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Article
Construction Risk Management

Authors: Abbas M. Burhan --- Zuhair M. Saco
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2006 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 373-387
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In most of the construction projects, there are many events or risks may occur during the execution of project. These risks (e.g. the excess of project cost or the expected time, increasing the prices of material and labor, accidents, changes, engineering errors or omissions, bad quality, delay in reaching the facilities to the site, etc.) may effect negatively on the project and the parties. Therefore, these risks must be identified and assessed accurately to avoid or reduce the negative effects for these risks. The concept of risk is used to assess and evaluate uncertainties associated with an event or a process. A construction process includes many uncertainties, therefore, the construction project’s parties are becoming aware of the construction process and thus the risks within this process are seeking more and more clarification that all is being done to remove foreseeable risk and minimize unforeseeable risk. It is also becoming clear that generic approaches to the management of risk are maturing and becoming easier to apply.

في أغلب المشاريع الإنشائية يتوقع حدوث الكثير من الأحداث أو المخاطر أثناء التنفيذ. تلك المخاطر ( مثل زيادة كلفة المشروع أو الزمن المتوقع لإنهائه، زيادة أسعار المواد أو العمال، الحوادث، التغيرات، الأخطاء والأهمالات، النوعية السيئة، ألخ ) ممكن أن تؤثر بصورة سلبية على المشروع وأطراف المشروع. لذا فأن تلك المخاطر يجب أ، تكون محددة ومقيمة بصورة دقيقة من أجل تجنب أو تقليل التأثيرات السلبية لتلك المخاطر. أن صناعة الإنشاء هي محاولة خطرة مع العديد من الشكوك المرتبطة بأحداث أو ظروف. تلك الأحداث ممكن أن تكون مخاطر منظورة (مثل تأخيرات، أضرا بات، إصابات، أخطاء وأهمالات، الخ) أو قد تكون مخاطر غير منظورة (مثل فيضانات، زلازل، حروب، الخ). أن مفهوم المخاطر يكون مستخدم لتقييم تلك الشكوك المرتبطة بحدث أو عملية. ولما كانت تلك الصناعة تتضمن الكثير من الشكوك (أو عدم التأكيد) فأن أطراف المشروع أصبحوا قلقين من تلك العملية الإنشائية التي فيها كل الأطراف يحاولون أن يتجنبوا المخاطر المنظورة ويقللوا من المخاطر غير المنظورة. كذلك أصبح واضح بأن مداخل كثيرة لإدارة المخاطر أصبحت مدروسة وسهلة التطبيق.


Article
Maternal and Fetal Risk Factors Associated with Hypospadias in a Sample of Iraqi Boys

Author: Saif H. Al-Tamimi, Firas S. Al-Quraishi, Aseel A. Naji1
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 174-178
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies among boys. The exact causes of this anomaly are not clearlydefined yet. However, many of the risk factors have been identified in different ethnic groups. Objective: The objectives of this study are toevaluate the maternal‑ and fetal‑related risk factors for hypospadias in a sample of Iraqi patients. Materials and Methods: This case–controlstudy included 42 boys with hypospadias cases and other 42 age‑matched boys free from any genital anomalies as a control group. Maternaldata, including age, parity, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), the use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), levelof education, consanguinity, and residence; and infant‑related factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the risk of each variablethrough the calculation of odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% of confidence interval (CI). Results: Three maternal factors were found tobe associated significantly with increased risk of hypospadias. These were maternal age >33 years (OR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.02–9.26, P = 0.045),consanguineous marriage (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.02–8.8, P = 0.045), and rural residence (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.04–6.73, P = 0.041).Hypertension, DM, and using ART were more frequent among mothers of cases than controls; however, the differences were not significant.For fetal‑related factors, infants with low‑birth weight (LBW) were more frequent among cases than controls (40.48% vs. 19.05%), with astatistically significant difference (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.08–7.75, P =0.035). Of note, twins were more frequent among cases than controls;however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.074). Conclusions: These results highly suggest the critical role of advancedmaternal age, consanguinity, rural residence, and infant LBW, as predisposing factors for the occurrence of hypospadias among Iraqi boys.


