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Article
Retrospective Study On Management Of Gestational TrophoplasticDisease In Baghdad Teaching Hospital

Author: Riyadh A. Al-Baldawi *
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 3 Pages: 262-266
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The Aim Of This Study Is To Determine The Modalities Of Treatment Of GTD In Baghdad Teaching Hospital And To Assess The Efficacy Of Our Management Protocols.
Patients &Methods: Department Of Obstetrics & Gynecology- Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Retrospective Analysis Of Case Records Between January 1999 To December2000. 41 Patients' Data Were Reviewed For Age, Gravidity, Parity, Blood Group, Antecedent Pregnancy And Clinical Presentation At The Time Of Diagnosis. Monitoring Of Hcg Level Before And After Chemotherapy, Other Investigations Were Reviewed, Looking For Number, Size And Site Of Metastasis. The Patient Were Classified According To WHO Scoring System. We Evaluate The Lines )f Management, Chemotherapeutic Protocols And The Number Of Chemotherapy Courses For 'atient's Remission.
Results; The Most Common Presenting Symptom Was Vaginal Bleeding 70.7%. Dilatation And iuction Curettage Was The First Line Of Treatment, Although 4 Patients (9.8%) Ended With hysterectomy For Persistent Bleeding. Based On WHO Scoring System, Initial Assessment Shows That 78.04 % In The Low Risk Group, And 19.5 %In The Medium Risk Group And One Patient In The High Risk Group. Complete Remission Was Achieved With Administration Of 2- 7 Courses Of Single Agent Chemotherapy In 84.3 % In The Low Risk Group, While 5 Patient (15.6%) Show Resistance To Single Agent Protocol And Shifted To Combined Chemotherapy. Nine Patients In The Medium And High Risk Groups Started With Combined Chemotherapy. The Cure Rate In The Low And Medium Risk Groups Were 100%.
Conclusion; Chemotherapy Is The Main Line Of Management For Persistent GTD In Baghdad Teaching Hospital, And For The Low Risk Group We Found That Parantral MTX And Folinic Acid Had A Very Good Remission Rate And Patients Whom Developed Resistance , And Those In The Medium Risk Group Can Achieve Excellent Remission Rate With Multiple Agents Chemotherapy.


Article
Ibin Taimia Jurisprudence Priorities in his Book Majmuaa Alfatawa in Personal Record
الأولويات الفقهية لابن تيمية في كتابه مجموع الفتاوى في الأحوال الشخصية

Author: Abass Ali Mahmud Alqaisy عباس علي محمود القيسي
Journal: Anbar University Journal of Islamic Sciences مجلة جامعة الأنبار للعلوم الإسلامية ISSN: 20716028/27068722 Year: 2009 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 110-147
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Introduction :Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds and the best prayer.After ..The Islamic nation is rich in scientific heritage, which is a pride for them throughout the ages and times as it is one of the pillars of its renaissance and the fruit of the fruits of its life and culture and a title of the glory and glory.It is only thanks to God for this nation that has made our religion fit for every time and place and according to the priorities we can arrange judgments and organize actions by providing the first and most likely on the likely without excessive and not neglect to preserve the unity of the nation and reach them to safety.Failure to follow the jurisprudence of priorities, which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not neglect, nor to his esteemed companions, led to the enemies of this nation demanding them by activating the differences resulting from the incorrect understanding of this religion. Teemed with them at this time.The jurisprudence priorities in personal status stated that the structure through which the nation proceeds to achieve the goals of Islam.For that importance I chose to be the subject of research (jurisprudential priorities of Ibn Taymiyyah in the book of total fatwas in personal status).Note that my thesis, which obtained a doctorate in Islamic jurisprudence from the Islamic University in Baghdad was entitled (Fiqh priorities when Imam Ibn Taymiyyah through his book fatwas in the door of worship), I wanted this research and the next research - God willing - to complete jurisprudence priorities When Ibn Taymiyah in his book the total fatwas in the door transactions.After trusting in God I took looking at this area of ​​jurisprud

