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Article
LOCAL STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PHAGE GROUPS

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Abstract

BackgroundStaphylococcus aureus isolates distributed into 3 groups according to their sources, 10 isolates from each source. Each of the 30 isolates produced phage lysate. Based on our results, it has been found that these phages obtained from all isolates can be classified into 3 groups (A, B and C).ObjectiveTo produce local phage groups from locally isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains to be used for epidemiological purposes.MethodsA total of 60 specimens were obtained from three different source locations, surgical theaters (instrument, walls, floor and masks), nurses and inpatients, were enrolled in a study based at Al-Sulimanyiah Teaching Hospital from December 2008 to November 2009. Each specimen was subjected to well known established microbiological. Methods for isolation and identification of Staphylcoccus aureus. All isolates were tested for the presence of phage employing heat method and detected by spotting method, also based on resistance or sensitivity of each isolates to give phage lysates by application of the cross-lysis technique.ResultStaphylococcus aureus isolates distributed into 3 groups according to their sources, 10 isolates from each source. Phages were induced from thirty Staphylococcus aureus isolate. Based on results obtained of the isolates, it has been found that these phages obtained from all isolates can be classified into 3 groups. Group (A) revealed that 1 and 6 phage lysates originally from isolates 1 and 6 were able to lyse all isolates in group 1 except 1 and 6 isolates and those in other groups which were unlysed. A strain was phage typeable (at least one phage produced 20 or more plaques of lysis). Isolates 15 and 16 produced phage lysates 15 and 16 in group (B) which were able to lyse all isolates in group 2 except 15 and 16 isolates and the remaining isolates in other groups which were unlysed. phage lysates 23 and 26 in group (C) which were induced from isolates 23 and 26 were able to lyse all isolates in group 3 except isolates 23 and 26 and the remaining isolates in other groups which were unlysed also.ConclusionsIt is detected that 3 local phage groups from Staphylococcus aureus are presented to be used for epidemiological purposes in case of Stapylococcus aureus epidemic.Key wordsStaphylococcus aureus, phages, epidemiology.


Article
THE INFLUENCE OF HEAVY METALS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND PSEUDOMONAS AEROGINOSA ISOLATES
تاثير المعادن الثقيلة والمضادات الحياتية على العزلتين الجرثوميتين Pseudomonas aeroginosa و Staphylococcus aureus

Author: Mohammed H. Khudor محمد حسن خضر
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 22-38
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa of bacteria were exposed to different concentrations ( 5 , 10 or 25 mg /l )of heavy metals ions ( Silver Ag2+ , Cobalt Co2+ or Lead Pb2+) for different exposure periods ( 0 , 1, 2, 24 and 48 hrs.) .The results showed that the inhibitory effect of these metals on the growth of the two isolates were in the following sequences :- Pb < Co < Ag Some of these metals caused an elongation of lag phase in liquid medium for these isolates . Whene antibiotic discs ( chloramphenicol 30 mcg , clindamycin 2 mcg , erythromycin 15 mcg , gentamycin 10 mcg ,tetracyclin 30 mcg and vancomycin 30 mcg ) were added to solid medium which was previously supplemented with the above heavy metals ions , a synergestics effect was observed between antibiotics and heavy metals ions ( specially silver ions at 25 mg/ l )to increase the inhibition zone significantly ( P < 0.01 ) for both isolates .