Article
Causative Organisms and Risk Factors In Bacterial Meningitis in Al-Elwia Childhood Hospital - Baghdad

Author: Ban Abdul Hameed بان عبد الحميد
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Childhood meningitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, Hemophilus influenza b (Hib) is the most common cause in many countries, especially below 5 years and before the development of conjugated Hib vaccine, it is followed by Streptococcus Pneumonia, and then N. meningitides, in addition to other microorganisms. Objective: To identify the causative organisms of bacterial meningitis and to identify the factors predisposing significantly to the incidence of bacterial meningitis. Method: This cross sectional , study was done in Al-Elwia Pediatric Hospital during the period 1st of January 2007 to 30th of June 2007.Eighty four patients with presumptive diagnosis of meningitis were included in this study, from the age of 2 months -12 years, History about some risk factors were taken in details. Analysis of cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) with Gram stains & cultures were done in all cases. Results: The number of cases of meningitis was 50 (20 proved meningitis & 30 partially treated meningitis), while 34 patients are found to have no meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 45%, Hemophilus Influenza b in 20%, while Nisseria meningitides 5%, other organisms include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, & salmonella. Many factors affecting the occurrence of bacterial meningitis & these include: age, sex, residence, body weight and home overcrowding. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be the predominant microorganism causing bacterial meningitis in children aged 2 months-12 years, followed by Hemophilus influenza b, while N. meningitides were one of the rare bacteria which had been identified. E. coli was found to be the major cause in cases of ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt meningitis.


Article
RISK FACTORS FOR ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AMONG PATIENTS ADMITTED TO CORONARY CARE UNIT (CCU) IN AL-HUSSAIN HOSPITAL IN KARBALLA

Authors: Jalal Abdul Gahni جلال عبد الرزاق عبد غني --- Najlaa F Jamil نجلاء فوزي جميل
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 240-246
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundAdequate control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and health habits are important for preventing ischemic heart disease, but it has been reported that many patients remain uncontrolled despite regular care.ObjectiveTo identify some of the risk factors of ischemic heart diseases among patients admitted to coronary care unit (CCU).MethodsA hospital based case-control study was conducted in AL-Hussain Hospital in Karballa, from January 2007 to October 2007. The study included 300 cases of ischemic heart disease admitted to coronary care unit (CCU) of the hospital during the study period, and 300 age & sex matched controls, who attended the outpatient clinic of the same hospital. All the participants were interviewed with a special questionnaire form. In addition the weight and height were measured for both cases and controls to determine their body mass index (BMI).Result73 (24.3%) of the cases were in the age group (60-69) years. The females accounts for two third of cases, 199 (66.3%) in comparison to males 101 (33.7%).The study showed a statistical significant association between the following risk factors and admission to CCU: smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and positive family history of various cardiovascular diseases among first degree relatives of the cases.ConclusionsThe admission to CCU was more common in the age group (60-69) years and the females were more likely than males need for CCU admission, patients with the following risk factors were in more need to CCU admission than others: smoking, elevated body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes and positive family history of various cardiovascular diseases among first degree relatives of the cases.Key wordsrisk factors, CCU admission


Article
An Evaluation of Risk Factors for Stroke in Iraqi Patients
تقييم عوامل الخطورة لمرضى الطارئة الوعائية الدماغية عند العراقيين