المقدمة :الحمد لله رب العالمين وأفضل الصلاة وأتم التسليم على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه الطيبين الطاهرين ومن سار على هديهم ونهجهم إلى يوم الدين .أما بعد ..فإن الأمة الإسلامية غنية بتراثها العلمي الذي يعد مفخرة لها على مر العصور والأزمان كما إنه ركن من أركان نهضتها وثمرة من ثمار حياتها وثقافتها وعنواناً من عناوين عزتها ومجدها .وما ذلك إلا بفضل الله تعالى على هذه الأمة إذ جعل ديننا يصلح لكل زمان ومكان وبفقه الأولويات نستطيع أن نرتب الأحكام وننظم الأفعال من خلال تقديم الأولى فالأولى والراجح على المرجوح من غير إفراط ولا تفريط للحفاظ على وحدة الأمة والوصول بها إلى بر الأمان .وعدم الأخذ بفقه الأولويات الذي لم يهمله الرسول – صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – ولا أصحابه الكرام أدى إلى تكالب أعداء هذه الأمة عليها من خلال تفعيل الخلافات الناتجة عن الفهم غير الصحيح لهذا الدين لذا أصبح من الضروري تفعيل فقه الأولويات للخروج بهذه الأمة من تلك الخلافات والفتن التي عجت بها في هذا الزمان .والأولويات الفقهية في الأحوال الشخصية صرح من ذلك البنيان الذي به ومن خلاله تنطلق الأمة إلى تحقيق أهداف الإسلام .ولتلك الأهمية أخترت أن يكون موضوع بحثي (الأولويات الفقهية لابن تيمية في كتاب مجموع الفتاوى في الأحوال الشخصية) .علماً أن أطروحتي التي حصلت بها على درجة الدكتوراه في الفقه الإسلامي من الجامعة الإسلامية في بغداد كانت بعنوان (فقه الأولويات عند الإمام ابن تيمية من خلال كتابه مجموع الفتاوى في باب العبادات) ، فأردت بهذا البحث والبحوث القادمة – إن شاء الله – أن أكمل فقه الأولويات عند ابن تيمية في كتابه مجموع الفتاوى في باب المعاملات .وبعد التوكل على الله أخذت أبحث في هذا المجال من الفقه .


Article
Effectiveness of Modified UKALL protocols in Children with Acute

Author: Hasanein H. Ghali
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-60
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background:Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) is the most common diagnosisin childhood cancer. Cure is possible and even likely. Aims of study: To evaluatethe effectiveness of modified UKALL protocols in a setting with limited resourcesand to define an event free survival of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in childrenaged 1 ‐15 years who were committed to finish treatment.Methods: This is a retrospective study that reviewed 559 children with newlydiagnosed ALL between 1 and 15 years of age during the period: January 1st, 2000to December 31st, 2009 who were committed to finish treatment protocol. Allpatients were treated with regimens modified from Medical Research Councilprotocol (United Kingdom Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia‐ UKALL‐ protocols).The Event Free Survival (EFS) was measured using Kaplan – Meier method with atotal duration of observation till December 31st 2011 (a minimum of two years poststarting treatment) and data were processed and tabulated using SPSS (StatisticalPackage for the Social Sciences) .Results:The majority of treated children (348, 62.2%) were standard risk group;remission induction was achieved in 461(82.4%) patients. Eleven patients (1.9%)were poor responders. Death during first 60 days from treatment was reported in87 (15.5%) patients and death in complete remission (CR) was reported in 49 (8.7%)patients. The major presumptive causes of death were infection/sepsis followedby bleeding. Of 559 patients; 302(54%) remained in continuous complete remissionwith a median follow up time of 52.5 months (range from 23.9 months‐ 11.6 years).There was a significant difference in EFS between Standard Risk group (61.2%) andHigh Risk group (42.2%) after induction (P=0.02) and in later phases of therapy(P=0.0002). Increased relapse rate in high risk group was the reason behind thedifference in EFS (P=0.0004) between two groups. Relapses were documented in110(19.6%) patients and the bone marrow (51.8%) was the main site of relapsefollowed by CNS (27.2%).Conclusion:The study showed lower ALL EFS than that of recognized cancercenters.


