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Article
Pre-Treatment Of Erythrocytes With Garlic Or Tea Tree Oil Promotes Oxidation Of The Peroxiredoxin 2 Protein And Makes The Cells Less Susceptible To Infection By Plasmodium Falciparum

Authors: KATHRYN A. SCHULLER --- IAN MENZ --- ROSHNI THATTENGAT --- 3SARMAD A. M. AL-ASADI
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2019 Volume: 45 Issue: 1A Pages: 45-56
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Plasmodium falciparum, the causal organism of the most deadly form of human malaria, lacks catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes and thus is highly dependent on peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes for its defence against oxidative stress. In addition to its own five Prx enzymes, P. falciparum also uses the human Prx2 protein which it imports from the host erythrocyte. Here we have investigated the effects of pre-treatment of uninfected erythrocytes with increasing concentrations of garlic or tea tree oil on the redox/oligomerization state of the Prx2 protein and on the P. falciparum parasitemia in the erythrocytes. Both oils were shown to be able to disrupt the Prx2 redox state in pre-treated uninfected erythrocytes by promoting oxidised dimer formation. Garlic oil was a more potent promotor of the oxidation/inactivation of the Prx2 protein than tea tree oil. The results also showed that both oils promoted oxidation/inactivation of the Prx2 protein at the 2nd generation ring stage and also appeared to promote oxidation of other sulfhydryl group-containing proteins. Additionally, pre-treatment of uninfected erythrocytes with the test oils made the erythrocytes less susceptible to infection by P. falciparum at the 2nd generation ring stage (new infections). Garlic oil was more effective than tea tree oil in this respect. Thus, oxidation of the Prx2 protein might be involved in decreasing the susceptibility of pre-treated uninfected erythrocytes to infection by P. falciparum. These results suggest that garlic and tea tree oils could be used as antimalarial drugs


Article
Tea Tree Oil: Anew Antifungal Agents Against Candida Albicans Cells on Heat–Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. An in vitro study

Author: Fayhaa AM Al–Mashhadane
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: S54-S57
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: In this research, the antifungal effect of tea tree oil on Candida that colonizes the heat cured acrylic resin denture base material was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 24 patients wearing upper complete dentures for more than one year were selected randomly from patients who were attending private dental clinics at Mosul city. Swabs from inner surface of upper complete dentures were taken for each patient then Candida albican were isolated, after that these dentures were immersed in the antifungal drugs (tea tree oil solution 15% and fluconazole solution 64 µg/ml) at 24 h and 48 hr. After that another swap was taken for each sample of complete denture to determine the antifungal effects of these agents. Results: The results of this study revealed that tea tree oil solution 15% and fluconazole solution 64 µg/ml had a significant antifungal effects, although tea tree solution effect was significantly less than fluconazole effects compared to control group [Candida albican culture (before immersion)]. Conclusions: The use of therapeutically active compounds extracted from plants like tea tree oil will offers a natural alternative with excellent antifungal effect and can be employed to reduce number of Candida albicans cells including those adhered to acrylic denture base material. This approach to fungal control is believed to be a practical for home care of dentures.


Article
Evaluation of the Addition of Tea Tree Oil on Some Mechanical Properties of Heat Cured Acrylic Resin
تقييم اضافة زيت شجرة الشاي على بعض الخواص الميكانيكية للراتنج الاكریلي الحراري

Author: Ban Nahal Shukur بان ناهل شكر
Journal: Al-Rafidain University College For Sciences مجلة كلية الرافدين الجامعة للعلوم ISSN: 16816870 Year: 2018 Issue: 42 Pages: 301-316
Publisher: Rafidain University College كلية الرافدين الجامعة

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Abstract

Objectives: the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tea tree oil on impact strength; transverse strength and hardness of heat cured acrylic. Materials and procedures: Total number of (80) specimens have been intended .Twenty samples have been prepared without additive (control) and (60) samples were prepared with incorporation of tea tree oil in three different concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%).Results: the result showed a significant difference between control and experimental groups in the transverse strength and hardness tests while there was no significant difference between control and addition groups in impact strength test. The addition of tea tree oil (T.T.O) decreased the hardness in all different concentrations, and increased the transverse strength at concentration of 20%.Conclusion: The addition of 20% tea tree oil to acrylic resin decreased its hardness, increased the transverse strength, and showed no significant difference in impact strength.

