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Article
Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling with Surfactants
أنتقال الحرارة في الغليان الحوضي بوجود مثبطات الشد السطحي

Authors: Mahmoud Kamel Getan --- Balasim Ahmed Abid
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 17 Pages: 5421-5439
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Boiling with surfactant is important in many key industrial applications suchas the petrochemical processing, refining, refrigeration, hygiene and personal care,pharmaceutical, and food processing, among others.The aims of this study are experimental determination of the heattransfer coefficient with and without the addition of surfactants to purewater and quantify the effects of surfactant concentration, ionic nature, itsethoxylation, and molecular weight on the nucleate boiling performance ofwater on vertical cylindrical heater.Several different surfactants were employed: [SDS(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate),SLES (Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate) (anionic) ]and [Triton X-100 (OctylphenolEthoxylate) (nonionic)], they have different molecular weights, ionic nature andnumber of ethylene oxide EO groups attached to its polar head.The boiling results show that with the addition of small amounts of surfactants,the saturated nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of water is found to bealtered due to reduction in the surface tension and this enhances the heattransfer.The enhancement in nucleate pool boiling depends upon wall heat flux (ortemperature difference), concentration of surfactant, ionic nature, molecular weightand number of (EO) group.The heat transfer coefficient is found to increase by asmuch as (81.9%) over that for pure water for SDS solutions while (53 %) for SLESand (45 %) for Triton X-100 at CMC (critical micelle concentration).The enhancement increases with concentration and the enhanced solutions arefound to be with C ≤ CMC. The optimum enhancement is at or near the CMC ofsurfactants. However, the maximum heat transfer enhancement is in the order ofSDS > SLES > Triton X-100, this is also, in the reverse order of their molecularweights and number of (EO) groups.

الغلیان بوجود مثبطات الشد السطحي مھم في العدید من التطبیقات الصناعیة مثل :الصناعات البتروكیمیاویة,المصافي,التثلیج،الصحة والعنایة الشخصیة ,الصیدلة والصناعات الغذائیة. كان الھدف من البحث ھو حساب معامل انتقال الحرارة تجریبیاً في حالة إضافة مثبطات الشد السطحي أو عدم أضافتھا للماء النقي وكذلك للتكھن بمدى تأثیر كلاً من تركی ز مثبط ات الشد السطحي , طبیعتھا الأیونیة, عدد مجامیع أوكسید الاثل ین المرتبطة برأس ھا و وزنھا الجزیئي على سلوك الغلیان المتنوي للماء. Triton X- الأیونیة) و 100 ) SLES و SDS تم أستخدام عدد من مثبطات الشد السطحي مثل (الغیر أیونیة) والتي تختلف في الوزن الجزیئي ,الطبیعة الأیونیة وعدد مجامیع أوكسید الاثل ین. لقد بینت نتائج الغلیان بأنھ عند إضافة كمیات صغیرة من مثبطات الشد السطحي فأن معاملات أنتقال الحرارة في الغلیان المتنوي المشبع للماء تتغیر نتیجة لتقلی لالشد السطحي وبذلك یُحسن أنتقال الحرارة.لوحظ أن التحسن في الغلیان الحوضي المتنوي یعتمد على الفیض الحراري (او الاختلاف بدرجات الحرارة),تركیز مثبطات الشد الس طحي,طبیعتھا الأیونیة,أوزانھا الجزیئیة,وعدد مجامیع أوكسید الاثلین.( بینما تكون (% 53 SDS وجد أن نسبة التحسن في معامل انتقال الحرارة ھو(% 81.9 ) لمحالی لمقارنة مع الماء النقي عند التركی ز الحرج Triton X- و(% 45 ) لمحالیل 100 SLES لمحالیل .(CMC)وأفضل تحسن ھ و عن د C ≤ CMC التحسن یزداد مع التركیز, حیث وجد أن تحسن المحلول عند أو حول التركیز الحرج لمثبطات الشد السطحي.من ناحیة أخرى ,أقصى تحسن ف ي أنتقال الحرارةوكذلك في ترتیب معكوس من ناحیة أوزانھا Triton X-100 < SLES < SDS ھو في الترتیب الجزیة وعدد مجامیع أوكسید الأثلین .


Article
Crude Oil Desalting Using Multi-Surfactant Based on a Best Dosage, Solvent and Mixing Ratio

Authors: Ali Hussein Khalaf --- Mohammed Salah Rajab
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2019 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Crude oil desalting is the first processing step in a refinery. The objectives of crude desalting are the removal of salts, solids, and the formation of water from unrefined crude oil before the crude is introduced in the crude distillation unit of the refinery. The experimental work is divided into three schemes covering the effect of surfactant dosage, test different types of surfactants, and the effect of salt content on desalting efficiency. The results show that the crude oil desalting efficiency, increased with increasing surfactant quantity., The results indicate that desalting efficiency has lowered with increasing the salt content in crude oil. Also, the results show that the best solvent was toluene, and the best mixing ratio of solvent was 10 Vol. %.


