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Article
Subclinical Hypothyrodism and Central Adiposity

Author: Ikhlas Khalid Hammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 423-429
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The pandemic of central obesity has driven new interest in the relationship between thyroid hormone and body weight distribution since it is well known that thyroid hormones play a key role in regulating energy homeostasis and that subtle elevation in TSH as in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH)is associated with deficiency in resting energy expenditure and increased body weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess possible associations of subclinical hypothyroidism with central obesity in apparently healthy women. METHODS: 133 apparently healthy, clinically euthyrotic women were included in this study; 91of them were centrally obese and 42 were centrally non obese, Thyroid function tests and waist circumference measurement were done in all participants. RESULTS: 13.5 %( n=18) of the studied population had subclinical hypothyroidism.In the centrally obese group the frequency was 17.5 %( n=16), while in the non obese it was 4.7% (n=2), the highest frequency was found in the 40-49 years old women (38.8%). Positive significant correlation was found between waist circumference and age, negative significant correlation was found between age and T3. CONCLUSION: The frequency of SCH is more in centrally obese women. Assessment of thyroid function must be regarded as part of the screening program in obese.


Article
A prospective study on the effect of waist circumference on symptom severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease
دراسة مستقبلية حول تأثير محيط الخصر على شدة أعراض مرض ارتداد المعدي المريئي

Authors: Nuri Baderkhan Saeed Ahmed --- Muhammed Mustafa Kamal --- Sabah Jalal Shareef
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 1531-1535
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Gastro esophageal reflux disease is one of the commonest gastrointestinal diseases and its incidence is increasing. There is a real challenge in diagnosis and treatment because of its complication if untreated and its effect on patient daily performance. We tried to find the relation between this disease severity symptom known by the number of heartburn attacks per week and (waist circumference).Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 patients (55% female and 45% male) diagnosed with gastro esophageal reflux disease in Rizgary Teaching Hospital Erbil city from January 2014 to June 2014. Their ages ranged from 17 to 75 years. The criteria for patient selection depended on history and clinical examination and endoscopy, waist circumference measured with a tape measure in centimeter.Results: The mean age ± SD of participants, was 37.13 ± 12.5 ranged from 17-75 years. Regarding the relation between frequency of heartburn attacks and waist circumflex, the study revealed that the number of heartburn attacks was significantly increasing with increasing waist circumflex, (P <0.001), indicating that there is a strong relation between the increase in waist circumflex and severity of gastro esophageal reflux disease symptoms. Conclusion: Increasing of body weight especially waist circumference increases acid exposure to the esophagus. This affects on gastro esophageal reflux disease symptoms severity and its complication. That is why decreasing body weight should be the first line of treatment which will decrease future complication.


Article
Measurement study of abdominal waist circumference among type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kirkuk city population

Author: Assad M. Jabbar
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit University المجلة الطبية لجامعة تكريت ISSN: 18131638 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-50
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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ABSTRACT: Background: Prior studies have supported that waist circumference (WC) correlates with abdominal (central) obesity and values higher than normal are associated with increased prevalence of type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) . Objective: To evaluate the association of waist circumference (WC) with increased prevalence of (T2DM) among population in Kirkuk city.Research design and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 776 men and women 40-70 years of age from Kirkuk city. The relationship between (WC) and blood glucose was assessed .The(WC) was measured in centimeter , together with other data designed in the data sheet for this study , (T2DM) people were identified and recorded .Patients who had Diabetes Mellitus and coexistence of any other serious illness were excluded from the study. Results: (WC) was positively correlated with blood glucose .out of 776 participants , 221(28.5%) had increased (WC) ,this included 59 (26.7%) (T2DM) ,compared with 555 (71.5%) participants with normal (WC),this included32 (5.8%) diabetics .Increasing (WC) were significantly associated with increased prevalence of (T2DM) in the Kirkuk populations(P < 0.05). Conclusions: Increasing waist circumference was significantly associated with increased prevalence of (T2DM) ,Substantial reduction in diabetes in men and women is achievable if the (WC) is decreased in these populations.


