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Article
The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Semen Quality in Infertile Males

Authors: Mohanned H.M. Saeed --- Mohammed B. Ismail --- Mohammed M.Abdul-Aziz
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit University المجلة الطبية لجامعة تكريت ISSN: 18131638 Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 175-183
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Background In the recent years, studies have centered on improving the health of individuals in sustainable ways. .The aim of this study to identify the relationship between sperm quality and BMI of adult males. Patients & Methods: For that reason, the study identified a group of men who had been visiting a health clinic and unable to conceive for a period of one year, after consistent unprotected intercourse with their female partners. Relatively, the semen was collected from a total of 115 participants who were requested to abstain from sex for three days. A trained staff explained the assumptions and the intentions of the study to the participants who then, provided a written consent for using their samples. In this process, biased information was eliminated by not indicating their origin. The study is not the first one in healthcare, but there are several others that had been done and still in the process to clarify the fundaments under the topic. The Results: After examination of the samples, the study identified that there is a negative correlation between BMI and sperm quality. The parameters that were used to determine sperm quality included sperm concentration, determining the type of motility and sperm count. From the results of the study, it was established that overweight and obese men had higher chances of having low sperm quality compared to the underweight and normal men. In the discussion part, the study had varied strengths including the use of men from different BMI and consistency in the examination process in the laboratory. Also, some scientific studies support the results of the study, especially in the release of sex hormones. Despite the findings, researchers are recommended to be cautious in explaining the results since they are subjective to errors considering that the female counterparts were not examined of their fertility condition.

Keywords

BMI --- SFA --- Sperm quality --- Sex Hormones --- Fertility


Article
ESTIMATING FARM TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY BY USING STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH
تقدير الكفاءة التقنية للمزرعة باستخدام STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH

Authors: E. H. Ali اسكندر حسين علي --- J. M. H. El-Eezi جاسم محمد حبيب العزي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية ISSN: 00750530/24100862 Year: 2015 Volume: 46 Issue: 2 Pages: 262-268
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The Iraqi agricultural sector suffers from many complex problems. Including poor management and failure to do the duties assigned to it, like the optimal use of factors of agricultural production Whe therat the level of planning or implementation, which is one of the reasons behind the lack of verification of high levels of agricultural production .Therefore, research goal to measure the technical efficiency, using analysis of Stochastic Frontier Approach( SFA), for 132 samples randomly collected from Diyala governorate .According to the transcendental logarithmic production function (TL).By focusing on the basic inputs used in all farms sample, which included as well as the dependent variable independent variables (amount of seeds, the amount of pesticides, hours of manual labor, working hours, farm size. As well as variables that are related to farm management (such as the age of the farmer, the peasant family size, years of experience. results indicate that the method of least squares was given in recognition modest for interrupted part B, As valued at 43.4 but higher than the values estimated in accordance with the method the of least squares corrected COLS and ML ,it reached38,38.5. The signal of studied variables came identical to the logic of economic except fertilizers and seeds. Average technical efficiency at the level of the sample was 66% and this result indicates that the farmers can increase their production by 34% without increasing any amount of economic resources used in the production process. This means that the sample lose a certain amount of economic resources and thus bear the additional costs equivalent of 34% of the costs of resources, and also means that the farmer could produce the same output with less Former including approximately 34% of the resources used, the average efficiency indicates that there is a deviation in the actual production at optimum output about 34% and could be achieved if farmers used the available economic resources in optimal ways. On this basis search recommended need to scientific methods in the management of all farms sizes and re-distribution of economic resources so as to ensure the same level of production or more while reducing cost and the need to develop the use of modern means and technique.