Article
Mitigate Congestion of Wireless Sensor Network using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Shuruq Khalid abed-alrydi --- Hussein Attya Lafta
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 536-549
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN) are used in many application areas such as industrial and civilian. Sensors will be shared by multiple applications to collect several types of data. Not all data be equivalence in the important, some data may be more important than other so loss this data may cause problems . Packet losses and retransmissions resulting from congestion and cause loss important data and decrease the lifetime of sensor nodes. This problem need for control to reduce the loss data, energy consuming and etc. The main aim of this paper is to discuss how can use genetic algorithm(GA) to optimize the parameters that can affect on congestion in WSN and then evaluate the performance of network used AODV,DSDV,DSR and NOAH routing protocols by using NS-2 simulator.

تستخدم المتحسسات اللاسلكية اليوم في عدة تطبيقات مثل التطبيقات الصناعية و المدنية وغيرها. يشارك المتحسس بعدة تطبيقات لتجميع عدة أنواع من البيانات. ليس كل أنواع البيانات بنفس الأهمية بعض البيانات تكون أكثر أهمية من الأخرى لذلك فقدان هذه البيانات يسبب مشاكل . فقدان البيانات وإعادة الإرسال ناتج عن الازدحام ويسبب فقدان بيانات مهمة وتقليل عمر عقدة المتحسس. هذه المشكلة تحتاج إلى سيطرة لتقليل فقدان البيانات , استهلاك الطاقة وغيرها.الهدف الرئيسي لهذا البحث هو كيف يمكن تكيف عمل الخوارزمية الجينية للحصول على أفضل قيم للمعاملات التي تؤثر في الازدحام في الشبكات المتحسسات اللاسلكية ومن ثم تقيم عمل ألشبكه للبروتوكولات AODV, DSDV,DSR و NOAH باستخدام محاكي الشبكات NS-2.

Keywords

WSN --- GA --- protocols --- AODV --- DSDV --- DSR --- NOAH


Article
Analysis, Modeling, and Design of a Reliable Wide Area Network Case Study for Tikrit University Intranet

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Sileh --- Sufyan H. Ali --- Musaria Karim Mahmood
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2018 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-39
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This work presents the analysis and modeling of communication network used for data transmission with multi-protocols in campus network. The designed network is based on the geographical location of communication nodes. (Colleges and centers). Network optimal backbone is first designed by Kruskal algorithm. It will be subject to reliability improvement by links addition. Tie-sets method is used to evaluate the network reliability. Communication nodes are modeled using local area network (LAN), server, links, router, switch, and Firewall. Intranet will be used as communication backbone mainly to connect different communication nodes with the Principal Communication Center (PCC) where the System Server (SS) is located. The connection of Intranet to the Internet is mad via the front-end system server (SS). Tikrit University Intranet (TUI) is taking as case study in the present research. Tikrit University sites are grouped into master communication nodes. Each node is composed from several colleges, centers, and administrative sections.


Article
Proposed Approach for Key Generation Based on Elliptic Curve (EC) Algebra and Metaheuristic Algorithms
اقتراح طريقة لتوليد المفاتيح بالاعتماد على رياضيات المنحني الاهليجي والخوارزميات الفوق توجيهة

Authors: Hala Bahjat Abdul Wahab --- Suhad Malallah Kadhem --- Estabraq Abdul Redaa Kadhim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 333-346
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The key management is an important area of research in internet applications, because protecting secret messages during transmission becomes an essential issue for the Internet. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has attracted the attention of researchers and product developers due to its robust mathematical structure and highest security compared to other existing algorithms. This paper produces a new cryptographic key generation approach that investigate from metaheuristic algorithms (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) and Variable Neighborhood Search(VNS)) in order generate symmetric mask key that consist of more the one EC points with minimum correlation among points. The proposed approach aims to combine between the features of elliptic curve arithmetic, Discrete Logarithm and metaheuristic algorithms (GRASP and VNS) to produce robust symmetric cryptography key (mask key). The proposed approach tested and gives efficient results when compared with other previous approach in term of secrecy and privacy .