تم تعريض العزلتين الجرثوميتين Pseudomonas aeroginosa و Staphylococcus aureus الى تراكيز مختلفة ( 5 ، 10 او 25 ) ملغم/ لتر من ايونات المعادن الثقيلة ( الفضة Ag2+ ، الكوبلت Co2+ او الرصاص Pb2+ )لفترات تعريض مختلفة (0 ، 1 ،2 ، 24 ، او 48 ساعة ).اوضحت نتائج الدراسة ان التاثير التثبيطي لتلك الايونات على نمو العزلتين كان بالتسلسل التالي Pb < Co < Ag ادت اضافة بعض تلك المعادن الى زيادة الطور التمهيدي lag phase لتلك العزلتين في الوسط الزرعي السائل . و عند اضافة اقراص المضادات الحياتية ( Chloramphenicol 30 mcg , Clindamycin2 mcg , Erythromycin 15 mcg , Gentamycin 10 mcg ,Tetracyclin 30 mcg Vancomycin 30, mcg ) الى الاوساط الزرعية الصلبة المدعمة بايونات المعادن بالتراكيز السابقة، اظهرت النتائج حصول تاثير تعاوني بين المضادات الحياتية والمعادن الثقيلة ( وبشكل خاص ايونات الفضة بتركيز 25 ملغم / لتر ) في زيادة منطقة التثبيط معنويا (P < 0.01 ) لتلك العزلتين .


Article
Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal cavity of Health Care Personnel
الاصابات بلمكورات العنقوديه هي مشكله متزايده عالميا مع تعقيدات مهمه في المستشفيات.البكتريا موجوده بشكل طبيعي في التجويف الانفي ل 35% من الافراد الاصحاء مظهريا وهي تظهر تغايرات بأختلاف العمر.

Author: Hiba S. Jasim هبة صباح جاسم
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2012 Volume: 54 Issue: 4 Pages: 344-348
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aureus infections are growing problems worldwide with important implications in hospitals. The organism is normally present in the nasal vestibule of about 35% apparently healthy individuals and its carriage varies between different ethnic and age groups.Objective:To study the antibiotic resistance of staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal cavity of Health Care Personnel.Patients and methods: A total of 180 samples were collected from the nose of the two groups (health care personnel, community control) at Baghdad Teaching Hospital. They were screened for nasal colonization with S.aureus during the period between April 2012 to September 2012, by using a sterile cotton swabs.Results: Nasal swabs with Staphylococcus aureus which isolated from health care personnel was 40%, while in community control was 33.33%.Conclusion: High prevalence rate of S. aureus nasal carriers was found among health care personnel of Baghdad Teaching Hospital. The highest rate was found in sub staff group. And among community control, high prevalence rate of S.aureus nasal carriers was found in the school students. All isolates of S. aureus were resistant to pencillin G, ampicillin, and erythromycin. Vancomycin was the most effective drugs against S.aureus, isolates and followed by rifampicin and fusidic acid.Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance.

تعيين المقاومه للمضادات الحيويه للمكورات العنقوديه المعزوله من التجويف الانفي لافراد الرعايه الصحيه. المرضى وطرق العمل: 180 عينه تم جمعها من التجويف الانفي لمجموعتين الانفي لمجموعتين (افراد الرعايه الصحيه,مجموعه السيطره) في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي. ولقد تم فحص العينات للكشف عن وجود المكورات العنقوديه خلال الفتره من شهر نيسان 2012 الى شهر ايلول 2012 باستخدام مسحات قطنيه معقمه.النتائج: المكورات العنقوديه المعزوله من افراد الرعايه الصحيه كانت 40% , بينما في مجموعه السيطره للمجتمع كانت 33% .الاستنتاج: نسبه عاليه من سياده للمكورات العنقوديه وجدت لدى افراد الرعايه الصحيه لمستشفى بغداد التعليمي, اعلى نسبه وجدت ضمن طاقم العمل. ضمن مجموعه سيطره المجتمع نسبه عاليه من الاصابه بلمكورات العنقوديه وجدت ضمن طلاب المدارس . كل العزلات كانت مقاومه للبنسيلين والامبسلين والارثرومايسين. الفانكومايسين كان الاكثر تأثيرا ضد عزلات المكورات العنقودية وتبعت بالريفامبك والفيوسيدك اسد.