يعاني القطاع الزراعي العراقي من مشاكل عديدة ومتشعبة منها ضعف الادراة وتخلفها عن القيام بالواجبات المناطة بها والمتمثلة بالاستخدام الأمثل لعناصر الإنتاج سواء على مستوى التخطيط أو التنفيذ الذي يعد أحد الأسباب الكامنة وراء عدم تحقق مستويات عالية من الإنتاج الزراعي لذلك هدف البحث الى قياس الكفاءة التقنية باستخدام التحليل الحدودي العشوائي لــ 132 مزرعة جمعت عشوائيا من محافظة ديالى. تم تقدير الكفاءة التقنية TE بطريقة التحليل الحدودي العشوائي SFA وفق دالة الانتاج اللوغاريتمية المتسامية (المتفوقة) TL وذلك بالتركيز على المدخلات الاساسية المستخدمة في جميع مزارع العينة والتي اشتملت فضلاَ عن المتغير المعتمد المتغيرات المستقلة (كمية البذور، كمية المبيدات، ساعات العمل اليدوي، كمية السماد، ساعات العمل الالي، حجم المزرعة). فضلاً عن المتغيرات التي تتعلق بالاداره المزرعية مثل (عمر المزارع، حجم العائلة الفلاحية، سنوات الخبرة), واشارت النتائج الى ان طريقة المربعات الصغرى قد اعطت تقديراً متواضعاً للجزء المنقطع B0 اذ بلغت قيمته 43.4 لكنها اعلى من القيم المقدرة وفق طريقة المربعات الصغرى المصححة COLS وطريقة الامكان الاعظم ML اذ بلغت 38.5 و38.5 اما اشارة المتغيرات المدروسة فجاءت متطابقة للمنطق الاقتصادي ماعدا متغيري الاسمدة والبذور. بلغ متوسط الكفاءة التقنية على مستوى العينة 66% وهذه النتيجة تشير الى ان المزارعين بامكانهم زيادة انتاجهم بنسبة 34% من دون زيادة اي قدر من الموارد الاقتصادية المستخدمة في العملية الانتاجية ويعني هذا ان العينة تفقد قدراً من الموارد الاقتصادية ومن ثم تتحمل تكاليف اضافية بما يعادل 34% من تكاليف الموارد وايضاً يعني ان المزارع بامكانها انتاج الناتج السابق نفسه بموارد اقل بما يقارب 34% من الموارد المستخدمة وان متوسط الكفاءة يشير الى ان هناك انحراف في الانتاج الفعلي عند الانتاج الامثل بنسبة 34% وبامكان المزارعين تحقيقهُ لو استخدمت الموارد الاقتصادية المتاحة استخداماً امثلاً كما بلغت الدالة اللوغاريتمية لاقصى احتمال قيمة سالبة -0.103 دلالة على ان هناك تغيرات تقنية تؤثر سلباً في المتغير العشوائي ومن ثم في الكفاءة التقنية وعليه اوصى البحث بضرورة اتباع الاساليب العلمية في ادارة المزارع بمختلف حجومها واعادة توزيع الموارد الاقتصادية بما يضمن تحقيق نفس المستوى من الانتاج او اكثر في ضل خفض التكاليف وضرورة تطوير استخدام الوسائل والتقنيات الحديثة.


Article
Comparative Study of Molecular Phylogeny, Adhesion Genes and Antiobiogram of Escherichia Coli Clinical Isolates From High Vaginal Swabs and Urine in Women

Author: Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 2034-2042
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Escherichia coli is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections, however, its identity as pathogen in the cervico-vaginal area is required to be ascertained. In addition, source (s) for E.coli colonzing female vagina is needed to be confirmed, whether its fecal contamination or from urinary tract.Aim of the Study: To perform a comparative analysis of the E. coli clinical isolates from vagina versus those from urine in terms of molecular phylogeny, molecular determinants of virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility.Materials and methods: A total of 60 E. coli strains from high vaginal swabs (n=30) and urine (n=30) were analyzed. Identification of phylogenetic groups and detection of adhesive genes were conducted by 2 different multiplex PCR systems. Antibiograms for all isolates were performed by Kirby-Bauer method.Results and Discussion: Majority of vaginal E coli (VEC) isolates were belong to B2 phylogenetic group (n=20, 66.7%), whereas, majority of uro-pathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates were distributed between two phylogenetic groups, namely B2 12 (40%) and D 11 (36.7%). Therefore, most of the strains from both vagina and urine are belonging to pathogenic phylogenetic groups; however, they differ in prevalence of the groups. The pap gene has a higher frequency among UPEC (n= 13, 43.3%) than in VEC isolates (n=7, 23.3%). Similarly, sfa gene has a higher frequency in VEC isolates (n= 20, 66.7%) than in UPEC isolates 11 (36.4%). Consequently, adhesion genes playing roles in vaginal colonization may differ from that in urinary tract .VEC strains where highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin (100%) followed by nitrofurantoin (73.3%) and nalidixic acid (70%). Whereas UPEC strains were highly susceptible to nitrofurantoin (100%) followed by nalidixic acid. Thus, it seems that cirpofloxacin is appropriate for empirical therapy in vaginal infections, whereas nitrofurantoin is more appropriate for empirical therapy in UTI.Conclusion: Strains isolated from high vaginal swabs differ from strains isolated from urine in the prevalence of phyelogenetic groups andmolecular determinants of virulence as well as in antibiograms.

Keywords

E. coli --- pap --- sfa --- afa --- high vaginal swab --- Phylogeny

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