تعتبر ادارة المفاتيح من اهم المجالات البحثية الموجودة على تطبيقات الانترنت وذلك لأنه حماية الرسائل السرية خلال ارسالها اصبحت مسألة اساسية في الانترنت . التشفير باستخدام المنحني الاهليجي قد لفت الانظار بالنسبة للباحيثين ومطوري المنتجات نظرا لقوة الهيكلية الرياضية والامنية العالية الخاصة به عندما يتم مقارنته مع بقية الطرق الموجودة. هذا البحث يقدم طريقة جديدة لتوليد مفتاح وذلك من خلال الاستفادة من خوارزميات الفوق توجيهية الذكية وهي GRASP و VNS من اجل توليد مفتاح تشفير متماثل يتألف من مجموعة من نقاط المنحني الاهليجي ذات ترابط قليل بين نقاط المنحني الاهليجي . الطريقة المقترحة تهدف الى الدمج بين رياضيات واللوغارتمات المنفصلة للمنحني الاهليجي مع الخوارزميات الفوق توجيهية الذكية من اجل الحصول على مفتاح تشفير متماثل قوي وامن . الطريقة المقترحة تم اختبارها اعتمادا على الفحوصات الشائعهوقد أعطت نتائج كفؤه ومشجعة وذلك عندما تمت مقارنتها مع اعمال السابقة من ناحية الامنية والسرية .


Article
A Performance Comparison of Various Routing Protocols Based on Load-Balance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
مقارنة الأداء لبروتوكولات التوجيه المختلفة بناءاً على موازنة التحميل في الشبكات المخصصة المتنقلة

Author: Ali Hassan Muosa علي حسن موسى
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: 66291818 Year: 2014 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to comparison between five routing protocols, which have central role in any Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Load-Balance Ad hoc Routing (LBAR), Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), and Load Balancing Routing Mechanism (LBRM) protocols. That may generally be categorized as Table-Driven and On-Demand routing, and decide what are the best operational conditions, for each protocol and explain how the pause time and number of nodes affect their based Load-Balance. Also, performance is measured based on the metrics Average End-to-End delay, Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF) ratio, and Normalized Routing Load (NRL). To implement this comparison between these routing protocols we used simulation to evaluate performance of this comparison. The simulation is performed under Network Simulator 2 (NS-2) to provide on the results agree with awaited search results based on Load-Balancing.

الغرض من هذه البحث هو تقديم مقارنة بين خمسة من بروتوكولات التوجيه واالتي لها دور اساسي في أي شبكة مخصصة متنقلة مثل بروتوكولات، المخصص بناء على الطلب المسافة المتجهات (AODV)، توجيه المصدر الديناميكي (DSR)، موازنة التحميل للتوجيه المخصص (LBAR)، تحسين حالة ارتباط التوجيه (OLSR)، وموازنة تحميل آلية التوجيه (LBRM). التي هي بالعموم يتم تصنيفها على أنها التوجيه بالجدولة و التوجيه عند الطلب ، وتقرير ما هي أفضل الظروف التشغيلية لكل بروتوكول وتوضيح كيف أن الوقت وعدد العقد تؤثر على أساس موازنة التحميل. أيضا، يتم قياس الأداء على أساس مقاييس متوسط الزمن بين النهايات، حزم تسليم الجزء (PDF) النسبية، وتطبيع توجيه التحميل (NRL). لتنفيذ هذه المقارنة بين أن هذه البروتوكولات الخاصة بالتوجيه نستخدم محاكاة لتقييم أداء هذه المقارنة. يتم تنفيذ المحاكاة بواسطة شبكة محاكاة 2 (NS-2) لتقديم نتائج تتفق مع نتائج البحث المنتظرة على أساس موازنة التحميل.


