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Article
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant and Diabetic Women

Authors: Shaymaa Ali Gauad --- Falah Salim Manhal غلاح سالم منهل
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as isolation of a specified quantitative count of bacteria in an appropriately collected urine specimen from an individual without symptoms or signs of urinary tract infection. Aim of study: To evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria according to age, pregnancy, and type II diabetes mellitus in a sample of Iraqi women. Patients and Methods: A total of 125 female individuals were involved. The study participants were classified into the following groups: non-pregnant women with type II diabetes mellitus, pregnant women with type II diabetes mellitus, pregnant women without type II diabetes mellitus, and apparently healthy non-pregnant women. Urine and blood specimens were tested to record positive urine culture, pyuria, and blood glucose according to standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Results: Frequency of positive urine culture and pyuria in the total pregnant women was 7 (14%) and 15 (30%), respectively, whereas frequency of positive urine culture and pyuria in the total diabetic women was 8 (16%) and 23 (46%), respectively. The bacterial isolation rate in the studied groups was 13 (10%). E-coli recorded the highest isolation rate, 6(5%). There was no significant culture positive of urine specimens in the groups of diabetic non-pregnant, diabetic pregnant, and women with normal pregnancy (P-value< 0.05). Pregnant women with culture positive urine and pyuria were more likely to have perinatal mortality. Sterile pyuria was detected in pregnant women aged 18-45, those in third trimester, and in multiparous pregnant women. There was significant positive urine culture and a highly significant pyuria in diabetic women with BMI > 25. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality. Sterile pyuria is a significant observation in pregnant and diabetic women; therefore it should bring more attention. Recommendations Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is appropriate for pregnant women but it is not recommended for diabetics. The study advised to perform urine culture as a part of the antenatal check-up for pregnant women.


Article
Cytological Features of Oral Cytobrush Smears in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Balkees T. Garib --- Mohammad T. Ahmed محمد طه احمد
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2012 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 6-12
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Oral cytology is a renewed field that aids in diagnosis and observation of possible epithelial changes associated with oral mucosal diseases. Aim; to study the main cytomorphological alteration in gingival and buccal smears from type II diabetics in relation to their hyperglycemic status. The study includes 40 type II diabetic patients (20 new-diagnosed and 20 treated diabetics patients) and 20 healthy persons of both sex. Papanicolaou stained smear were prepared from their cheek and gingiva. The morphological features of 100 unfolded epithelial cells were evaluated under light microscope. Results of this study show that diabetics’ oral mucosa cells characterized by large nuclei with frequent evidence of binucleation, granular chromatin, prominent nucleoli. However, there was frequent small blue cytoplasm and buccal smears showed altered keratinization. As conclusion oral cytology from type II diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphological changes that is site specific and indicate epithelial cell regeneration and degeneration with altered keratinization especially in buccal mucosa.


Article
Oral signs and symptoms and hyperglycemic status of type II diabetic patients in relation to cytomorphometric findings of gingival and buccal cytobrush smears

Authors: Mohammad T. Baban محمد بابان --- Balkees T. Garib بلقيس غريب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Brush cytology is an accepted technique that gets renewed interest. It is now used as an aid for thediagnosis and observation of possible epithelial changes that could be associated with oral mucosal diseases. Thisstudy aimed to evaluate the cytomorphometric changes in gingiva and buccal mucosa of type II diabetics and toassess their relation to oral symptoms and glycemic status.Materials and methods: Cytological Papanicolaou stained smear were prepared from cheek and gingiva of 20 nontreated cases, 20 treated diabetics and 20 healthy persons of both sex after measuring their HbA1c and recordingtheir oral symptoms. Hundred unfolded epithelial cells were evaluated qualitatively using MCID software to measurenuclear and cytoplasmic areas, ratio, perimeters, and form factors. Different statistical analyses were used todetermine relations between studied parameters.Results: Diabetics smears showed large nucleus, small cytoplasm, and small cytoplasm/nucleus ratio compared withhealthy persons with no sex variation. Xerostomia and burning sensation were significantly correlated with nuclearparameters, while HbA1c was significantly correlated with both cytoplasmic and nuclear parameters. Well-controlledpatients showed reduction in nuclear area, but nucleus and cytoplasm form factors were unlike normal.Conclusions: Oral cytology from type II diabetics is associated with detectable cytomorphometric changes that isbetter demonstrated in buccal than gingival mucosa and tend to return partially to their normal values in wellcontrolledpatients, with no sex variation. NA seems to be the main parameter that changed during hyperglycemiaand xerostomia, while both NA and CA were related to burning sensation