Article
Waist circumference: a better predictor forlung ventilation than body mass index

Authors: Hazim M. Al-Habib حازم محمد الحبيب --- Rajaa A. Yonis رجاء --- Amjad F. Ahmad امجد فوزي احمد
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2010 Volume: 36 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 12-17
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between waist circumference, as a measure of central fat distribution, and lung ventilation function in both sexes among different weight categories in comparison with body mass index (BMI).
Subjects and Methods: One hundred healthy adults from both sexes were volunteered in this observational-cross-sectional study (53 males aged 19-69 years and 47 females aged 19-51 years). Subjects were recruited from Mosul Medical College students, teaching as well as administration staff. After collecting personal and health information necessary for the study, all subjects underwent anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference) before spirometry test using computerized spirometer. The study was conducted in the Department of Medical Physiology-Mosul Medical College.
Results: All spirometric data were within 80-120% of the normal predicted values, thus excluding the possibility of any asymptomatic airway disease. A consistent negative correlation between, both waist circumference and BMI, with FVC and FEV1 were clearly observed in both sexes. Unlike BMI, waist circumference revealed stronger and significant negative correlation with lung function especially in male subjects. The significant negative correlation between waist circumference and FVC and FEV1 was more evident in overweight and obese subjects.
Conclusion: Waist circumference, as a measure of body fat distribution, seems more reliable predictor of poor lung function, secondary to overweight and obesity, than BMI. This might be attributed to the fact that BMI relies only on body weight and height without consideration to the distribution of body fat, muscle and bone mass which might possess a more significant role.

Keywords: Waist circumference, body fat distribution, lung function tests.



الخلاصة
هدف البحث: لتقييم العلاقة بين محيط الخصر، كمقياس لتوزيع الدهون في الجسم، ووظائف الرئة في كلا الجنسين ولمختلف الفئات الوزنية و ذلك بالمقارنة مع مقياس كتلة الجسم.
طريقة البحث: شمل البحث مئة متطوع من الأصحاء البالغين من طلبة كلية طب الموصل ومنتسبيها من كلا الجنسين.
بعد أخذ كافة المعلومات الشخصية والطبية المتعلقة بالبحث، تم قياس الطول والوزن وكذلك محيط الخصر لجميع عينة البحث وذلك قبيل إجراء فحص وظائف الرئة باستخدام جهاز فحص وظائف التنفس الالكتروني (السبايروميتر) وقد تمت الدراسة في فرع الفسلجة الطبية في كلية طب الموصل.
نتائج البحث: أظهرت نتائج البحث ان جميع أفراد العينة كانوا ضمن المديات الطبيعية المتوقعة لقياسات وظائف الرئة (80-120%) لاستبعاد إمكانية وجود اي أمراض تنفسية. وقد أشارت النتائج ايضا الى وجود علاقة عكسية بين كل من محيط الخصر ومقياس كتلة الجسم مع حجم الزفير القسري الكلي وحجم الزفير القسري في الثانية الاولى في كلا الجنسين. الا ان هذه العلاقة العكسية كانت أقوى وذات دلالة احصائية بالنسبة لمحيط الخصر خصوصا لدى الذكور وكذلك مجموعة الأشخاص ذوي الوزن الزائد والأشخاص ذوي السمنة.
استنتاجات البحث: ان محيط الخصر، كمقياس لتوزيع الدهون في الجسم، أكثر قدرة على توقع التأثيرات السلبية لزيادة الوزن والسمنة على وظائف الرئة بالمقارنة مع مقياس كتلة الجسم والذي يعتمد على وزن الجسم وطوله فقط دون الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار توزيع الدهون في أنحاء الجسم وكذلك كتلة العضلات والعظام والتي ربما لها الدور الأهم.


Article
Prevalence of Obesity among Adult Population in Karbala

Author: Al-Hilaly K. A*
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 343-352
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and type of obesity in adult population in Karbala city and its correlation with age, sex, social class, educational level, occupation, history of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity.Design: Population-based observational study.Setting: Al Hussein Hospital in Karbala city.Subjects: A total of 1545 companion of patients attending the outpatient clinic in Al Hussain hospital. They were 844 men and 701 women and aged 20-81 years.Methods: Socio-demographic data collected includes age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, type of work, presence of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity. Anthropometric indices including weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Individuals with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/ m2 were considered obese. Abdominal obesity was considered when waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS program.Results: Of the 1545 individuals who were examined in this study 453 (29.3%) were obese, 485 (31.4%) were overweight, 519 (33.6%) had normal body weight and 88 (5.7%) were underweight. The average BMI was higher in women Abdominal obesity was determined in 51.5% of women and 13.3% of men. Positive correlations were determined between BMI and age, and family history of obesity, and waist circumference. The prevalence of obesity showed a positive correlation with age and it is higher in individuals with low educational level.Conclusion: Obesity affects about 30% of adult population in Karbala, and it is higher in women. Abdominal obesity affect more than 50% of women. This high prevalence of obesity should be described as an epidemic which demands community based multiple strategies to control and to treat affected individuals.