Article
Recent Multicast Routing Protocols in VANET: Classification and Comparison

Authors: 1Ahmed Jawad Kadhim --- Seyed Amin Hosseini Seno
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 5 Pages: 371-382
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) classified as one of the most important classes of next generation networks that developedin recent years rapidly for vehicles and road transmissions. It can helpin implementing a large set of applications related to vehicles, traffic light, traffic jam, drivers, passengers, ambulance, police, fire trucks and even pedestrians. Routing is the most prominent problem in thetransmission of information in VANETs and there are many modes of dissemination: unicast, broadcast, multicast and geocast. In this paper, we will focus only on the multicast that is referring to a process of sending information from one node (called source vehicle) to a group of nodes that found in different locations (called destination vehicles). The purpose of this paper is to study the existing multicast routing protocols in VANET and produce good survey about them and determine the advantages and disadvantages of each one as well as classify them into different categories based on some effected parameters such as quality of service, vehicle trajectory and etc. After analyzing these routing protocols we concluded that there is persistent need to produce efficient multicast routing protocol in this network to decrease the resource consumption and improve the overall performance.

الشبكةالمخصصةللسيارات (VANET) صنفت باعتبارهاواحدةمنأهمفئاتشبكاتالجيلالتاليالتي طورت فيالسنواتالأخيرةبسرعةبالنسبةللمركباتوعملياتنقلالطرق. هذه الشبكه يمكنأنتساعدفيتنفيذمجموعةكبيرةمنالتطبيقاتالمتعلقةبالمركبات،اشارةالمرور،ازدحامالمرور، السائقين، الركاب، الإسعاف،الشرطة، سياراتالإطفاءوحتىالمشاة. التوجيههوالمشكلةالأبرزفينقلالمعلوماتفيالـ VANETوهناكالعديدمنوسائطالنشر: البث الاحادي، البثالمتعددوالبحث في منطقه جغرافيه معينه (geocast). فيهذهالمقالهسوفنركزفقطعلىالإرسالالمتعددالذييشيرإلىعمليةإرسالمعلوماتمنعقدةواحدة (تسمىالمركبةالمصدر) إلىمجموعةمنالعقدالموجودةفيمواقعمختلفة (تسمىالمركباتالهدف). والغرضمنهذهالمقالةهودراسةبروتوكولاتتوجيهالإرسالالمتعددالموجودةفيالـ VANETوإنتاج دراسهجيدعنهاوتحديدمزاياوعيوبكلمنهاوكذلكتصنيفهاإلىفئاتمختلفةاستناداإلىبعضالعواملالمؤثرةمثلنوعيةالخدمة، مسار المركبة وماإلىذلك. وبعدتحليلبروتوكولاتالتوجيههذهوجدناأنهناكحاجةملحةلإنتاجبروتوكولتوجيهمتعددالإرسالفعاللهذهالشبكةلتقليلاستهلاكالمواردوتحسينالأداءالعام.


Article
Recent Multicast Routing Protocols in VANET: Classification and Comparison

Authors: 1Ahmed Jawad Kadhim --- Seyed Amin Hosseini Seno
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 5 Pages: 371-382
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) classified as one of the most important classes of next generation networks that developedin recent years rapidly for vehicles and road transmissions. It can helpin implementing a large set of applications related to vehicles, traffic light, traffic jam, drivers, passengers, ambulance, police, fire trucks and even pedestrians. Routing is the most prominent problem in thetransmission of information in VANETs and there are many modes of dissemination: unicast, broadcast, multicast and geocast. In this paper, we will focus only on the multicast that is referring to a process of sending information from one node (called source vehicle) to a group of nodes that found in different locations (called destination vehicles). The purpose of this paper is to study the existing multicast routing protocols in VANET and produce good survey about them and determine the advantages and disadvantages of each one as well as classify them into different categories based on some effected parameters such as quality of service, vehicle trajectory and etc. After analyzing these routing protocols we concluded that there is persistent need to produce efficient multicast routing protocol in this network to decrease the resource consumption and improve the overall performance.

