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Article
Preemptive Analgesia For Cesarean Section in Al- Najaf City

Authors: Basima Sh. Al-Ghazali --- Majed Dayem Al-Hassani --- Amal Muner Mubark --- Hind Abd-Al Rassol mugeir Al-Shukri
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 858-868
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Delivery by caesarean section (CS) is becoming more frequent. Childbirth is an emotion-filled event, and the mother needs to bond with her baby as early as possible. Any intervention that leads to improvement in pain relief is worthy of investigation. Local anaesthetics have been employed as an adjunct to other methods of postoperative pain relief.Objective: To insure the efficacy of infiltration of lidocaine 1% in the surgical site of Cesarean Section, just before incision ,in decreasing postoperative pain , in comparison to other forms of preemptive analgesia that includes central nerve block (spinal anesthesia) , and multi modal parentral analgesia.Patients and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled trial study in which patients undergoing CS were randomly divided into four groups;- Group A Patients (control plain GA), Group B Patients with multi modal analgesiaGroup C Patients with local tissue infiltration,Group D Patients with spinal anesthesia .The protocol for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia was similar for A , B&C groups.Group A control patients (plain GA) without supplementary analgesia. Group B parentral multi modal analgesia(Acetamenophen&Diphene) given IM. just pre operatively , and a Fentanyl 50Mg IV. just after delivery of the baby. Group C patients received 20 ml of 1% Lidocaine infiltration 1-2 minutes before skin incision. Group D have Spinal Anesthesia under Bupivacaine hyperbaric 0.5% 10mg intrathecally. Post-operative pain was evaluated in patients, at 30 min, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr after surgery by visual analogue score (VAS), while lying still, and with movement. Time of first request for analgesia , and total amount of Pethidine consumed in 24 hr were recorded.Results: The study enrolled a total number of 100 patients, 25 in each group. No side effects were recorded in all groups.The total consumption of opioid (pethidine) after 24 hours was significantly differentamong the four groups 144.00mg in group A, 134.00mg in group B, 96.00mg in group C and 76.00mg in group D (P ≤ 0.05), SD= 54.619 , 47.258, 37.697, 35.707 for Group A,B,C and D respectively. Higher dose of analgesia was used by Group A&B, whereas lower dose used by Group C&D, so there are significant differences (p≤0.01) between the last two motheds than the former two methods.However the lowest dose was recorded in the spinal anaesthesia.The first request for opioid was statistically different among the four groups .


Article
Pre-Emptive Analgesic Effect of Tramadol and Ibuprofen After Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Extraction

Author: Bara S. Minwah
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 76-85
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: to evaluate the efficacy of analgesia produced by preoperative administration of tramadol or ibuprofen on surgically extracted mandibular 3rd molars .Materials and Methods :surgical removal of lower 3rd molar was performed in 30 patients , they were divided into three groups of ten patient for each. Group I: preoperative 100mg tramadol IM injection; Group II: preoperative 800 mg Ibuprofen orally; Group III: control group with no preoperative treatment .Analgesia was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), Verbal pain Scale(VPS), patient satisfaction(PS), amount of analgesic consumption and time elapsed before first intake were recorded after 24 hours. Results: There was significant differences between tramadol and control group in all types of pain scales in favor of tramadol group . There was significant difference in the visual analog scale (VAS) ,number and time of tablets needed during 24 hours between Ibuprofen and control group . There was significant difference between Tramadol and Ibuprofen groups in both of (VAS) and (VPS) in favor of Tramadol group. Conclusions: The use of tramadol or ibuprofen preemptively is effective method of postoperative pain control in impacted lower 3rd molar surgery .


Article
EFFICACY OF PREEMPTIVE PREINCISIONAL USE OF KETAMINE ON POSTOPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF FOLLOWING APPENDECTOMY

Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 18-23
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Pain, which is often inadequately treated, accompanies the surgical procedures may persist long after tissue healing. Preemptive analgesia, involves the introduction of an analgesic regimen before the onset of noxious stimuli. Previous studies have suggested that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, provides a preemptive analgesic effect. In literature, its use is controversial; for this reason the aim of our research is to evaluate whether the preemptive use of ketamine decreases postoperative pain in patients undergoing appendectomy. In double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 100 patients underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis were studied. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups. In the operating room, patients in the ketamine group received 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine IV 10 minutes before the surgical incision. In control group the same volume of normal saline was injected. Pain intensity was assessed at time 0 (the time of complete consciousness), 4, 12, 24 hours postoperatively using the visual analogue scale (VAS). One hundred patients (50 for both groups) were enrolled. For all the evaluated times, the VAS score was significantly lower (p value <0.05) in the ketamine group compared to the control group. There was a highly significant difference between the groups regarding the interval time of analgesic need. The total dose of tramadol in the first 24 hours was 2.42±0.70mg/kg in ketamine group and 3.86±0.35mg/kg in control group (p=0.009). The occurrence of nausea and vomiting in ketamine group was less than in control group. Three patients experienced brief nondisturbing hallucination in the recovery room in ketamine group. No other drug side effects in ketamine group were noticed. In conclusion, low dose of intravenously administered ketamine had a preemptive effect in reducing pain after appendectomy.