Article
Mechanical Degradation Of High Molecular Weight Polymer With Surfactant Addition In Arotating Disk Apparatus TUS

Authors: Hala S. Al-shifee --- Marwa F. Abdul-Jabbar --- Haidar M. Al-Qamaje --- Izzat N. Slaiman
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 1143-1151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTARCTMechanical degradation hampers the practical usage of polymers for turbulent drag reduction application. Mechanical degradation refers to the chemical process in which the activation energy of polymer chain scission is exceeded by mechanical action on the polymer chain, and bond rupture occurs. When a water-soluble polymer and surfactant are mixed in water solution, the specific structures (aggregates) are formed, in which polymer film is formed around micelle. In this work, Xanthan gum (XG) – Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SELS) complex formation and its effect on percentage viscosity reduction (%VR) was studied. It was found that SELS surfactant reduced the mechanical degradation of XG much more efficiently than this polymer alone. Xanthan Gum (XG) has been tested for its shear stability and degradability. 0.5% and 1.0 % by weight concentration solutions were exposed to shear stirring at different speeds and time; also 0.5% through 1.5% by weight concentration solutions of SELS were added to XG solutions to determine the ability of SELS to reduce the mechanical degradation of XG. It has been noticed by measuring the percentage viscosity reduction (%VR) of the mixture of XG-SELS that the % VR decreases when added this surfactant to XG polymer.

يحد الانحلال الميكانيكي للسلاسل البوليمرية من الاستخدامات العملية في تطبيقات تقليل الاعاقة في الجريان المضطرب. كما أن الانحلال الميكانيكي يعمل على تقليل الطاقة الموجودة في سلاسل البوليمر الطويلة عن طريق تكسير وتحطيم هذه السلاسل. أن إضافة المواد النشطة سطحيا إلى محاليل البوليمر في وسط مائي يعمل على تكوين جزيئات تسمى التجمعات أو (الاركيت) بحيث أن سلاسل البوليمر تحيط بجزيئات المواد النشطة سطحيا المسماة بالمذيلات في هذه التجمعات أو (الاركيت) وان هذه التجمعات أو (الاركيت) هي التي تعمل على تقليل الاعاقة أو تقليل الانحلال الميكانيكي في الجريان المضطرب. في هذا البحث تم حساب تأثير إضافة المواد النشطة سطحيا المسمى (صوديوم ليورال أيثر سلفيت) على بوليمر (صمغ الزانثان) عن طريق حساب النسبة المئوية لنقصان اللزوجة, حيث تم استخدام تركيزيين من بوليمر (صمغ الزانثان) وهما 0,5 و 1 نسبة وزنيه ومعاملتهما مع تركيزيين آخرين من المواد النشطة سطحيا وهما 0,5 و 1,5 نسبة وزنيه لمعرفة مدى تأثير المواد النشطة سطحيا على تقليل الانحلال الميكانيكي للبوليمر (صمغ الزانثان) , فقد تم ملاحظة أن إضافة المواد النشطة سطحيا يعمل على تقليل الانحلال الميكانيكي للبوليمر المستخدم.


Article
The effect of disinfection procedure and storage on wettability of hydrophilized condensation silicone impression materials

Author: Dr. Suha Fadhil Dulaimi / Assistant professor د. سها فاضل
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-18
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: a newly developed hydrophilized condensation silicone impressionmaterial claimed to be hydrophilic, but exposure to disinfection procedure andstorage could alter the wettability of impression material. Thus, the aim ofpresent study was to evaluate the effect of impression disinfection by immersionin 0.5% NaOCl for 10 mints. on wettability of hydrophilized condensationsilicon . In addition, effect of storage after disinfection for two hours, measuredby contact angle of dental stone mix with impression surface.Materials and Methods: Hydrophilized condensation silicone (putty and wash type)tested with type III dental stone and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectantsolution were used in this study. Disinfection procedure by immersion for 10mint. Wettability was evaluated in simulation of regular clinical situation pouring2ml. of stone slurry on impression surface to form stone patty. Each pattysectioned into two halves, scanned with flat bed scanner and images printed.Dental stone mix contact angle with impression surface was measured withprotractor from scanned image of the cross section of stone patty. Measurementswere preformed before and after disinfection procedure, also after storage inhumid environment for two hours.Results: The putty type showed significant difference p<0.001 when subjected todisinfection and storage. The wash type showed no significant difference p>0.05when subjected to disinfection or storage. Both types together they were notaffected by disinfection procedure p>0.05, but storage had significant effectp<0.001 on wettability.Conclusions: For the hydrophilized condensation silicone using both types together(putty + wash) for making impression improve wettability even afterdisinfection. Delay pouring impression for two hours cause deterioration ofimpression wettability.


