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Research Octane Number Improvement of Iraqi Gasoline by Adsorption of n-Paraffins Using Zeolite Molecular Sieves

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Abstract

This study focused on the improvement of the quality of gasoline and enhancing its octane number by the reduction of n-paraffins using zeolite 5A. This study was made using batch and continuous mode. The parameters which affected the n-paraffin removal efficiency for each mode were studied. Temperature (30 and 40 ˚C) and mixing time up to 120 min for different amounts of zeolite ranging (10-60 g) were investigated in a batch mode. A maximum removal efficiency of 64% was obtained using 60 g of zeolite at 30 ˚C after a mixing time 120 min. The effect of feed flow rate (0.3-0.8 l/hr) and bed height (10-20 cm) were also studied in a continuous mode. The equilibrium isotherm study was made using different amounts of zeolite (2-20 g) and then simulated for n-hexane and n- heptane using Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms. Kinetic of the adsorption of n-hexane and n-heptane was investigated using pseudo first order, pseudo second order and intra particle model. The Research octane number (RON) for some selected samples was measured to show the effect of the removal on the quality improvement of gasoline. Results showed an increase of 5.5 units in RON using 40 g zeolite at 40 ˚C and after 120 ˚C min. also an increase in 7 units was obtained in the continuous mode after 30 min using flow rate of o.3 l/hr and bed height of 10cm. Experimental data for n-hexane and n-heptane was found to fit Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient of 92.7% and 88.8% for n-C7 and n-C6, respectively. Adsorption of n-hexane and n-heptane was found to follow second order kinetics with correlation coefficient of 99.9% and 99.8% for n-C7and n-C6 respectively. This study revealed a favorable adsorption of n-paraffins on zeolite 5A as indicated by the separating factor of 0.6 and 0.44 for n-C7and n-C6, respectively.


Article
Preparation and Formation of Zeolite 5A from Local Kaolin Clay for Drying and Desuphurization of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

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Abstract

This work deals with preparation of zeolite 5A from Dewekhala kaolin clay in Al-Anbar region for drying and desulphurization of liquefied petroleum gas. The preparation of zeolite 5A includes treating kaolin clay with dilute hydrochloric acid 1N, treating metakaolin with NaOH solution to prepare 4A zeolite, ion exchange, and formation. For preparation of zeolite 4A, metakaolin treated at different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 90, and 100 °C) with different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution (1, 2, 3, and 4 N) for 2 hours. The zeolite samples give the best relative crystallinity of zeolite prepared at 80 °C with NaOH concentration 3N (199%), and at 90 and 100°C with NaOH concentration solution 2N (184% and 189%, respectively). Zeolite 5A was prepared by ion exchange of zeolite 4A prepared at 90°C and 2N NaOH concentration with 1.5 N calcium chloride solution at 90 °C and 5 hours, the ion exchange percentage was 66.6%. The formation experiments included mixing the prepared powder of 5A zeolite with different percentages of kaolin clay, citric acid and tartaric acid to form an irregular shape of zeolite granules. Tartaric acid binder gives higher bulk crushing strength than that obtained by using citric acid binder with no significant difference in the surface area. 7.5 weight% tartaric acid binder has the higher bulk crushing strength 206 newton with surface area 267.4 m2/g. Kaolin clay binder with 15 weight% gives the highest surface area 356 m2/g with bulk crushing strength 123 newton, it was chose as the best binder for zeolite 5A. The prepared granules of 5A zeolite were used for the adsorption experiments of H2O, and H2S contaminants from LPG. Different flow rates of LPG (3, 4, and 5 liter/minute) were studied. It was found that H2O is the strongly adsorbed component and H2S is the weakly adsorbed component. The best flow rate in this work for H2O, and H2S adsorption is 5 liter/minute of LPG. The adsorption capacity for H2O was 7.547 g/g and for H2S was 1.734 g/g.


Article
Oxygen and Nitrogen Separation from Air Using Zeolite Type 5A
فصل الاوكسجين والنتروجين من الهواء باستخدام زيولايت نوع 5 A .

Author: Hussein H. Hamed د.حسين حبيب حميد
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 147-158
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

An adsorption (PSA) unit consist of two – tubes columns pressure swing, (6cm diameter and 70cm bed length) and a dryer part (12cm diameter and 27cm) filling with activated alumina (Al2O3) have been constructed to study the separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air using commercial 5A zeolite under the effect of adsorption pressure (1 to 6 bar), adsorption time (20s), product flow rate (1 liter/min) on the product oxygen purity. For the case of 2-column, 4-step operation, the results show that an optimum concentration product of oxygen was 76.9%purity,at the adsorption pressure 4bar, Temp 17.4oC.Nitrogen optimum production was78.8% purity, at 1 bar

تم تصنيع منظومة للامتزاز بتغيير الضغط (PSA) بعمودين اسطوانيين، قطرالعمود الواحد ) 6 سم وطوله 07 سم( وجزء مجففبقطر) 21 سم وطول 10 سم ( مملوء بمادة اوكسيد الالمنيوم المنشط) Al2O3 ( لدراسة فصل الاوكسجين والنتروجين من الهواءباستعمال الزيولايت 5A . استعملت طريقة التشغيل ذات الاربعة خطوات )بوجود خطوة تعادل الضغط( ، تمت دراسة تاثيرالضغط التشغيلي للمنظومة على نقاوة الاوكسجين والنتروجين المنتج بزمن امتزاز ) 17 ثانية( ومعدل جريان ) 2 لتر/دقيقة( ولحالةعمودين واربعة خطوات تشغيلية كانت النتائج تشير الى ان تركيز الاوكسجين المنتج ) 76.9% ( لضغط تشغيلي 4 بار ودرجةحرارة 20.4 سيليزية.وبالنسبة للنتروجين وصلت النقاوة الى) 07.7 %(عند ضغط 2 بار ودرجة حرارة 20.4 سيليزية.

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