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Article
Evaluation of the Level of Melatonin, Cortisol and IgA in Saliva of Patients with Oral Lichen Planus Lesions

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Abstract

Back ground: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the mucous membrane of the mouth.Several researchers suggest that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. It has beenhypothesized that melatonin is powerful anti-oxidants and can easily cross the cell membrane and is considered afree radical scavenger of Hydroxid, Oxygen and Nitrogen dioxide, cortisol as a stress hormone and theimmunoglobulin A as first line of defense and protection to the mucous membrane of the mouth are interrelatedfactors for the emergence of oral lichen planus. Aim of this study was to evaluate the level of melatonin, Cortisol andIgA in saliva of patients with oral lichen planus lesions in comparison with participants with normal oral mucosa.Materials and methods: In this study seventy five subjects with age 18 and over were included. The subjects weredivided into two groups; control group, this group comprised of 41 subjects with normal oral mucosa and the studygroup, which comprised of 34 subjects with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed oral lichen planus lesion. Thesamples were selected from patients attending College of Dentistry/University of Baghdad and cases that recruitedto the AL-Emmam Ali hospital / in Baghdad /Dermatology Department. Samples collection started from 2/ may 2013to 23/ January 2014.Saliva samples were collected between 10-12 Am. High performance chromatography (HPLC)analyzing technique was used for estimating the salivary melatonin and cortisol level. IgA level was measured byELIZA method.Results: The mean salivary melatonin level in patients with oral lichen planus was 4.786 μg/ml and the mean salivamelatonin level in normal person was 8.759 μg/ml. significant difference (p<0.01) was observed in the salivarymelatonin levels between the study and control group. The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 0.730μg / ml and the mean saliva cortisol level in normal persons was 0.165 μg/ml. significant difference (p<0.01) wasobserved in the salivary cortisol levels between the study and control, group. The mean salivary IgA level in patientswith OLP was 221.4 μg/ml and the mean saliva IgA level in normal person was 125.8 μg/ml. There was a highsignificant difference (p<0.01) the study and control groups.Conclusions: The level of salivary melatonin was lower in patients with oral lichen planus, however cortisol and IgAwas higher when comparing the salivary level with that of the control groups

Keywords

lichen planus --- melatonin --- cortisol --- sIgA


Article
Measurement of salivary Immunoglobulin A of participants with a healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis conditions

Author: Suzan Ali Salman سوزان علي سلمان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 120-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a subclass of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), It is an antibody that playsan important role in mucosal immunity. It is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions from mammaryglands, tear glands and salivary glands, every pathologic process in the body involves the immune system, andperiodontal inflammation is one of them and is not an exception.Material and methods: this study was consisted of 60 healthy male participants of an age ranged between (35-50)years old ; 25 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontists(Clinical Attachment Loss equal to 3-4mm at ≥30% of the sites; 20 participants with plaque induced gingivitis and 15 participants had clinically healthyperiodontium as control group. oral examination include Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth andClinical Attachment Level were conducted for all participants four sites were examined for each tooth (labial,lingual, mesial and distal), 2ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all participants to measureSecretory Immunoglobulin A in μg /ml by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique.Results: salivary IgA(sIgA) mean was (356.3) μg /ml for the chronic periodontitis patients; while it was 202 μg /ml forplaque induced gingivitis patients and it was 129.2 μg /ml for the control group. Highly significant differencesamong the three group were recorded (P-value <0.001). For chronic periodontitis patients, the Plaque Index GingivalIndex scores were positively highly significant correlated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva. The ProbingPocket Depth scores were positively and significantly associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. The ClinicalAttachment Level scores were positively but non significant associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. Forthe gingivitis and the control group they were positive non significant association between the periodontalparameters and the Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva.Conclusion: there is a correlation between Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva and the periodontal healthstatus.