Article
Aggregate Production Planning Using Goals Programming(ENG)
التخطيط الشامل للإنتاج باستخدام برمجة الأهداف

Author: Monim A. Gasim منعم عبدا لواحد جاسم
Journal: AL Rafdain Engineering Journal مجلة هندسة الرافدين ISSN: 18130526 Year: 2013 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 78-89
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Abstract This paper investigates Aggregate Production Planning (APP) model in a multi-plant producing multi-product to satisfy portion of fully deterministic demand in several cities for short term planning horizon. A Preemptive Goal Programming (PGP) approach is proposed with different scenarios to solve the APP model with conflicting multi-objective functions in order to maximize the total net profit with limited investment (budget), limited storage space, production capacity, and resources of the company. The proposed PGP model is also used to minimize the total production, inventory, transportation and defective items costs with optimum transportation pattern. A model is optimality solved and validated for a small numeric example of production planning problem with the results of optimal solutions for different scenarios obtained using optimization software LINGO package.Keywords: Aggregate production planning, Linear programming, Multi-objective criteria, Preemptive Goal Programming, Transportation .

تحقق في هذا البحث بناء نموذج للتخطيط الشامل لإنتاج أنواع من المنتجات في عدة مصانع لتحقيق جزء من الطلب المحدد من قبل عدد من المدن لفترة قصيرة الأمد . أستخدم في النموذج المقترح طريقة برمجة الأهداف بمختلف السيناريوهات في حل مسألة التخطيط الشامل للإنتاج بعدة دوال لأهداف متضاربة لغرض تحقيق أقصى الأرباح بموارد استثمار, مساحة خزن , طاقة إنتاجية , وموارد أخرى محدودة. أستخدم النموذج المقترح أيضا في أيجاد أقل ما يمكن من تكاليف ألإنتاج , الخزن , ألنقل بين المدن , وتكاليف القطع التالفة, مع أيجاد الخطة المثلى للنقل. جرى تطبيق النموذج المقترح على أحد أمثلة التخطيط الشامل للإنتاج لبيان فاعلية النموذج وتم استخراج نتائج الحلول المثلى لسيناريوهات مختلفة باستخدام البرنامج الجاهز LINGO .


Article
Application of the Goal programming to measure and improve the productive performance of petroleum products in the refinery of Dora
تطبيق اسلوب برمجة الاهداف لقياس وترشيد الاداء الانتاجي للمنتجات النفطية في مصفى الدورة

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Abstract

This study deals with the use of the method of programming goals, which is one of the most important techniques used in the research process to make the decision by modeling the reality in the form of a mathematical model is a reflection of the institution sample research in terms of resources and energies in order to achieve multiple goals at the same time. These objectives are called in the mathematical model of positive and negative deviation variables, which we seek through the objective function to reduce the total deviations of those variables to the extent that achieves the balance of the target constraints and priorities set by the administration in the implementation. So a multi-objective mathematical model was constructed, Aims to achieve the liquidator's objectives of increasing production capacities and improving the quality of products as well as reducing the emissions of toxic gases due to combustion operations inside the refinery.

تناول هذا البحث استخدام اسلوب برمجة الاهداف والتي تعد من اهم التقنيات المستخدمة في بحوث العمليات لاتخاذ القرار من خلال نمذجة الواقع العملي على شكل انموذج رياضي يعد انعكاساً للمؤسسة عينة البحث من حيث مواردها وطاقاتها بهدف تحقيق اهدافها المتعددة في آن واحد. ويطلق على هذه الاهداف في الانموذج الرياضي بمتغيرات الانحراف الموجبة والسالبة والتي نسعى من خلال دالة الهدف تقليل مجموع انحرافات تلك المتغيرات الى الحد الذي يحقق توازن القيود الهدفية وحسب اولويات تحددها الادارة في التنفيذ ، لذا تم بناء انموذج رياضي متعدد الاهداف يمثل انتاج المشتقات النفطية في مصفى الدورة يهدف الى تحقيق اهداف المصفى المتمثلة في زيادة الطاقات الانتاجية وتحسين جودة المنتجات وكذلك تقليل انبعاثات الغازات السامة جراء عمليات الاحتراق داخل المصفى.

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