Article
STUDY THE EFFAECT OF TWEEN 80 ON CLTHRATE HYDRATE FORMATION BEHAVIOR FOR R-134A

Authors: Shurooq T. AL-Hemeri --- Riyadh S. AL-Mukhtar --- Mustafa S. Mohammed
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 372-395
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Clathrate hydrates are complex molecules formed by the contact between water and gas at high pressure and low temperatures. One of the important aims of gas hydrate technology is to enhance the formation of hydrate and reduction the induction time for clathrate formation. Effect of the different promoters (nonionic surfactant Tween80) on R-134a gas hydrate formation has been investigated in the isochoric system experiment. It is noted that the surfactants have a significant effect of increasing the speed of nucleation as well as improving the growth of hydrate. In the experiment, the effect of Tween80 surfactant was studied to determine its effect on the composition and cooling capacity of 134 hydrates. From kinetic models, many objective functions such as the amount of gas consumed (Δn), the growth rate (r (t)), the apparent rate constant (Kapp) and conversion of the water to hydrate were obtined. The improvement of hydrate growth is marked by the addition of surfactants, which in turn increase the solubility of hydrate gas and reduce the contact angle. In addition, surfactants positively the contact with the gas through the increase of the gas diffusion in the water and this increases the rate of formation of hydrate. Best value achieved at a surfactant concentration of 100 ppm with maximum gas consumed amount (0.16 mol) and less indction time 32 min.


Article
Minimization of Toxic Ions in Waste Water Using Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technique

Authors: Heaven E. Mahmoud --- Adel A. Al - Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-19
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study, the removal of zinc from synthetic waste water using emulsion liquid membrane extraction technique was investigated. Synthetic surfactant solution is used as the emulsifying agent. Diphenylthiocarbazon (ditizone) was used as the extracting agent dissolved in carbon tetrachloride as the organic solvent and sulfuric acid is used as the stripping agent. The parameters that influence the extraction percentage of Zn+2 were studied. These are the ratio of volume of organic solvent to volume of aqueous feed (0.5-4), ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volume of aqueous feed (0.2-1.6), pH of the aqueous feed solution (5-10), mixing intensity (100-1000) rpm, concentration of extracting agent (20-400) ppm, surfactant concentration (0.2-2) wt.%, contact time (3-30) min, and concentration of strip phase (0.25-2) M . It was found that 87.4% of Zn+2 can be removed from the aqueous feed solution at the optimum operating conditions. Further studies were carried out on extraction percentages of other toxic metal ions (As+3, Hg+2, Pb+2, Cd+2) by using the same optimum conditions which were obtained for zinc ions except for the pH of the feed solutions. The pH values for best extraction percentages of arsenic, lead, and cadmium were (1, 10, 10) respectively. Maximum extraction percentage of (98.5, 95.5 and 93.8) was obtained for arsenic, lead, and cadmium respectively, while mercury was completely removed from the aqueous feed solution within the acidic pH range.


Article
Adsorption of Triton X-100 Surfactant on Different Agricultural Soils

Author: Shireen I. Hamadamin شيرين
Journal: Iraqi National Journal Of Chemistry المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الكيمياء ISSN: 22236686 Year: 2009 Issue: 35 Pages: 415-426
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Abstract The extensive utilization of hydrophobic organic compounds such as surfactants generates high environmental pollution levels. Due to their hydrophobicity, this type of compound tends to accumulate in soil organic matter. Distribution coefficient (Kd), Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) and Langmuir adsorption coefficient (KL¬) for adsorption of Triton X-100 on three agricultural soil samples with different characteristics were determined. Adsorption of Triton X-100 in solutions was best fitted to the Freundlich equation.The effects of soil organic matter (OM) content, soil clay content and exchangeable cation content of natural soils on the adsorption capacity of Triton X-100 in water-solid systems were investigated based on the adsorption isotherm analysis. Results showed that, values of Kd and Kf increased with increasing soil OM content, but varied irregularly with clay content, exchangeable cations and pH.