Authors: Hazim Abdul-Razak د. حازم عبد الرزاق --- Sami Shati د. سامي شاتي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 4 Pages: 320-325
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Stroke continues to rank among the top of main causes of death throughout the world, stroke is frequently followed by significant disability.Objective: To study the relationship of various suspected risk factors to occurrence of stroke.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that included 200 patients with stroke and was examined for evidences of presence of risk factors and followed during their hospital admission, the study was carried out in Yarmouk Teaching hospital from Jan 2006 to Sept 2006.Results: This study showed that age is significantly related to the incidence of stroke, and advancing age (age more than 60 years) showed increased incidence of stroke. Other risk factors included hypertension (HT) detected in 117 patients (55.5%), smoking was detected in 104 patients (52%) , heart diseases were collectively detected in 94 patients (47%) , diabetes mellitus (DM) detected in 60 patients (36.6%) and hypercholesterolemia detected in 50 patients (25%) ,history of previous cerebrovascular accidents 15 patients (7.5%) ,previous transient ischemic attack (TIA) symptoms detected in 10 patients (5%),alcohol consumption was found in 5 patients (2.5%) and polecythemia in 2 patients (1%).Conclusion: Advancing age ,HT, smoking, heart diseases, DM , and hypercholesterolemia are found to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of stroke ,while history of previous CVA ,old TIA symptoms, polecythemia and alcohol consumption were found to be not significant statistically as a predisposing risk factors to strokeKeywords: Risk Factors, Stroke

لخلفية :الطارئة الوعائية الدماغية تصنف باستمرار ضمن المسببات الاكثر للوفيات في مختلف انحاء العالم , وأن الاصابة المرضية كثيرا ما تتبعها حالات عجز وظيفية للجسم .الهدف : دراسة العلاقة بين مختلف عوامل الخطورة المتوقعة وحدوث الطارئة الوعائية الدماغية .الطريقة : الدراسة تضمنت 200 مريضا مصابين بالطارئة الوعائية الدماغية وقد خضعوا للفحص والبحث عن عوامل الخطورة خلال فترة رقودهم في مستشفى اليرموك التعليمي , وقد جرت هذه الدراسة خلال الفترة من شهر كانون الثاني الى شهر ايلول 2006 .النتائج: العمر له ترابط مهم مع حدوث الطارئة الوعائية الدماغية وتزداد نسبة الاصابة بالمرض مع ازدياد عمر الأنسان . عوامل الخطورة تشمل ارتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني وقد وجد في 117 مريض (55,5% ) التدخين اكتشف في 94 مريض (47 % ) , امراض القلب اجمالا اكتشفت في 94 مريض (47 % ) , داء السكري اكتشف في 60 مريض ( 36,6 % ) , ارتفاع نسبة الكوليسترول في الدم اكتشفت في 50 مريض ( 25 % ) , الاصابة السابقة بالطارئة الوعائية الدماغية في 15 مريض ( 7,5 % ) ,الاصابة السابقة بأعراض الطارئة الوعائية المؤقته اكتشفت في 10 مرضى ( 5 % ) , ازدياد نسبة صبغة الدم في 2 مرضى ( 1 % ) وتناول الكحول في 5 مرضى ( 2,5 % ) . اثبتت التحليلات الأحصائية ان هناك ترابط مهم بين وجود عوامل الخطورة مثل ارتفاع ضغط الدم ,التدخين , امراض القلب , داء السكري وارتفاع نسبة الكوليسترول في الدم مع الاصابة بالطارئة الوعائية الدماغية .بقية العوامل مثل الاصابة السابقة بالطارئة الوعائية الدماغية , الاعراض القديمة للطارئة الوعائية المؤقته , تناول الكحول وارتفاع نسبة صبغة الدم لم يثبت أنها ذات علاقة مهمه مع حدوث الطارئة الوعائية الدماغية .اللأستنتاج : عوامل الخطورة المهمة ( ارتفاع ضغط الدم , التدخين , امراض القلب , داء السكري وارتفاع نسبة الكوليسترول في الدم ) , ثبت احصائيا اهميتها . العوامل الاخرى مثل الاصابة السابقة بالطارئة الوعائية الدماغية ,الاعراض القديمة للطارئة الوعائية المؤقتة ,تناول الكحول وارتفاع نسبة صبغة الدم لم يثبت اهميتها احصائيا