Article
Assessment of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIg A) Level during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

Author: Shaymaa Sh. Taha شيماء شاكر طه
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 149-154
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The immune system of the oral cavity suffers alterations due to fixed orthodontic treatment which act aspotent stimulus for oral secretory immunity. The aims of this study are to estimate the effect of fixed orthodonticappliance on the level of salivary sIgA at different time intervals, and to verify the gender difference.Materials and method: The patient's history, clinical examination, and fixed orthodontic appliances were placed for30 Iraqi orthodontic adult patients had class II division 1 and/ or class I malocclusion (15 males and 15 females) aged18-25 years old. The unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each sample immediately before wearing fixedappliance (control group T0 as base line), and after 2 weeks (T1),1 month (T2), and 1year (T3) of wearing fixedorthodontic appliance. The levels of salivary sIgA were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay kit (ELISA).Results: The mean value of salivary sIgA was elevated at T1 and reached the peak at T2 followed by declined at T3to reach near the normal value at T0 (base line). Repeated measure ANOVA test showed statistically highlysignificant difference among four time intervals. The Bonferroni test after repeated measure ANOVA test showedhighly statistical significant difference between each two time intervals except between T0 and T3 show significantdifference. In addition there were no significant gender differences.Conclusion: In this study one can conclude that fixed orthodontic appliance acts as an immunological stimulant inthe oral cavity that changes the level of salivary sIgA which evaluate the immunity status in the oral cavity


Article
Role of Kefir Milk on The Pathogenesis of Entamoeba histolytica
دور لبن الكيفر(الفطر الهندي) على أمراضية طفيلي الأميبا الحالة للنسيج

Author: Sabaa Taher Mohammed سبأ طاهر محمد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 2B Pages: 1116-1124
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Kefir is fermented milk made from kefir grains consist mainly of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, it has several health-promoting properties, such as antimicrobial ,antitumoral, and immunomodulating effects. However, there are few scientific reports about the effects of kefir on parasites. This work, studied the biological activity of kefir fermented against Entamoeba histolytica parasite in mice at concentration (100% and 50%) compared with the metronidazole (flagyl) drug at concentration (30 mgml). The results showed that infected mice treated with kefir(100% and 50%) complete the eradication of parasite after (6th and 8th day) respectively post inoculation while in metronidazole treated group the complete the eradication occur after (8th day) compared with control group which maintain shedding parasite until the end of experiment. The percentage of reduction parasite of treated groups were : kefir 100%was (81.1%) , kefir 50% was (76.4%) and for metronidazole was(75.1%). Histopathological it was study found that the parasite and metronidazole cause mucosal damage and inflammation while kefir reparation of the parasite damage in addition ,notice an increase in INF-γ levels was noticed in serum mice treated with both concentration of kefir and metronidazole reaching (428.8 , 419.8and 442) pg ml respectively compared with a range of positive and negative control, reaching (386.2, 233.2) pg ml. It also caused an increase of the concentration of secretory IgA in the intestinal tissue as it was in kefir groups and metronidazole (5.31 ,4.76 and4.14) ng ml respectively , compared with the positive and negative control groups, reaching (2.91 and 0.72) ng ml respectively. These results indicated that kefir could help in reducing the effect of Entamoeba histolytica or treating the parasite in patients especialy in immune suppressed patients .

يعد الكيفر حليب متخمر يصنع من حبيبات الكيفر, يتكون بصورة رئيسية من بكتريا حامض اللاكتيك وخمائر, ويمتلك العديد من الخصائص المعززة للصحة مثل مضاد للمكروبات ومضاد للسرطان ويؤثر على الجهاز المناعي. هنالك عدد قليل من البحوث العلمية حول أثار الكيفر على الطفيليات. تضمنت الدراسة الحالية اختبار الفعالية البايولوجية لحبيبات الكيفر ضد طفيلي الأميبا الحالة للنسيجhistolytica Entameba في الفئران وبتركيزين( 100%and 50%) وبالمقارنة مع عقار الميترونيدازول (الفلاجيل) وبتركيز .(30 mgml) أظهرت النتائج أن الفئران المصابة والمعالجة بالكيفر قد توقفت عن طرح الطفيلي نهائيا في اليوم (6thو8th) على التوالي بعد التجريع, بينما أختفى الطفيلي قي براز الفئران المعالجة بالمترونيدازول تماما بعد اليوم 8th)) مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة والتي أستمرت بطرح الطفيلي حتى نهاية التجربة. وكانت النسبة المئوية لتناقص الطفيلي للمجاميع المعالجة كالأتي : كيفر 100% (81.1%), كيفر 50% (76.4%),المترونيداول 30 mgml)) (75.1%). كما أظهرت دراسة الأمراضية النسيجية أن طفيلي الأميبا الحالة والميترونيدازول قد تسببوا بحدوث التهاب وتنخر لخلايا الامعاء بينما ساهم الكيفر في أعادة أصلاح نسيج الامعاء المتضررمن الطفيلي .كما لوحظ حدوث زيادة في مستوى INF-γ في مصل الفئران المعالجة بالكيفر(كلاالتركيزين) والمترونيدازول اذ بلغت نسبته pgml ( 419.8 , 428.8 ,442) على التوالي مقارنة مع مجموعتي السيطرة الموجبة والسالبة أذ بلغت (386.2 233.2 ) pgmlعلى التوالي. بالإضافة الى ذلك كانت هناك بزيادة تركيز IgAالافرازي في نسيج الأمعاء أذ كان تركيزه في مجموعتي الكيفر والمترونيدازول ngml(4.14 ,4.76 ,5.31) على التوالي، مقارنة مع مجموعتي السيطرة الموجبة والسالبة أذ بلغت (0.72و2.91) ngml على التوالي. تشير هذه النتائج إلى أن الكفير يمكن أن يساعد في الحد من تأثير طفيلي أميبا الحالة للنسج أوفي علاج الطفيلي وخاصة في المرضى الذين يعانون من التثبيط المناعي .