الاهداف: تهدف هذه الدراسة الى تقييم تأثير زيت شجرة الشاي على قوة الانثناء المتبقي وعلى صلادة مادة الراتنج الاكریلي الحراري ومقاومة الصدمة. المواد وطرائق العمل: تم تحضير(80)، عينة عشرين عينة تم تحضيرها بدون إضافات (نماذج قياسية) و(60) عينة تم تحضيرها مع إضافة زيت شجرة الشاي في ثلاثه تراكيز مختلفة (10و15و20)بالمائة لتقييم قوة الانثناء، والصلادة ومقاومة الصدمة.النتائج: أظهرت النتائج بان هناك فروقات واختلافات معنوية بين المجاميع القياسية والمجاميع المضاف إليها الزيت في فحص الصلادة وفحص قوة الانثناء وعدم وجود فروقات معنوية بين المجاميع القياسية والمجاميع في مقاومة الصدمة. اضافة زيت شجرة الشاي قلل من الصلادة في جميع تراكيزه وزاد من قوة الانثناء بتركيز %20.الاستنتاجات: نستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان إضافة زيت شجرة الشاي ب تركيز 20% للراتنج الاكريلي زاد من قوة الانثناء لتلك المادة وقلل من الصلادة ولم يكن هناك اختلاف معنوي في مقاومة الصدمة.


Article
Synergistic effect of tea tree oil on fungi causing vaginal thrush in pregnant women
التأثير التآزري لزيت شجرة الشاي على الفطريات المسببة لمرض بالسُلاق المهبلي عند النساء الحوامل

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Abstract

Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC), or Vaginal thrush, is a vaginitis caused by the overgrowth of some opportunistic yeasts of the genus Candida spp. Australian Tea Tree Oil (TTO) is one of the most important essential oils that contain many compounds that are effective against many bacteria and fungi, which may match the effect of common antibiotics. Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate and diagnose fungi that causing vaginal thrush, in pregnant women and to study the effect of (pregnancy and pregnancy sequence and age) on the rate of infection compared to non-pregnant, as well as to study the drug sensitivity of isolates towards a number of antifungal and compared that with the inhibitory effectiveness of tea tree oil. Material and Methods: 75 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and 50 from non-pregnant women were collected at ages ranging from 17-65 years. The isolates were diagnosed using several methods, including the Vitek2 Compact system. 17 isolates were selected to study the inhibitory effect of ten antifungal agents, six of them were automatically tested by the Vitek 2 compact system, which contains a sensitivity test kit (AST-YS07 Card). The essential oil (TTO) was analyzed by GC-MS to detect its content of active compounds. The inhibitory effect of TTO was studied according to "Broth dilution" method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for it, the inhibitory effect of four concentrations of TTO (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5 %) was also tested according to "well diffusion" method. This investigation also included a study of the mechanism of action (TTO). RESULTS: The rate of infection among pregnant women was (41%) with the highest rate of infection during the third trimester of pregnancy, while the percentage of non-pregnant women was only 8%. Vaginal infection was also prevalent in the age group ranged between (17-29 years).The isolates showed resistance to (Ketoconazol, Terbinafine) while they were sensitive to (Nystatin, clotrimazol), as well as sensitive to all antifungal of (AST-YS07 Card). The analysis of the TTO using chromatogram showed that it contains 32 chemical compounds, most of them are monoterpene like (Terpinen-4-ol, 1, 8-Cineol). The MIC of TTO ranged between (4 - < 2 µl/ ml). The function of TTO is to destroy the structural structure of the cell membrane and change its permeability, thereby leakage of cellular components and cell death. Conclusion: Pregnancy increases the rate of vaginal candidiasis in women, especially during the third trimester. TTO is highly effective in inhibiting the growth of opportunistic candida yeasts.