Keywords

Risk Factors --- Stroke


Article
Stroke Related Pneumonia Incidence and Possible Risk Factors

Authors: Ahmad M. Jaffer --- Kassim M. Sultan --- Akram Al-Mahdawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 376-381
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The stroke patient is at risk of developing hospital acquired infection, with the lungs being especially vulnerable. Stroke associated pneumonia (SAP) occurring after two days of admission and is the most nosocomial infection seen in the medical wards , pneumonia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after stroke .The establishment of an accurate diagnosis of stroke associated pneumonia remains problematic and yet there is still no accepted "gold standard" for diagnosis.OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence and risk factors of stroke associated pneumonia.METHODS:This is prospective cohort study for 82 stroke patients admitted to medical wards .The study conduct from the 1st July 2009 to the 10th January 2010. Initially stroke diagnosed clinically and by CT scan. Theses cases are assessed after 48 hours after admission, full history, physical examination and investigations were done using clinical criteria (body temperature, WBC count and chest radiography ) for diagnosis of pneumonia.RESULTS:11(13.4%) patients developed stroke associated pneumonia from 82 stroke patients admitted to medical wards. Most patients who were developed pneumonia were older than patients who did not developed pneumonia . The incidence is higher in patient with infarction and older age groups than patients with hemorrhagic stroke and younger age groups, and there is no association between the disease and gender .The incidence of late onset is more common than early onset pneumonia. Presence of dysphagia was present in (81.8%) nasogastric tube in (72.7% ),unconsciousness(54.5%),tobacco ,vomiting (36.6%) and fit (27.2%) were found as an important risk factors .The mortality more in hemorrhagic(75%) than thrombotic stroke (14.3%).CONCLUSION:stroke associated pneumonia is an important cause of mortality. It is associated with older age, dysphagia , NG intubation ,coma ,vomiting and fit .Simple assessment of these variables could be used to identify patients at high risk of developing pneumonia after stroke.

Keywords

Pneumonia --- stroke --- risk factors


Article
Assessing Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Mosul a case-control study
تقييم عوامل الخطورة لارتفاع ضغط الدم لدى البالغين في الموصل دراسة العينة والشاهد

Author: Waleed Ghanim Ahmad Al-Taee د. وليد غانم احمد ابراهيم الطائي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2010 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-82
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract: Background: Hypertension is a major public health problem. Despite extensive research in the etiology and contributing causes of essential hypertension, the pathogenesis of the condition is still not explained. Hypertension is probably multi-factorial.Objective: To determine the prevalent risk factors of hypertension and its degree of association among adult patients in Mosul.Patients & Methods: Study subjects include 600 adult patients from both sexes (300 cases and 300 controls). Data collection period was four months. A case–control study design has been adopted. A special questionnaire form has been prepared and filled in by the investigator himself for each patient (case and control) through direct interview with patients.Results: Study results revealed a statistically significant association for the disease with male gender, marital states others than single and married, partly skilled occupations, type A personality, cigarette smoking , alcohol consumption, positive family history for hypertension and unhealthy dietary behavior. On the other hand, a negative statistical association has been proved between the disease and non-smoking, physical activity and body mass index ≤ 25.Conclusion: Encouraging hypertensive patients for essential life style changes including adopting regular physical activity, controlling proper body weight, following a proper dietary regimen and quitting smoking and alcohol, looks to be an urgent necessity.Key words: Hypertension, Risk factors.