Article
Effects of Metformin and diet on hemoglobin, cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Type 2 diabetic Patients

Authors: Shaymaa Z. Al-Rumaidh --- Rana Talib Almuswie --- Luma R. Lafta --- Alyaa A.Hafedh
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2017 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Metformin is recommend as the first line oral agent to be used patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(Type 2 Diabetic).The study was prospectively performed in diabetic and endocrine center of Nassiriyah city .The present study aimed to shed light on metformin and hemoglobin(Hb) and lipid profile in type II diabetic patients with diet and without diet . Our study included 60 patients treated with metformin for Twelve-week . The subjects were divided into three groups. Group I as control, group II patients received Metformin- (1000/2 mg/day) with diet and group III patients received the Metformin-(1000/2 mg/day) without diet all these patient had been selected from those patients visit . The Hb concentration and lipid profile were been examine after 3 months of treatment.In present study we found the hemoglobin concentration reduced in group II with diet patient compare with the group III and control group also reduced in the group III without diet patient compare with control group, as same time This study showed that the treatment with metformine led to, reductions observed in the cholesterol concentrations of the group II diabetic patients with diet compared with the group III administered MET respective without diet diabetic and compared with control, Also we found the triglyceride concentrations of diabetic patients in group administered MET respective with diet were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared with that of without diet diabetic and control therefore it was considered predisposing factor to reduced damage diabetes. For this reason; continuous taking of metaformin should be important in medicine and general healthy, and they must be not used unless consult of specialists.


Article
Partially Purification Of Alanine Aminopeptidase From Serum of Type II Diabetic Patients With Cardiac Disease

Authors: Khamaael M.Fayadh --- Layla O.Farhan --- Tagreed U.Mohammad
Journal: Journal of College of Education مجلة كلية التربية ISSN: 18120380 Year: 2011 Issue: 1 Pages: 391-396
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This studay was performd on 30 serum specimens of patients having type II diabetes with cardiac disease, and 40 normal specimens were investigated as control group.The activity rate of AAP in patients (125.31± 3.28)I.U/L and activity rate of AAP in normals (6.76±2.21) I.U/L, in addition purification of AAP from serum patients having type II diabetes with cardiac diaease by using dialysis bag and gel filtration (Sephadex G-50). The results of the study reveal that Alanine aminopeptidase (AAP) activity of type II diabetes with cardiac disease patients' serum show a high signifiacant increase (p<0.001) compare to normal subject .

شملت الدراسة (30 ) عينة مرضية من أمصال المرضى المصابين بالداء السكري النوع الثاني مع أمراض القلب بالاضافة الى (40) عينة من أمصال الأصحاء كمجموعة ضابطة .وقد أظهرت النتائج أرتفاع بنشاط الأنزيم AAP (125.31± 3.28)I.U/L، في أمصال المرضى المصابين بالداء السكري النوع الثاني والمرضى المصابين بامراض القلب مقارنة بالاصحاء أذ بلغ نشاط الانزيم AAP (6.76±2.21) I.U/L. وقد لوحظ أرتفاع معنوي ملحوظ (p<0.001) بنشاط الأنزيم AAP في أمصال المرضى المصابين بالداء السكري النوع الثاني والمصابين بأمراض القلب مقارنة بالأصحاء. كما تم تنقية الانزيم بأستعمال كيس الديلزة وكروماتوغرافيا الترشيح بالهلام Sephadex G-50 .