الشبكةالمخصصةللسيارات (VANET) صنفت باعتبارهاواحدةمنأهمفئاتشبكاتالجيلالتاليالتي طورت فيالسنواتالأخيرةبسرعةبالنسبةللمركباتوعملياتنقلالطرق. هذه الشبكه يمكنأنتساعدفيتنفيذمجموعةكبيرةمنالتطبيقاتالمتعلقةبالمركبات،اشارةالمرور،ازدحامالمرور، السائقين، الركاب، الإسعاف،الشرطة، سياراتالإطفاءوحتىالمشاة. التوجيههوالمشكلةالأبرزفينقلالمعلوماتفيالـ VANETوهناكالعديدمنوسائطالنشر: البث الاحادي، البثالمتعددوالبحث في منطقه جغرافيه معينه (geocast). فيهذهالمقالهسوفنركزفقطعلىالإرسالالمتعددالذييشيرإلىعمليةإرسالمعلوماتمنعقدةواحدة (تسمىالمركبةالمصدر) إلىمجموعةمنالعقدالموجودةفيمواقعمختلفة (تسمىالمركباتالهدف). والغرضمنهذهالمقالةهودراسةبروتوكولاتتوجيهالإرسالالمتعددالموجودةفيالـ VANETوإنتاج دراسهجيدعنهاوتحديدمزاياوعيوبكلمنهاوكذلكتصنيفهاإلىفئاتمختلفةاستناداإلىبعضالعواملالمؤثرةمثلنوعيةالخدمة، مسار المركبة وماإلىذلك. وبعدتحليلبروتوكولاتالتوجيههذهوجدناأنهناكحاجةملحةلإنتاجبروتوكولتوجيهمتعددالإرسالفعاللهذهالشبكةلتقليلاستهلاكالمواردوتحسينالأداءالعام.


Article
Routing with Energy Threshold for WSN-IoT Based on RPL Protocol

Authors: Abdulkareem Abdulrahman Kadhim --- Sarah Ammar Rafea
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS,COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING المجلة العراقية لهندسة الحاسبات والاتصالات والسيطرة والنظم ISSN: 18119212 Year: 2019 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-81
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) enables things to have connectivity throughthe internet. The number of things is growing fast and has to be uniquelyidentified through the Internet to communicate with other things. In WirelessSensor Networks (WSNs) each node can be considered as a thing. WSN noderesources are very limited due to the need to communicate using low power andusually through unreliable links. Such limitations need an energy efficientrouting protocol. WSN is considered as a type of Low power and LossyNetwork (LLN). The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL)is being adopted for LLN and has been standardized to enable connectivity ofWSN over IoT. RPL constricted a topology similar to tree topology. Nodes inRPL optimized its path using an objective function (OF). OF depends ondifferent node/link metrics in the optimization process. In this paper, an EnergyThreshold RPL (ETRPL) protocol is proposed. ETRPL depends on a newobjective function to enhance energy consumption of RPL protocol by takinginto account the remaining energy of the preferred parent node. ETRPL isimplemented using Cooja simulator. The results show that ETRPL provides anincrease in the remaining energy of at least 87.4% for a small area with highnumber of nodes. ETRPL also performed better with regards to Time Delay,Packet Reception Ratio, and the number of dead nodes in a small area. For alarge area, the performance is not encouraging. Thus the proposed ETRPLprotocol is useful for IoT networks with relatively small areas.

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