تمهيد: إنّ السمنة مشكلة صحية خطيرة تهدد أغلب دول العالم المتقدمة والنامية، وهي في زيادة مستمرة، وأصبحت تشكل وباءً. تعتبر السمنة عامل خطورة لكثير من الأمراض المزمنة، مثل داء السكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم وأمراض الشرايين التاجية وبعض الأمراض السرطانية، مثل سرطان الثدي والرحم وعنق الرحم. تسبب السمنة هدر كثير في ساعات العمل والانفاق في علاج الأمراض المسببة لها.الأهداف: معرفة مدى إنتشار السمنة في مدينة كربلاء وعلاقتها بالعمر والجنس والحالة المادية والمستوى الثقافي ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه والأمراض المزمنة ووجود تاريخ عائلي للسمنة.الطرق: تمت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الحسين في مدينة كربلاء، وشملت الدراسة الأشخاص المرافقين للمرضى المراجعين للعيادة الاستشارية للأمراض الباطنية، وكان عددهم 1545 شخصاً، منهم 844 ذكراً و701 أنثى، تتراوح أعمارهم بين 20 و 81 سنة. المعلومات التي تم جمعها تشمل العمر والجنس والحالة المادية، والمستوى الثقافي، ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه الشخص، ووجود أمراض مزمنة يعاني منها الشخص، ووجود السمنة في أفراد العائلة. القياسات التي تم أخذها تشمل الوزن والطول ومحيط الخصر. السمنة تعتبر عندما يكون معامل كتلة الجسم 30 كلغم/م2 أو أكثر. والسمنة البطنية عندما يكون محيط الخصر 102 سم أو أكثر للرجال، و 88 سم أو أكثر للنساء. تم استعمال البرنامج الإحصائي الأس بي أس أس لتحليل النتائج.النتائج: معدل السمنة كان 29,3%، وزيادة الوزن 31,4% و33,6% كانوا ضمن الوزن الطبيعي. معامل كتلة الوزن كان أكبر عند النساء. معدل السمنة البطنية كان 51,5% في النساء و13,3% في الرجال. علاقة السمنة كانت إيجابية مع العمر، وكانت أعلى في الأشخاص ذوي المستوى الثقافي المنخفض.الاستنتاجلت: السمنة تصيب حوالي 30% من الأشخاص البالغين في مدينة كربلاء، وهي أكثر في النساء. وهذه النسبة العالية تستدعي إتخاذ إجارءات إجتماعية ورسمية للحد من هذه الظاهرة.


Article
Coronary Heart Disease in Karbala Population Related to Central Obesity and Other Coexisting Risk Factors – Comparative Study

Author: Amir Omran
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 1980-1985
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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background: Around 6 years ago, a study has been published describing the prevalence of improvement life style behavior in Karbala population in the period between1/12/2004-1/6/2005.Objectives: comparative study is conducted to estimate prevalence of improvement life style behavior in Karbala population and compare it with the previous study.Setting: Coronary care unit (CCU) of Hussein teaching hospital.Design: Prospective study.Methods: one hundred patients participated in this study admitted in CCU during the period from 1/12/2010 to 1/6/2011, all patients newly diagnosed as having acute (MI) by selected criteria in relation to central abdominal obesity (W.C), BMI, age, sex, fat consumption, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption.Results: mean age (females 57.5 years, males 63.3 years) males 65%, females 35%, consumed saturated fat 54%, smoking 39%, Alcohol 0%, consumer of fat 54% fruit and vegetables 63%, W.C (males 96.7±12.9, females 99.9 ±16.4)Conclusion: The comparative study shows an adverse results, improvements at certain aspects of life style behavior


Article
THE EFFECT OF BODY MASS INDEX AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN IN PATIENTS WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH)

