), plastic limit (P.L) and plasticity index (P.I). It also reduces the free swell and swelling pressure as shown in this research. For all petroleum products the increase of adding petroleum products leads to reduce volumetric changes.

: الترب الانتفاخية هي الترب التي يتغير حجمها نتيجة تغير المحتوى المائي المحيط بها. فعندما تمتص التربة الماء يؤدي ذلك الى زيادة حجمها والعكس بالعكس. ان ظاهرة النتفاخ بالتربة تؤدي الى اضرار كبيرة في المنشات منها ظهور تشققات في الارضيات والسقوف والابواب وهذه التشققات ربما تكون قليلة او متوسطة او كبيرة بالاعتماد على قيمة الانتفاخ. في هذا البحث الترب الانتفاخية تم جلبها من مدينة كركوك وكانت نتائج الفحوصات الأولية لها كما يلي مؤشر اللدونة (98%) وفحص حد السيولة (163%) وحد اللدونة (65%). ولأجل تحسين الخواص للتربة النتفاخية تم أستخدام وأضافة منتجات نفطية وبنسب مختلفة (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%و 10%) من وزن التربة. والمنتجات النفطية المستخدمة هي النفط الابيض والكازأويل ومستحلب الاسفلت (أم سي 30) وهذه المنتجات جلبت من مصفى الدورة في بغداد . بعد اجراء كافة الفحوصات المختبرية وبأستخام نسب مختلفة من المنتجات النفطية وجد أن مادة النفط البيض وبنسبة 10% قد قللت نتائج حد السيولة وحد اللدونة ومؤشر اللدونة مقارنة بالمواد النفطية الاخرى, كما وانها قللت من قيمة الانتفاخ الحر وضغط الانتفاخ للنماذج وكما موضح بالبحث.


Article
Study the Effect of Corrosion on the Pipes of Oil Well Production

Authors: Dr. Ramzy. S. Hamied --- Dr. Mohammad. A. Alhassan --- Dr. Mayssaa. A. AL-Bidry
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 19 Pages: E155-E164
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Corrosion costs of the oil industry are billions of dollars in a year. Corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production of oil, from offshore rigs to casing and transporting the crude oil to refinery or exporting terminal. This study aims to investigate the effect of sulfur content on the corrosion of carbon steel and composite material (polyester/fiberglass) pipes used in well production. . In the present work three specimens of pipes from (Al – Nasiriyah oil field, Al – Daura refinery, and composite material) are prepared in the center of the training and workshop in university of technology with (3, and 5 mm) thickness and (30 mm) diameter which immersed in different types of Iraqi crude oil field (East – Baghdad, Al – Nasiriyah, and Al – Rumaila field) in different times (0, 14, 28, 42, and 56 day). Physical properties (viscosity, density, API grade, specific gravity (sp.gr), sulfur %, sediment %, and water %) of three types of Iraqi crude oil are tested in lab of petroleum technology department. Also study specimens of pipes by microscope to knowing the effect of sulfur % on these specimens. . The results showed that when increasing duration of immersed pipes and sulfur content in crude oil increased the rate of corrosion, and the composite material pipe gives the best result compared with the other two specimens pipes used because they didn’t influenced by corrosion when immersed in Iraqi crude oil. Also, it was noted that the diffusion coefficient decreased in composite pipe compared with the other pipes.

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