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THE EFFECT of PINEALOCTOMY on the DEVELOPING SUPERIOR Cervical GANGLION of the RAT

Authors: Mahmood H. Hamash. محمد حماش --- Fadhil A. Al-khafaji فاضل الخفاجي --- Hadi Jawad Ali هادي جواد علي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 18-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: In the present study Pinealoctomywas used to study the sympathetic innervations ofthe pineal gland by the superior cervical ganglion(SCG) of the albino rat.Objective: Following Pinealoctomy, it isexpected to observe the Chromatolysis reaction insome neurons of the SCG if they were to innervatethe pineal gland (i.e. retrograde Chromatolysischanges).Methods: Fifty albino rats were used in this study,Pinealoctomy was done, then after a different timeinterval ganglionectomy was done, in order tostudy the Chromatolysis in their cell body.Result: The present study has demonstrated thatthe most obvious Chromatolysis reaction in theneurons which innervate the pineal gland appearedone day following Pinealoctomy in the young andadult rats. In the SCG of animal, one weekfollowing Pinealoctomy,the number of the Chromatolysis neurons wasmuch less than these seen in the previouslymentioned oneday animals. In (2 – 6) weeks followingPinealoctomy, the number of the Chromatolysisneurons kept a constant decline.Conclusion: The work presented in this studyshowed that the method of tracing the innervationsof the pineal gland by removing the target tissue(the pineal gland in this study) appeared to bejustified and conclusive.It has also shown that younger animals, subjectedto Pinealoctomy, would react more vigorously withrespect to Chromatolysis than adult animals. Thepresent study has also demonstrate that thedistribution of these Chromatolysis neurons and forall age groups all over the ganglion beinginspected. However they were more abundant inthe rostral 2/3 of these ganglions.


Article
A Novel Study of Predictive Utility of Serum Melatonin in Diagnosis of Systemic Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study

Author: Faiq I. Gorial
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 224-228
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a pineal gland hormone with complex roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Immune abnormalities and disturbed endocrine secretion have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). A possible role of melatonin in pathogenesis of SSc patients might be presentOBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive utility of serum melatonin in diagnosis of SSc patients.METHODS: A case-control study conducted at Rheumatology Unit of Baghdad Teaching Hospital-Medical City from November 2015 to April 2016 on 40 SSc patients diagnosed according to the 1980 criteria for classification of systemic sclerosis or 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism for the classification of systemic sclerosis criteria and compared with 40 healthy controls matched in age, sex, and body mass index. Patients with overlapping other inflammatory arthritis or connective tissue disease or autoimmune diseases were excluded. Serum melatonin was measured in both groups by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Mean level of serum melatonin concentration was significantly lower in patients compared with controls (Mean ± SEM of patients was 602.9 ± 30.69 vs 782.1 ± 43.66 pg/ml for controls, p=0.001). The optimum cut-off value of serum melatonin that differentiate between patients and controls was ≤ 810.8 pg/ml (AUC=0.72, p=0.0005). Validity of serum melatonin at the optimum cutoff value showed highest level of accuracy (75%) with sensitivity 87.5% and specificity 62.5% and if the test was positive and the clinical suspicion of prestest probability was 50% then we have 70% confidence that the patient has systemic sclerosis [ Positive predictive value (PPV) at pretest 50%=70%]. However, this confidence will increase to 95.5% if the clinical suspicion of pretest probability was 90% (PPV at pretest probability 90%=95.5%). Also, if the test was negative then we can exclude the disease with 97.8% with confidence [Negative predictive value (NPV) =97.8%].CONCLUSION:Serum melatonin was a valid measure to diagnose SSc.


Article
Innervation of the pineal gland in the rat: A chromotolysis study

Author: Hadi J. Ali هادي جواد علي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 142-147
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: The innervations of the pineal gland from the superior cervical ganglion have shown some form of a chromatolysis reaction. Objective:1-Tracing the innervations of the pineal gland by removing the target tissue (the pineal gland in this study) i.e. (pinealoctomy) and removal of the superior cervical ganglion i.e. (ganglionectomy).2- The localization and total number of the neurons which project into the rat pineal gland3-The effect of pinealoctomy on the SCG after a different time interval. Methods: Twenty five albino rats were used in this study, Pinealoctomy was done, then after a different time interval ganglionectomy was done, in order to study the Chromatolysis in their cell body. Result: The present study has demonstrated that the chromatolysis reaction in the neurons following Pinealoctomy confirms the innervations of the pineal gland from the SCG. The present study has demonstrated that the most obvious the Chromatolysis reaction occurred one day after pinealoctomy. Conclusion: This study confirms the innervations of the pineal gland from the SCG, the study shows that the distribution of the Chromatolysis neurons; of all age group occurred in all parts of the ganglion; although it was more abundant in the rostal 2/3.

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