Author: Saad D. Farhan سعد داخل فرحان
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 34-40
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Obesity may be associated with lower prostate specific antigen(PSA) values, If true, this would result in fewer obese men having an elevated PSA, fewer biopsies performed, and fewer cancers detected , consequently cancers may be missed or not detected until at a more advanced stage.Objective: We examined the influences of age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on PSA before and after adjusting for prostate volume. We also examined associations among age, body mass index, waist circumference and prostate volume (PV).Methods: We analyzed 125 Iraqi men aged 40 to 84 years old who attained the urological outpatient clinic for BPH evaluation during 2009. Curent health status information including prostate related problems, medical interview, basic physical examination and anthropometric measurements including height, weight, BMI and waist circumference were taken for all patients. Blood tests including PSA concentration were performed after overnight fast. A radiologist performed transrectal prostate ultrasound. PSA measurements preceded routine digital examination and transrectal prostate ultrasound.Results: The median serum PSA was significantly lower among obese subjects compared to normal BMI subjects. BMI showed a statistically significant moderately strong negative linear correlation (r = -0.5) with serum PSA. Waist circumference showed a similar pattern with a statistically significant linear correlation with serum PSA (r = -0.43); the median serum PSA was significantly lower among subjects with highest waist circumference compared to subjects in the lowest quartile of waist circumference. The median PSA was significantly higher among subjects with large prostate size compared to those with lowest quartile prostate size. The anthropometric measures were tested for association with PSA density, to adjust for the effect of prostate size on serum PSA.Conclusion: The current data suggest that the PSA cut-points used to recommend biopsy need to be adjusted for the degree of obesity.Keywords: body mass index, waist circumference, prostate specific antigen.


Article
Frequency of Metabolic Syndrome among Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
نسبة انتشار المتلازمة الايضية عند المرضى المصابين بالنوع الثاني من داء السكر

Authors: Nehad N. Helal نهاد نرجس --- Shaema S.Jassim شيماء سلمان --- Mohammed M. Abul-Aziz محمد عبدالعزيز
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2018 Volume: 31 Issue: 4 Pages: 139-142
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract:Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that occur together in an individual more often than might be expected by chance. Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to identify the frequency of metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 diabetes .Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Baghdad Medical city (Medical consultation department, and Teaching Laboratories), 100 Sample(males: 41; females: 59) 66 patients (66%) diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome, while the remaining 34 patients (34%) did not have metabolic syndrome were included in the study. In order to measure Fasting serum glucose, Lipid profile (Triglyceride, HDL), blood Pressure and waist Circumference. When the disease was compared between patients with metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome, a highly significant (P value < 0.001) was observed in the clinical and biochemical data of patients with metabolic and non-metabolic syndrome in ( glucose, Triglyceride, blood Pressure and waist Circumference), but a non-significant change in HDL levels, and significant increase(P value < 0.01) was observed in the characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (age, sex, Duration and family history) . Conclusion : Metabolic syndrome frequency is high (66%) among type 2 diabetic patients.

الخلفية : المتلازمة الأيضية (MS) هي مجموعة من التشوهات الأيضية التي تحدث معًا في الأفراد أكثر مما يمكن توقعه عن طريق الصدفة. الهدف: الهدف من هذه الدراسة هوتحديد وتيرة متلازمةالتمثيل الغذائي بين مرضى السكري من النوع 2. طريقةالبحث : أجريت هذه الدراسة المستعرضة في مدينة بغداد الطبية (قسم الاستشارات الطبية ، ومختبرات التعليمية ) ،تم جمع 100 عينة (41:ذكور ؛ 59 :إناث) 66 مريض (66٪) تم تشخيصهم بأنهم يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية ، في حين أن المرضى الـ 34 المتبقين ( تم تضمين 34 ٪) لم يكن يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية في الدراسة . وقد تم الحصول على المعلومات الاوليه لكل مصاب بأستخدام أستبيانات خاصه لهذه الدراسه أضافه الى التقييم المختبري لنسبه الكلوكوز ونسبه الدهون في مصل الدم وقياس ضغط الدم. النتائج : عندما تمت مقارنة بين المرضى الذين يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية والمرضى الذين لم يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية ، في البيانات السريرية والكيميائية الحيوية للمرضى الذين يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية و المرضى الذين لم يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية وجدت زيادة معنوية عالية ( P <0.001) في (الكلوكوز ، نسبة الدهون ، ضغط الدم ،محيط الخصر ) لكن لوحظ وجود تغير غير معنوي في مستويات HDL .ولوحظ زيادة معنوية (P value <0.01) في خصائص مرضى السكري من النوع 2 الذين يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية والمرضى الذين لم يعانون من متلازمة الأيضية في العمروالجنس والمدة والتاريخ العائلي).. الاستنتاجات : في الختام تبين ان نسبة أنتشار المتلازمه الآيضيه بين المرضى المصابين بداء السكري من النوع الثاني.هي٦٦%.