Article
The Dental Caries Experience in Relation to Salivary Flow Rate, SIgA and Mutans Streptococci Bacteria in Smoker and Non-Smoker Patients

Authors: Ansam Zuhair Najm --- Abbas S. Al-Mizraqchi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2019 Volume: 31 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-59
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental caries is a localized, progressive destructive, largely irreversible microbial based disease of multifactorial nature; these factors include (host, microbes and food) they influence differently on the initiation and progression of dental caries.The aims of the study: was to evaluate the effect of smoking on salivary flow rate, secretory immunoglobulin (SIgA) level and viable count of mutans streptococci (M.S) bacteria in oral cavity and their relation to dental caries experience.Material and method: The samples were collected from 80 male students ranging in ages from 18-22 years old. Where they divided in to two groups, 40 non-smokers (control group) and 40 smokers (study group). Unstimulated salivary samples were collected. Salivary flow rate was estimated and viable count (CFU/ml) of mutans streptococci was determined. The diagnosis and recording of dental caries were done according to WHO, 1987 criteria and the level of SIgA was determined by ELISA.Result: the result revealed that the salivary flow rate and SIgA level were lower in smoker group than non-smoker, while the means value of dental caries experience Decay, Missing and Filling tooth (DMFT) and (CFU/ml)of M.S were higher in oral cavity of smoker group than non-smoker group.Conclusion: the smoking has negative effect on salivary flow rate, SIgA and increase the viable bacterial count of M.S and dental caries in smoker patients.


Article
The effect of oral contraceptive on the oral health with the evaluation of Salivary IgA and Streptococcus Mutans in some Iraqi women

Authors: Dr. Nebal Thabit Shaker, M.Sc., Assist. lecturer د. نبيل ثابت شاكر --- Dr. Esra Hassan Abd-Ali, PhD., Lecturer د. اسراء حسن عبد علي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 52-63
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: To assess if there is any effect of using oral contraceptive and the duration ofusing on the inflammatory responses of the gingival tissues , concentration ofsecretary immunoglobulin A ( IgA) and the colony count of mutansStreptococcusMS in saliva .Methods: This study includes 80 women in their reproductive age (16-40) year. 40women who were using oral contraceptive in different duration, as the study groupand 40 women who not used oral contraceptive and it were assigned to the controlgroup. Both groups were clinically examined (for dental caries using DMFSIndex, and gingival condition using gingival index GI of Loe&Silness ) andlaboratory assessment (by using non stimulated saliva for each woman wascollected and homogenized then Mutans Streptococci (MS) were counted,isolated, purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic andbiochemical tests also, the Salivary IgA concentration was measured by usingsingle radial immune diffusion method in different duration of oral contraceptiveusing ).Results: Gingival index was significantly higher among oral contraceptive users thannon-users (P<0.01), which was correlated with the duration of usage (r=0.50).sIgA concentration higher in study group than in control group (P<0.01)which also increased positively with duration of using(r=0.80). A positivecorrelation between sIgA and gingivitis (r=0.54) was found. DMFS Index and thenumber of MS colony were highly significant in study group than the control(P<0.01). MS colony count was positive correlated with duration of usage(r=0.88) but the DMFS had too weak correlation with the duration of using whichwas a non significant at (P>0.05).Conclusion: The use of contraceptive pills for a long period increases the likelihoodof gingival inflammation and significantly associated with increase sIgA level, sothe regular use of oral contraceptive seems to enhance mucosal immune functionin study subjects.

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