Article
Re evaluation Of The Activity Of Some Antibacterial Drugs Against Clinical Isolates Of Staphylococcus Aureus In Al_Najaf Al_Ashref Governorate

Authors: Adel .H. Sheeh --- Saif Jabbar Yasir --- Saad .B .Nashtar
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 81-89
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aurous one of the most common pathogen that cause a wide range of infectionstarted by simple skin infection and end by septicemias and high possibility of death .The study aimed to: present study try to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance pattern of staphylococcusaureus against Gentamycin, Cotrimethoprim, Amoxicillin and Cefalexin .Methods: A 55 isolates of staphylococcus aureus obtained from urine, pleural fluid, joint aspiration, ear, skin,and pus, of indoor and outdoor patient in AL-SADER teaching hospital, AL-NAJAF AL-ASHREF, IRAQ.From a period extended between 9-1-2009---- 8-3-2010.And each isolate was tested for these 4 antibacterialdrug .Results: and results showed that Gentamycin has the highest percentage of sensitivity by staphylococcusaureus (34.83%) while Amoxicillin showed the highest percentage of resistance by staphylococcus aureus (30%).Conclusion: Gentamycin was the drug of choice in treatment of staphylococcus aureus infection in al-najaf alashref.Recommendation: we recommend further evaluation about antibacterial sensitivity together with college ofmedicine.

خلفیة البحث:المكورات العنقودیة واحدة من اكثرانواع البكتریا المسببة للأمراض في الإنسان وطبیعة الإمراض الناتجة منھا تمتاز بالمدى الواسعحیث تبدأ بالتھاب الجلد البسیط ویمكن أن تنتھي بتسمم الدم واحتمالیة الموت .ھدف الدراسة: في ھذه الدراسةا حاولنا اختبار مدى حساسیة البكتریا العنقودیة لأربعة أنواع من المضادات الحیویة وھي الجنتامایسینوالكوترامیثوبریم والاموكسسلین والسیفالكسین ومن خلال العینات البالغ عددھا 55 عینة من البول والفم والجروح والقیح من مرضى مستشفى. 2010-3 - 2009 لغایة 8 —1- الصدر التعلیمي في مدینة النجف الاشرف – العراق في الفترة الممتدة من 9النتائج: أظھرت الدراسة أن الجنتامایسین كان أكثر أنواع المضادات الأربعة تحسسا من قبل البكتریا وبنسبة تحسس مقدارھا 34.83 % بینما.% أظھرت الدراسة أن والاموكسسلین اظھر أعلى نسبة من المقاومة( مقارنة بباقي الأنواع من البكتریا ) ومقدارھا 30الاستنتاج: ان الجنتمایسین ھو المضاد الحیوي الافضل والانسب لعلاج التھابات المكورات العنقودیة في النجف الاشرف.التوصیات:نوصي ان تقوم الدوائر المعنیة باعادة تقییم دوري للمضادات الحیویة المستعملة بشكل دوري بالتعاون مع الباحثین في ھذا المجال فيكلیة الطب.


Article
Extraction of Staphyloxanthin from Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Sources to Determine its Antibacterial Activity Against other Bacteria
استخلاص صبغة Staphyloxanthin من بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus المعزوله من مصادر سريريه و بيان تأثيرها على ممرضات بكتيرية اخرى

Authors: Eman J. AL-Kazaz ايمان جهاد القزاز --- Alice K. Melconian اليس كريكور ملكونيان --- Alice K. Melconian نهى جوزيف قندلا
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 4B Pages: 1823-1832
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Fourty three isolates ( 20.7%) characterized as Staphylococcus aureus , were isolated from 207 different clinical sources (blood , nose, , wound , urine , vaginal, ear and eye) in different percentages (30.23, 18.60, 16.28, 13.95, 15.15, 6.96 and 2.33 %), respectively. The staphyloxanthin (STX) production of S. aureus isolate was estimated 72.1% .The optimal conditions for pigment production by S. aureus AE36 , were detected and was noticed that the milk agar medium revealed the highest production of pigment which was estimated to be 165.21unit/cell, at pH 8 for 72 hr at 370C. The Staphyloxanthin pigment was extracted using methanol and was purified partially by organic solvents and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The results revealed three peaks with a highest peak at 450 nm .No antibacterial activity of STX was detected against the bacteria used in this study (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp , Proteus spp. Pseudomonas fluorescens , Pseudomonas putida , Staphylococcus aureus).