خلفية عن الموضوع: داء المبيضات الفرجي المهبلي المعروف أيضآ بالسُلاق المهبلي، هو إلتهاب المهبل الناجم عن فرط نمو بعض الخمائر الإنتهازية التابعة لجنس Candida spp. يعد زيت شجرة الشاي الأسترالية (TTO) Australian Tea tree من أهم الزيوت الأساسية التي تحتوي على العديد من المركبات الفعَّالة ضد العديد من انوع البكتريا والفطريات والتي قد تضاهي تأثير المضادات الحيوية الشائعة.الهدف من البحث: هدفت الدراسة إلى عزل وتشخيص الفطريات المسببة للسُلاق المهبلي عند النساء الحوامل ودراسة مدى تأثير (الحمل وتسلسل الحمل والعمر) في إرتفاع معدل الإصابة بالمبيضات المهبلية مقارنة بغيرالحوامل، وكذلك دراسة الحساسية الدوائية للعزلات تجاه عدد من المضادات الفطرية ومقارنة ذلك بالفعَّالية التثبيطية لزيت شجرة الشاي TTO.المواد وطرق العمل: جمعت (75 مسحة لنساء حوامل) و (50 مسحة لنساءغير الحوامل) تراوحت أعمارهنَّ مابين (17-65 سنة). شُخصَّت عزلات الخمائر بإستخدام عدة طرق بضمنها نظام Vitek2 Compact. أختيرت (17) عزلة ضمت جميع الأنواع المعزولة لدراسة التأثير المثبط لــ (10انواع) من المضادات الفطرية (6) منها اختبرت بشكل آلي بواسطة نظامVitek 2 compact الذي يحتوي عُدة خاصة بأختبار الحساسية والمتمثلة ببطاقة (AST-YS07 Card). حُلل الزيت العطري (TTO)`بواسطة جهاز (GC-MS) للكشف عن محتواه من المركبات الفعالة. كماُ حُدد التركيز المثبط الادنى للزيت (MIC)، وفقاً لطريقة"Broth dilution" . فضلاً عن ذلك درس التأثير المثبط لأربع تراكـيز من TTO (100% و50% و25% و12.5%) وفقاً لطريقة الإنتشار في الحفر‘well diffusion’ method وحُددت فعَّالية كل تركيز بقياس قطر منطقة التثبيط . تضمَّن البحث أيضاً دراسة آلية عمل (TTO) التي يعمل من خلالها على تثبيط نمو عُزلات الخمائر.النتائج: تم الحصول على (34) عزلة موجبة لخمائر المبيضات. بلغت نسبة الاصابة بين الحوامل (41%) مع تسجيل اعلى نسبة للاصابة خلال الثلث الثالث للحمل. في حين كانت النسبة (8%) فقط بين فئة النساء غير الحوامل. اصابة المهبل كانت سائدة ايضآ في الفئات العمرية ما بين (17-29 سنة). اظهرت العزلات مقاومة لـ (Ketoconazol ، Terbinafine) في حين كانت حساسة لـ (Nystatin ، clotrimazol)، كذلك كانت حساسة لجميع مضادات بطاقة (AST-YS07 Card). اظهر كروماتوغرام تحليل الزيت العطري TTO احتواءه على 32 مركب كيميائي اغلبها من التربينات الاحادية Monoterpene مثل (1,8-Cineol and Terpinen-4-ol). اظهرت النتائج تأثير واضح لـ (TTO) على جميع العزلات التي شملها الإختبار وبـ MIC تراوح مابين (4-< 2 مايكرولتر/ مل). (TTO) تسبب بتدمير بنية الغشاء الخلوي وتغيير نفاذيته و بالتالي تسرب المكونات الخلوية وموت الخلية. الإستنتاجات: يزيد الحمل من معدل الإصابة بداء المبيضات المهبلي لدى السيدات خصوصاً خلال الثلث الثالث من الحمل. الزيوت الطيَّارة من المكونات الفعَّالة في النبات ولها فعالية جيدة في تثبيط نمو انواع المبيضات Candida spp.. وان (TTO) له كفاءة عالية في تثبيط نمو خمائر المبيضات الإنتهازية.

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