الملخص:خلفية إجراء الدراسة : يعتبر ارتفاع ضغط الدم من المشاكل الصحية الكبيرة بالمجتمع وعلى الرغم من البحوث العديدة حول الأسباب والعوامل ذات العلاقة , تبقى مرضية الحالة لدى العديد من المرضى بدون تفسير لحد الآن فارتفاع ضغط الدم على الأكثر متعدد العوامل .هدف الدراسة : التعرف على عوامل الخطورة الشائعة لارتفاع ضغط الدم ودرجة ارتباطها مع المرضى البالغين في الموصل .المرضى وطريقة إجراء الدراسة : اشتملت عينة الدراسة على 600 مريض بالغ مصاب بضغط الدم ومن كلا الجنسين (300 حالة و 300 شاهد) . استغرقت فترة جمع البيانات مدة أربعة أشهر . تم اختيار تصميم دراسة العينة والشاهد حيث اعد الباحث نموذج خاص لجمع البيانات تم ملأه من قبل الباحث نفسه لكل مريض (عينة كان أم شاهد) وبأسلوب المقابلة المباشرة مع المريض .نتائج الدراسة : أظهرت نتائج الدراسة وجود علاقة إحصائية معنوية بين المرض وجنس الذكر ، الحالات الزوجية عدا الأعزب والمتزوج ، المهنة ذات المهارة المحدودة ، الشخصية نوع –أ- ، التدخين ، تناول الكحول ، التاريخ الموجب للعائلة بالنسبة للمرض وعادات الغذاء الغير صحية .ومن ناحية أخرى فقد أظهرت الدراسة وجود علاقة إحصائية سلبية بين المرض وعدم التدخين ، إجراء النشاطات البدنية بانتظام ومعيار البدانة 25 فاقل .استنتاجات الدراسة : إن تشجيع مرضى الضغط على إجراء تغييرات مهمة في نمط المعيشة بما فيها إجراء نشاطات بدنية منتظمة والمحافظة على وزن مناسب للجسم وإتباع حميه غذائية مناسبة إضافة إلى ترك التدخين والمشروبات الكحولية تبدو ضرورة ملحة .


Article
Is age -really- a risk factor in pregnancy?

Authors: Riyadh K. Lafta --- Sahar A ISSA
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 325-330
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract: Background: The risk approach fails signally to identify many of women who will need care for complications in childbirth. On the other hand, many women identified as “high risk” go on to have perfectly normal, uneventful births. Objectives: to see if there is a real risk of maternal age in the course and outcome of gestation for both mother and fetus. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Baghdad during the period from March through October 2004, a sample of 200 women (with 642 pregnancies) was randomly chosen from women attending four primary health care centers, Outpatient and antenatal care clinics. Their ages ranged between 13–50 years. The cases were stratified according to age to 3 main groups: below 18 years, above 35 years and (18-35 years); the last was considered as a control group. Results: The young age group was found to have less infection rate, hospital admission, abortion, puerperal complications and neonatal complications compared to the controls and the old age group (that were almost equal in these aspects). Women of primary education level had less complication in all age groups. Women from the young age group were attending antenatal care more adequately than the controls. Conclusion: Young age pregnancies are at lower risk compared to other age groups.Key words: age, risk, pregnancy.

Keywords

age --- risk --- pregnancy.


Article
Risk factors in an association with the osteoarthritis of the knee in Mosul city
عوامل الخطورة المرتبطة مع سوفان الركبة في مدينة الموصل

Author: Yakdhan Z. Alsaleem يقظان زهير السليم
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2013 Volume: 39 Issue: 1 Pages: 84-88
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Osteoarthritis of knee is a common cause of pain and disability. It is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide due to its association with an aging and obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between body mass index, gender, Islamic praying, praying in sitting position, usage of stairs, history of traumas, diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism as risk factors for knee osteoarthritis in population of Mosul city.Patients and methods: This study is a case - control design, it was conducted through the period from Jan 2010 - Jan 2011 in the orthopedic outpatient clinic of Aljumhoori Teaching Hospital in Mosul. The target population of this study consisted of 213, 71 cases (61 females, 10 males), their ages mean 51.77 years, and 142 as controls. Results: The body mass index was higher in cases and shows highly significant difference between cases and control (p ≤ 0.000). Sex distribution in knee osteoarthritis revealed that there was significant difference between females and males as cases of osteoarthritis, (P ≤ 0.0001). Normal Islamic praying, Praying in sitting position, usage of stairs, appeared to be an associated risk factors, history of trauma was significantly higher in cases, while diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism was not associated with the development of osteoarthritis of the knee.Conclusion: Females as a gender, obesity, Islamic praying in sitting position and history of trauma to the knee are important risk factors of osteoarthritis of the knee, while diabetes, hypertension and hypothyroidism are not associated with knee osteoarthritis.Keywords: Osteoarthritis, knee, risk factors.