Article
Sociological Risk Factors in the Development of Type II Diabetes for Adult Male Case-control Study
الخلفية الاجتماعية لمرضى السكري من النمط الثاني للذكور البالغين دراسة العينة و الشاهد

Author: Dhafer B. AL-Youzbaki د. ظافر بشير اليوزبكي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2008 Volume: 21 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-46
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract: Background: Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for the majority of diabetic cases. The disease mechanisms in type 2 diabetes are not wholly known. Type 2 diabetes usually developed after the age of 40, but it is now also increasing in children. The prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases are showing an upward trend in most countries for several reasons, one of them is the life styles and behavioral patterns of people are changing rapidly in adopting western forms (obesity, heavy salt and alcohol intake, sedentary life and much more stresses). Developing countries are now warned to take appropriate steps to avoid the ""epidemics"" of chronic non-communicable diseases which they likely to come with socio-economic and health development. Aim: To examine social risk factors in the development of type II diabetes in adult males.Study design: Case-control study, where 120 adult males with type 2 diabetes were allocated as cases and another 120 adult males without type 2 diabetes as control. Matching is done for age ± 5 years. Unpaired sampling technique had been used. Study period: 1st. February to 1st. July 2006.Questionnaire: Including, assessment of social factors in the development of type 2 diabetes as personal characteristics (social identity, personal habits and psychological make-up), life events (stress, social discontinuities and geographical mobility) and social context (economic factors, social integration, urbanization and social class). In addition, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were also estimated. Results: Regarding Personal Characteristics; positive family history was found in this study to be highly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (OR=2.50, 95%C.I. =1.43-4.83), as well as sedentary life (OR=8.25, 95%C.I. = 4.75-14.33), and unhealthy dietary behaviors (OR=4.53, 95%C.I. = 2.21-9.72). According to Life Events; stress was found to be associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (OR=3.33, 95%C.I. = 1.98-5.61), as well as social discontinuities (OR=2.46, 95%C.I. = 1.33-4.54) and catastrophic events (OR=2.07, 95%C.I. = 1.07-4.02). In relation to Social Context; urbanization was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes (OR=2.85, 95%C.I. =3.64-12.93), and high crowding index also was found to be associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (OR=2.29, 95%C.I. = 1.38-3.79). Population in the social class III were found to be more prone for the development of type 2 diabetes (OR=3.82, 95%C.I. = 2.25-6.49). Regarding obesity; men with body mass index > 25 were found to be at risk in developing type 2 diabetes (OR=1.88, 95%C.I. = 1.12-3.17) and men with central obesity (waist to hip ratio > 1) were also more prone to develop type 2 diabetes (OR=2.60, 95%C.I. = 1.42-4.74) Conclusion: Positive family history, sedentary life, unhealthy dietary behavior, stress, social discontinuities, catastrophic events, urbanization, high crowding index, being in social class III and obesity, all are among the important sociological risk factors in the development of type 2 diabetes for adult males.Key words: Sociological risk factors, type II diabetes, adult males.

