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Article
Ventricular Myocardial Sheet

Author: Mostafa R. Ali*, Saad A. Rashed **
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2018 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 50-57
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Despite the fact that the exact architecture and orientation of ventricular myocardium are critical to cardiac functions either in health or disease, it is still debated. Objectives: Anatomical demonstration of the ventricle myocardium (VM)as a single, long and continuous muscular sheet and this muscular sheet can be dived into 3-segments. As a new anatomical concept the left ventricle is a triple layers wall; whether the right ventricle is a single layer wall.Histological demonstration of different directions of muscle-fibers at each layer of ventricular myocardium.Type of the study: Cross- sectional study.Methods: In this study 100-heart (fish, chicken, goat, sheep and cow) were dissected and analyzed. Dental lacrona and wax knife used majorly in the dissection, boiling of the hearts with distilled water and finally opening them by the “opening-technique”.Results: Ventricular myocardium is a single, long and continuous muscular sheet in 100-samples of different species which had been included in the study (passing from the fish toward the cow). VMS can be divided into 3-segments in (100% of cow, 95% of goat and 85% of sheep). The left ventricle is a triple layers wall; whether the right ventricle is single layer wall, this result observed in (100% of cow, 95% of goat and 85% of sheep).Finally different directions of muscle fibers observed at each layer of ventricular myocardium where the subendocardial layer shows transverse running pattern of muscle fibers, mesocardial layer shows longitudinal running pattern of muscle fibers and subepicardial layer shows mixed running patterns of muscle fibers.Conclusion: Ventricular myocardium is single, long and continuous muscular sheet. This sheet consists of 3-segments. These segments coils in spiral track and form the triple layers left ventricular wall and the single layer right ventricular wall. By histological examination of ventricular myocardial layers different directions of muscle fibers observed at each layer.


Article
Using SCS-CN Model in Estimating the Amount of Torrent Risk in Dal Koz Valley Ba y
استخدام نموذج SCS-CN في تقدير حجم مخاطر السيول في حوض وادي دال كوز

Authors: Isaac Salih Alakaam اسحق صالح العكام --- Khaldoun Rahman Alwan خلدون رحمان علوان
Journal: Journal of Research Diyala humanity مجلة ديالى للبحوث الانسانية ISSN: 1998104x Year: 2018 Issue: 76 Pages: 352-375
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This research included estimating the volume of superficial flow for the basin of Valley Dal Koz. It is one of the seasonal valleys which depends on the fall of rain were the average of its water increases in winter. Valley Dal Koz lies in Kalar District in its South-East part of Kurdistan region in Iraq within the Administrative boarders of Sulimanya Governorate in North-East part of Iraq. It slops from mountain (Dara Khala) North-East of Kalar District, the total area of the basin is (157 km2) with length (31.9 km2). The quality of surface water has been studied to show its appropriateness for different usages by comparing it with international and Iraqi specifications. Also, the study of the risk of flowing in the basin depending on different standards for classifying the risks of basins represented by some morphometric aspects and some hydrological aspects it seems by using the classification of showing the grades of flowing risks that Sofee Ahmed had a high level of risk.

تضمن البحث دراسة حجم الجريان السطحي لحوض وادي دال كوز ,وهو من الأودية الموسمية التي تعتمد على سقوط الامطار إذ تزداد مياهها في فصل الشتاء ,يقع وادي دال كوز في قضاء كلار في الجزء الجنوبي الشرقي من اقليم كوردستان العراق ضمن الحدود الادارية لمحافظة السليمانية وفي الجزء الشمالي الشرقي من العراق ,تبلغ مساحة الحوض (157كم2) وبطول (31.9كم) ,وتهدف الدراسة الى تقدير حجم مخاطر السيول في الحوض بالاعتماد على فرضية خدمات حفظ التربة الامريكية American Soil – Conservation service (SCS) التي تعتمد على نوعية التربة ودرجة نفاذيتها وتم تصنيف الغطاء الارضي للحوض, ومن ثم تقدير عمق وحجم الجريان المتوقع عقب سقوط الامطار لموجات مطرية مؤثرة خلال عشر سنوات من 2005 ـ 2014 , وتم دراسة مخاطر السيول في الحوض بالاعتماد على عدة معايير لتصنيف خطورة الاحواض وتمثلت في بعض الخصائص المورفومترية وبعض الخصائص الهيدرولوجية وآتضح من تصنيف درجات خطورة السيول للأحواض الثانوية ان حوض صوفي احمد ذات مستوى عالٍ من الخطورة .

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