الخلاصةالخلفية: سوفان مفصل الركبة هو مسبب أساسي وشائع للألم وتدني الكفاءة والقدرة على العمل وهو شائع في كل أرجاء العالم لإرتباطه مع تقدم أعمار الناس ولتنامي ظاهرة السمنة.الأهداف: هدف الدراسة هو معرفة الترابط بين الجنس, السمنة, الصلاة الإسلامية المعتادة وفي وضع الجلوس والإصابات السابقة لمفصل الركبة وداء السكر وارتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني وقصور الغدة الدرقية كعوامل خطورة عند المرضى المصبين بسوفان الركبة في مجتمع مدينة الموصل.المرضى وطرق العمل: الدراسة هي حالات مع عينة ضابطة وقد أجريت خلال الفترة بين الأول من كانون الثاني لسنة 2010 والأول من كانون الثاني لسنة 2011 في العيادة الخارجية للمستشفى الجمهوري في الموصل. عدد المشاركين في الدراسة هو 213 منهم 71 حالة و142 شخص كعينة ضابطة أعمارهم تتباين بين (25 – 70 سنة) بمعدل 51,7 سنة . النتائج: مؤشر كتلة الجسم كان أعلى في الحالات وأظهر فرق معنوي ذو أهمية إحصائية عالية بين الحالات والعينة الضابطة, وهناك أيضا اختلاف بين الجنسين في سوفان الركبة أظهر بأن فرق معنوي كبير بين الإناث والذكور كحالات سوفان المفاصل. الصلاة الإسلامية المعتادة, الصلاة في وضع الجلوس واستخدام السلالم تعتبر عوامل خطورة غير مباشرة مرتبطة بسوفان الركبة. الإصابات السابقة أظهرت فرقا معنويا لدى الحالات. بينما كان داء السكر وإرتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني وقصور الغدة الدرقية لايرتبطون بتقدم سوفان الركبة. الاستنتاج : الإناث بصورة عامة, السمنة, الصلاة الإسلامية في وضع الجلوس والإصابات السابقة لمفصل الركبة تعتبر عوامل خطورة مهمة لمرض سوفان مفصل الركبة. بينما داء السكر, إرتفاع ضغط الدم الشرياني وقصور الغدة الدرقية لاترتبط بمرض سوفان مفصل الركبة.

Keywords

Osteoarthritis --- knee --- risk factors


Article
Epidemiology of Accidental Poisoning in a Sample of Iraqi Children

Author: Rabab Hassan Baaker
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 12-18
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: acute poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children all over the world. Objectives: to find out the types of acute accidental poisoning (AAP) in children in Baghdad and various host and environmental factors responsible for. Method: one hundred and seventy poisoning cases and hundred controls were enrolled in a case control study done in central pediatrics teaching hospital for the period from 1st of Jan. 1998 to 30th of April 1998. Results: kerosene poisoning was the commonest type (56.4%) followed by drugs (23.5%) then organophosphorus insecticides (11.8%), household products (3.5%). The highest frequency was noticed at 8.00 am-12.00 noon followed by 12.00 noon – 4.00 pm. It has been found that there is no significant relationship between poisoning and sex of child, mother educational level but the followings found to be significant risk factors: age of 1-3 years followed by 3-5 years, urban residence, peak time of poisoning was during mid-morning hours and early afternoon, also order of the child (5th) besides family size (family of 4-7 members), mother's age of above 35 years, not working mother (housewife). Also it showed a relation with recurrence of poisoning in the same child (7.1%) or other sibling in the same family (16.5%) , being at home (86,5%) and use inappropriate method of storing and placing poisonous materials. Conclusion & recommendations: significant risk factors regarding younger age, larger family size, early day time occurrence and recurrence of accidents in the same family, in addition to improper storage places necessitate the need for earlier poison prevention education programs as an integral part of well child visits even before child is mobile

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