الملخص:المقدمة: إن مرض السكري من النمط الثاني (المعتمد على الأنسولين) احد أهم الأمراض المزمنة غير الانتقالية, و هو أيضا من أهم عوامل الخطورة في حدوث الإمراض كثيرة أخرى. إن انتشار الأمراض المزمنة غير الانتقالية تشهد اتجاها تصاعديا في اغلب البلدان لأسباب عديدة, احد هذه الأسباب هو أسلوب الحياة و النمط السلوكي للناس و اللذان يشهدان تغيرا سريعا في طريق تبني الأساليب و الأنماط السلوكية الغربية (كالسمنة, كثرة تناول الملح و الكحول, قلة الحكة, و الأجهادات الكثيرة).على الدول النامية الآن أن تتخذ خطواتِ ملائمةِ لتَفادي ""أوبئة" " مِنْ الأمراضِ المزمنة غيرِ الانتقالية المُزمنةِ و التي غابا ما يأتي مع التطور الاقتصادي و الاجتماعي. فكانت هذه الدراسة لبيان علاقة حدوث مرض السكري من النوع الثاني للذكور البالغين مع خلفيتهم الاجتماعية. الهدف: فحص عوامل الخطورة الاجتماعية في حدوث مرض السكري من النمط الثاني للذكور البالغين.تصميم الدراسة: دراسة العينة و الشاهد.فترة الدراسة:من الفاتح من شباط و حتى الفاتح من تموز لسنة 2006استمارة الاستبيان:تضمنت تسجيل العوامل الاجتماعية كالصفات الشخصية و الحوادث الحياتية إضافة إلى السياق الاجتماعي. تم كذلك اخذ الوظيفة أو العمل كعامل للتقسيم الاجتماعي إضافة إلى قياس الطول و الوزن و محيط البطن مع محيط الحوض.النتائج:التاريخ العائلي الايجابي وجد في هذه الدراسة مرتبط بحدوث مرض السكري من النمط الثاني و كذلك قلة الحركة, و السلوك الغذائي غير الصحي. في ما يتعلق بالحوادث الحياتية, وجد أن الإجهاد و التوقفات الاجتماعية إضافة إلى الأحداث المفجعة, كل تلك العوامل مرتبطة بشكل إحصائي هام بحدوث مرض السكري من النمط الثاني للذكور. في ما يتعلق في السياق الاجتماعي وجد أن التحضر إضافة إلى الزحام السكني كلها كانت عوامل مهمة إحصائيا في حدوث مرض السكري من النمط الثاني. و أخيرا, وجد أن السمنة و كون الشخص في القسم الاجتماعي المتوسط (حسب التقسيم الاجتماعي المهني) هما من العوامل المهمة في حدوث مرض السكري من النمط الثاني للرجال.الاستنتاجات:إن العوامل الاجتماعية مهمة في حدوث مرض السكري من النمط الثاني و هو احد الأمراض المزمنة غير الانتقالية.


Article
Isolation of Candida albicans from oral cavity of type II diabetic subjects and its relationship to total and differential white blood cell count
عزل Candida albicans من تجويف الفم لمرضى السكري من النوع الثاني وعلاقته بعدد خلايا الدم البيضاء الكلية والتفاضلية

Authors: Chiman Hameed Saeed --- Nawsherwan Sadiq --- Ashti Mohammad Amin
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2014 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 833-838
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: It is well known that oral candidiasis increase in many situations, like obesity, debility, leukemia, viral infection, use of certain drugs in addition to diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and to identify factors predisposing to colonization in the diabetic patient. The variables evaluated include absolute white blood cell counts and differentials, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, serum glucose, blood urea, serum creatinine and duration of diabetes.Methods: One hundred subjects of type II diabetes mellitus and one hundred non-diabetic subjects (control) were studied for isolation of Candida albicans from oral cavity. Further investigations for diabetic group were done regarding serum glucose, HbA1c, and total and differential white blood cell counts.Results: This study showed 56 (56%) out of 100 diabetic subjects and 30 (30%) out of 100 in non-diabetic subjects were found to carry Candida in their oral cavity. In the diabetic group, no relationship was found to total or differential white blood cell count, recent use of antibiotics, serum glucose and HbA1c values. A significant relationship was found in diabetic patients who had chronic renal disease.Conclusion: Colonization of Candida albicans in the oral cavity was found to be higher in diabetic subjects than in non-diabetic. However, glycaemic control in diabetes, total and differential white blood cells were found to bear no relation with carriage of Candida in the oral cavity.