الخلاصة إن الإستفادة الشاملة من المركبات العضوية الكارهة للماء مثل المواد المختزلة للتوتر السطحي للسوائل (surfactants) ، يولد مستويات عالية من تلوث البيئة. بسبب خاصية الكره للماء فإن هذا النوع من المركبات يميل الى التراكم في المواد عضوية في التربة. إن معامل التوزيع (Kd)، معامل إمتتزاز فريندلك (Kf) و معامل إمتزاز لانكمور(KL¬) قد حددت لإمتزاز تريتون) X-100 ( Tritonفي ثلاث نماذج تربة زراعية ذات خصائص مختلفة. إمتزازية تريتون ) Triton X-100 (في المحاليل التركيز أظهر توافقها على معادلة فريندلك.إن تأثيرات محتوى التربة من المواد العضوية, محتوى طين التربة و محتوى الأيون الموجب القابلة للتبادل في الترب الطبيعية على قابلية إمتزاز تريتون X-100 في نظم الماء- التربة تم دراستها على أساس تحليل إمتزاز متساوي الحرارة .(adsorption isotherm analysis) أظهرت النتائج بأن قيم كل من (Kd) و(Kf) إزدادت بإزدياد محتوى المواد العضوية للتربة، ولكن تغايرت بشكل غير منتظم مع محتوى طين التربة، الأيونات الموجبة القابلة للتبادل و pH التربة.


Article
Anticorrosive properties of polyamide on thecarbon steel
خصائص مضادةللتآكل لمادة البولي أميدعلىالكربون الصلب

Author: Mahmoud Shaker Hussain and UlaJameelkhalaf محمود شاكر حسين و علا جميل خلف
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2014 Volume: 40 Issue: 2A Pages: 146-153
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

A new geminisurfactant polyamide derived from Hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and ethylenediamintetraaceticacid (EDTA) 2,2'-(1,2-diamino-8,15-dioxo-7,10,13,16-tetraazadocosane-10,13-diyl) diacetic acid was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR. A series of electrochemical measurements, including corrosion potential and corrosion current has been made on polyamide-coated carbon steel samples in corrosive environment. Results showed that polyamide can offer some degrees of protection in the corrosive environments.The corrosion study of this polymer outline that a new surfactant has a good resistanace to the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.1 Msolution of HCl, which can indicate to uses as anti-corrosion materials.

حضر بولي اميد منشط للسطوح جديد مشتق من مفاعلة سداسي مثيلين ثنائي الامين وثنائي الاثلين رباعي حامض الخليك وتم تشخيصه بوساطة مطيافية الاشعة تحت الحمراء ومطيافية الرنين النووي المغناطيسي. تم إجراء سلسلة من القياسات الكهروكيميائية، بما في ذلك احتمال التآكل والصدأ الانية على عينات الكاربون الصلب المغلفة بمادة البولي أميد في بيئة تآكل مكونة من حامض الهيدروليك بتركيز 1و0 مولاري. وأظهرت النتائج أن مادة البولي أميد يمكن أن تقدم بعض درجات الحماية في بيئات التآكل لمادة الكاربون الصلب من حمض الهيدروكلوريك، والتي يمكن أن تشير إلى الاستخدامات كمواد مضادة للتآكل.


Article
Usage of Iraqi Surfactant Modified Zeolite for Treatment of Water Produced from Oil Production Processes

Authors: Muna B. Taher --- Mohammed H. Abdul Latif --- Amer A. W. Al- Saidy --- Mayadah N. Al- Baldawi --- et al.
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2014 Volume: 377 Issue: 10th Pages: 124-140
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

This study aimed to remove the oil from the produced water imported from Pai- Hassan field using akashat Iraqi natural zeolite after organic modification with cationic surfactant Hexadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (HDTMA) solutions as a numerical complication of critical micelles concentration (CMC) of HDTMA (1CMC, 3CMC, .to 13CMC) solutions. Measuring the Electrical Conductivity (EC) of supernatant, and FT-IR, XRD characterization of solid modified Na/HDTMA zeolite indicates that the optimum HDTMA concentration for zeolite modification is (11 CMC) at 65 C°, and the optimum zeolite weight at constant volume (30 ml) of surfactant solution is 2 g zeolite. Also the removal % of oil from produced water at optimum conditions is 91%.


Article
Effect of Nanoparticles and Surfactant on Phase Inversion of Two Phases

Author: Nada M. Farhan
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 121-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present study, a pressure drop technique was used to identify the phase inversion point of oil-in-water to water-in-oil flows through a horizontal pipe and to study the effect of additives (nanoparticles, cationic surfactant and blend nanoparticles-surfactant) on the critical dispersed volume fraction (phase inversion point). The measurements were carried for mixture velocity ranges from 0.8 m/sec to 2.3 m/sec. The results showed that at low mixture velocity 0.8 and 1 m/sec there is no effect of additives and velocity on phase inversion point, while at high mixture velocities the phase inversion point for nanoparticles and blend (nanoparticles/surfactant) systems was delayed (postponed) to a higher value of the dispersed phase volume fraction (oil volume fraction) compared to the system of surfactant where the phase inversion point was occurred at low dispersion phase volume fraction.For all systems the desperation volume fraction at the point of inversion decreases with increasing mixture velocity. Indeed, the results showed that surfactant was more effective on phase inversion point than solid nanoparticles.

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