Article
Obesity and Overweight among Sample of Foundation of Technical Education Students in Iraq During 2011

Authors: Muna .A.Zadian --- Suhair M. Hassoon --- Wafaa. F.T
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 162-172
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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The aims of this study are to find the prevalence of obesity among the studied sample, the BMI, waist and hip ratio, and to find out any association between BMI, W ∕ H Ratio and socio-demographic variables.Methods:- A cross-sectional study conducted in College of Health and Medical Technology, College of Administration Technology, Almansour medical technology Institute, Bab-almoadham Medical Technology Institute. The data was collected by self recording of a previously designed questionnaire to obtain socio- demographic information and the sampling was systematic random one.Results: 63.8% of the studied sample of students was in the age 21-25 years. The studied ample was 500 students 64.4% male and 35.6% female, about 35.5% of students were overweight. A significant association between the family history of obesity and gender with BMI. Highly significant association of Hip circumference with age and BMI . The mean age for male was 20.9 ± 23.7 years, while for female was 19.1± years, there was significant association with W ∕ H Ratio (p=0.000) for both sexes. A positive correlation was obtained between BMI and age , WC., HC., W ∕ H Ratio.Conclusions: A significant association between the family history of obesity and gender with BMI. Hip circumference was significantly associated with age and BMI. A positive correlation was obtained between BMI and age , WC., HC., W ∕ H Ratio.

الهدف من الدراسة هو تحديد معدل شيوع السمنة لعينة من الطلاب وايجاد اي ارتباط بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم , ونسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك والعوامل الديموغرافية. المنهجية: وهي دراسة مقطعية اجريت في كلية التقنيات الصحية والطبية, وكلية التقنية الادارية والمعهد التقني الطبي / المنصور والمعهد الطبي التقني باب المعظم. حيث جمعت المعلومات والبيانات باستخدام الاسئلة المباشرة طبقا لاستبانة معدة مسبقا للحصول على المعلومات الاجتماعية والديموغرافية للعينة العشوائية الطبقية.النتائج: 63.8% من عينة الطلاب كانت في عمر 21-25 نة وعينة الدراسة كانت 500 طالب , 64.4% كانوا ذكورا و35.6% اناثا , وحوالي 35.5% من الطلاب يعانون من زيادة الوزن ووجد ارتباط معنوي بين التاريخ العائلي للاصابة بالسمنة والجنس ومؤشر كتلة الجسم, وارتباط معنوي عالي لمحيط الورك مع العمر ومؤشر كتلة الجسم. متوسط العمر للذكور كان 20,9 ±23,7 سنة بينما للاناث كان 19,1± 22,9 سنة, واختلاف معنوي لنسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك لكلا الجنسين , وارتباط عالي بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم والعمر ومحيط الخصر ومحيط الورك ونسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك الاستنتاجات:نستنتج من هذه الدراسة وجود ارتباط معنوي بين التاريخ العائلي للاصابة بالسمنة والجنس ومؤشر كتلة الجسم,وارتباط معنوي عالي لمحيط الورك مع العمر ومؤشر كتلة الجسم, وارتباط عالي بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم والعمر ومحيط الخصر ومحيط الورك ونسبة محيط الخصر / لمحيط الورك.


Article
Evaluation of lung ventilation in relation to the waist/hip ratio among healthy adults.
تقييم تهوية الرئة بالمقارنة مع نسبة محيط الخصر الى محيط الورك لدى الاصحاء البالغين

Author: Amjad.F Ahmed امجد فوزي احمد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 4 Pages: 448-451
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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