Article
Relationship between type II diabetes mellitus and Helicobacter pylori infection in Erbil city

Authors: Rawaz D. Tawfeeq --- Zahra A. Amin --- Aveen Jalal --- Sayran K. Hama Baiz
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 43-50
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by the increase in blood glucose due to insulin resistance or deficiency of insulin. The subjects are more likely to be prone to infection. So, it could be correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection, which means that gastrointestinal inflammation might be affected by uncontrolled glycemic level. This study aimed to examine the correlation of type II diabetes and infection of gastrointestinal in order to illustrate such complication of diabetes mellitus apart from others. Methods: A total of 64 persons from Erbil city participated in this cross-sectional study. They were divided into two groups, each group involving 32 persons. The cases group included those suffering from type II diabetes and were selected by simple random sampling method. The other group included those not possessing any types of disease including diabetes mellitus. Examination of Helicobacter pylori, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), besides measuring blood pressure and body mass index were performed for all individual subjects in both groups. Chi-Square and unpaired t-test were used for data analysis. Results: There was a 59% positively Helicobacter pylori in diabetes group whereas there was a 31% positively Helicobacter pylori in non-diabetes mellitus. The difference between the rates of Helicobacter pylori in both groups was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in diabetics was significantly higher than the non-diabetics.


Article
Corneal Specular Microscopy Changes in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Yousif Farhan Dawood --- Najah Kadhum mohammad Al-Quraishi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 591-598
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Corneal endothelial cells count and shape are vital in keeping corneal transparency with normal vision. Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant changes in the corneal endothelium. OBJECTIVE: To compare corneal endothelial structure and central corneal thickness (CCT) between type II diabetics and non-diabetic control patients.METHODS: Specular microscopy was used to measure central corneal thickness (CCT), average size of endothelial cells, standard deviation of cell size and coefficient of variation in cell area (CV), endothelial cell density, as well as hexagonality of 260 eyes from 260 patients ( 130 eyes from type II diabetic patients and 130 eyes from non diabetic controls).RESULTS: The diabetic corneas have a significant increase in average size of endothelial cells (410.4 ± 89.6 µm² vs. 382.3 ± 83.4 µm²)(p <0.05 ), standard deviation of cell size (152.2 ± 38.0 µm² vs. 128.7 ± 19.5 µm²)(p <0.05) and coefficient of variation (CV) (38.3 % ± 5.4 % vs. 33.4 % ± 4.4%)(p<0.05). and a significant decrease of endothelial cell density (2570.7 ± 563.1 cells / mm² vs. 2704.1 ± 572.5 cells / mm²)(p <0.05) and hexagonality (48.3 ± 17.1% vs. 56.5% ±15.6%)(p<0.05). There was no significant difference in central corneal thickness(CCT) (516.3 ± 63.4 µm vs. 512.8 ± 61.7µm )(p >0.05). CONCLUSION: Type II diabetes associated with a significant changes in the corneal endothelium including, reduction of endothelial cell density, increased variation of cells shape (pleomorphism) and increased variation of cells area (polymegathism). There was no significant changes of central corneal thickness (CCT).


Article
Relationship between Serum Lipoprotein Ratios and Insulin Resistance in Iraqi Women with Type II DM

Authors: Maha Fadhil Smaism --- Najla,a Jawad Hassani
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 1137 -1145
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes confers an increased morbidity and mortality dueto macrovascular complicationssuch as CVDfor which dyslipidemia is themajor contributor. This study was designed toexplore the role of non-HDLcandlipoprotein ratios as CVD riskmarker in diabetic population. It was acase –control study , 68 female uncontrolled (HbA1c ≥ 6.5) diabetic were selected, 34 were diabetic who were treatment(Goup A) and 34 werediabetic without treatment (Group B)and 34 were non-diabetic subjects as control group . The lipidprofile including TC, TG and HDLc were measured and calculation of lipoprotein ratios.Lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in group A, Non-HDL(P<0.001), TC/HDL and TG/HDL(P<0.01), LDL/HDL(P<0.05) In group B; Non-HDLc(P<0.01), TC/HDL, TG/HDL and LDL/HDL(P<0.05) in contrast tocontrols. There is significantly positive correlation of TG/HDLc, TC/HDLc, LDL/HDLc and Non-HDLc with HOMA-IR in group A and in group B. Lipoprotein ratio provide a simple means of identifying insulin resistance which could be used as a possible risk factor ofCVD in uncontrolledtype 2 diabetic.

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