تم الحصول على 43 عزله بكتيرية (20,7%) تعود الى بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus من مجموع 207 عينة سريريه مختلفة شملت (الدم , الأنف , الجروح, الإدرار, المهبل, الاذن و العين ) و بنسب تواجد مختلفة بلغت ( 30.23 , 18.60 , 16.28 , 13.95 , 15.15 , 6.96 و 2.33) % على التوالي. اختبرت قابلية العزلات على انتاج صبغة الستافيلوزانثين في اوساط زرعية مختلفة وأظهرت النتائج ان نسبه العنقوديات الذهبية المنتجه لصبغة الستافيلوزانثين كانت 72,1% على الوسط الزرعي الامثل اكار الحليب. . استخلصت الصبغة باستخدام عدة مذيبات كان الامثل بالاستخلاص الميثانول ثم نقيت جزئيا باستخدام تقنية كروماتوغرافيا الطبقة الرقيقة وبينت النتائج وجود ثلاثة قمم للصبغة بينما كانت اعلى قمة لها عند 450 نانوميتر .حددت الظروف المثلى لانتاج الصبغة من اللعزلة المحلية المنتخبة AE36 كانت اعلى انتاجيه لها على اكار الحليب 165.21 وحده / خليه عند الاس الهيدروجيني 8 ولمده حضانة 72 ساعة في درجة حرارة 037م . اختبرت فعالية صبغه الستافيلوزانثين ضد انواع مختلفة من البكتيريا (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp , Proteus spp. Pseudomonas fluorescens , Pseudomonas putidae , Staphylococcus aureus). و تبين ان ليس لها اي تاثير ضد اي نوع من الانواع البكترية المذكورة اعلاه .


Article
USING TWO DIFFERENT PROMOTERS OF LYSOSTAPHIN GENE TO CHANGE PROTEIN PRODUCTION

Author: Jalal Y. Mustafa
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 141-150
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Bacteriocins are bacterial antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal activity against other bacteria. Staphylococcins are bacteriocins produced by staphylococci, which are gram-positive bacteria with medical and veterinary importance. In this study we are using two promoters from two plasmids to lysostaphin gene to change production of lysostaphin protein then killed Staphylococcus aureus and compared with pBluescript plasmid as control, pTrc99a get increased the production of lysostaphin protein while the pBAD30 are decreased the production in compared with pBluescript plasmid as control, at the same time both plasmid reported succeeded to lysostaphin expression and gave the protein with different concentration.


Article
Study of Antibacterial Activity of Ocimumbasilicum Against Staphylococcus aureus in Vitro
دراسة الفعالية المضادة للبكتيريا لنبات الريحان ضد بكتيريا المكورات العنقودية الذهبية.

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The investigation of inhibitory effect of the alcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum on the growth of Staph. aureus that was isolated from the skin infected in vitro have been studied. Ocimum basilicum was isolated using 95% ethanol. Out of which the percentage of extraction of 45% of weight of dried powder was prepared in ascending gradient concentrations of the alcoholic extract (10-100 mg/ml) and the effective one was selected by agar diffusion method using Staphylococcus aureus. The diameters of the inhibition zones of the bacterial growth were increased parallel with the concentrations of the alcoholic extract concentrations. Low efficiency detected post using 10-20mg/ml concentrations, medium efficiency post using 40-60 mg / ml, whereas concentrations of 80- 100 mg/ ml were highly effective and influential against growth of the Staphylococcus aureus.

أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة فعالية المستخلص الكحولي لنبات الريحان في تثبيط نمو جرثومة المكورات العنقودية المعزولة من الاصابات الجلدية في الزجاج. استخلص الريحان باستخدام 95% من الكحول الاثيلي, حيث بلغت نسبة الاستخلاص 45% من وزن المسحوق الجاف. حضرت تراكيز متدرجة من المستخلص الكحولي (10-100ملغم/مل) واختيرت فعاليتها بطريقة الانتشار بالحفر باستخدام طبق الاكار المزروع بجرثومة المكورات العنقودية الذهبية مقارنة بطريقة استخدام الأثلين كلايكول. اظهرت النتائج أن اقطار تثبيط نمو الجرثومة تزداد بازدياد تراكيز المستخلص الكحولي وكانت التراكيز 10-20ملغم/مل منخفضة الفعالية والتراكيز 40-60 ملغم/مل متوسطة الفعالية بينما تراكيز 80-100ملغم/مل كانت ذات فعالية عالية ومؤثرة ضد نمو المكورات العنقودية.


Article
Incidence of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iraqi patients

Author: Ali A. Mussa Harith Jabbar Fahad Al-Mathkhury
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3A Pages: 1225-1230
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin has complicated the problem of treating staphylococcal associated infections in which MRSA is the causative agent since ciprofloxacin was the drug of choice to treat such infections. Our study investigated the incidence of Ciprofloxacin resistant S. aureus isolates that were also methicillin resistant among Iraqi patients. The obtained bacterial isolates were tested for Ciprofloxacin resistance using agar dilution method and the sequence of gyrA and parC. The results revealed that about 8% of the isolated MRSA strains were Ciprofloxacin resistant and the resistance was due to mutation in gyrA rather than parC.


Article
Relationship between Boil Infections and Staphylococcus aureus Carriers in Iraqi Individuals
العلاقة مابين الاصابة بالدمامل والحاملين لبكتريا Staphylococcus aureus في الافراد العراقين

Authors: Nazar Edward Nasser --- Makram Al-waiz --- Sana‘a AL- kakei --- Nooria Ra‘ouf
Journal: Journal of College of Education مجلة كلية التربية ISSN: 18120380 Year: 2013 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-30
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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This study was conducted to identify the most commoncausative agent of boil and to explore the carrier state fortheir bacteria .Swabs were taken from boil of 100 affected patients inaddition to smears and microscopical examination which were collected from nostril, axilla and perinal area of 100 healthy individuals .The results showed that Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative agent of boils in the studied sam-ples ( 90 of 137 isolates ) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 17 out of total isolates ), while Staphylococcus

هذفد انذراسح انحان حٍ انى انرعزف ودراسح خىاص لأكثر ز انعىام م انمس ثثح نصط اتحتانذمامم عىذ الاوسان ودور انحامه هٍ أو انىاقه هٍ نرهك انثكرز اٌ .أخذخ مسحاخ مه انذمامم مه 100 شخض مظاب واجز دٌ نها انفحض انمجهزي وانر ذ م جمعه ا م ه مى انف الاو ط والأت ن وانعج ان ف كثم ا ذ م فح ض مس حاخ اف اف حٍ م ه 100شخض سه مٍ جمعد مه وفس مىانف الاوط والأتن وانعجان .اشارخ انىرائج انى ان تكرز ٌا Staphylococcus aureus كثاود الأكثر


Article
STUDYING THE FREQUENCY OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS THROUGH THE MOLECULAR DETECTION OF MECA

Authors: Rafeef Y. Rasheed رفيف يوسف رشيد --- Ahmed S. Abdulamir احمد صاحب عبد الامير --- Amir H. Raziq عامر هاني رزاق
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 289-294
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections and it is very important to have a reliable test to detect these bacteria. mecA encodes the penicillin binding protein 2a, which is associated with staphylococcal methicillin resistance.Objective:The study was to determine the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in different specimens from Iraqi patients and to genetically characterize and type the samples of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the detection of mec A gene.Methods:Sixty clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were submitted to DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was submitted to conventional polymerase chain reaction assays, employing MR1-MR2 primers (primer set). The results were compared to the cefoxitin disks agar diffusion method.Results :Fifty seven of the sixty isolates showed positive results for mecA amplification while three isolates (5%) showed negative results for mecA gene.Conclusion:Good correlation between the mecA gene detection by PCR and the cefoxitin disk diffusion methods was obtained.Key words:mecA gene, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus

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