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Article
The Effect of Operating Conditions of Urea Dewaxing on the Pour Point of Light Lubricating Oil.

Authors: Noor S.Akram --- Abdul-Halim A.Mohammed عبد الحليم عبد الكريم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2010 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-63
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An investigation was conducted for dewaxing of lubricating oil fraction by urea to reduce the pour point.In this study mixture of 45 % methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 55 % toluene was used as a solvent. The studied variables are mixing time (10-70 min), solvent to oil volume ratio (0.5:1- 2:1), urea to wax weight ratio (2- 6) and constant mixing speed 1500 rpm. By analysis of the experimental results, the best operating conditions achieved are mixing time 40 min, solvent/oil 2:1 volume ratio, and urea/wax 4:1 weight ratio. At these conditions the pour point of the lubricating oil decreases from 24 ° C to -13 °C.

Keywords

urea dewaxing --- adduct --- solvents --- pour point.


Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SERUM MALONDIALDEHYDE AND HEXANOYL-LYSINE ADDUCT IN PRETERM AND POST-TERM DELIVERIES

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Abstract

Background:High oxidative stress reflects the state when the production of reactive oxygen species exceeds their removal. Malondialdehyde (MDA )and Hexanoyl-Lysine Adduct (HEL) are indicators of oxidative damage of lipids caused by free radicals in blood. The high level of these biomarkers has been implicated in early pregnancy complications.Objectives:This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum oxidative stress biomarkers in preterm and post-term deliveries.Methods:A case-control study was designed to recruit 90 pregnant women with 30 women delivering at term (control group), 30 women at preterm (first case group) and 30 women at post-term (second case group). All women underwent elective cesarean section. Blood samples were collected before admission to operation theatre. Women's age, body mass index, lipid profile, renal function test and random glucose were measured. Serum oxidative stress biomarkers (Malondialdehyde and Hexanoyl-Lysine Adduct) were measured as indicators of lipid peroxidation.Results:The results showed that study groups were significantly different in serum MDA and HEL (P ≤ 0.01). Both serum MDA and HEL levels were significantly higher in preterm women group and their level steadily decreased as pregnancy progressed. Serum MDA was not significantly different between term and post-term women groups (P>0.05).Conclusions:Oxidative stress biomarkers may be important contributors of premature birth. Low level of serum HEL may play a role in delayed onset of labor. The causal relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and pregnancy outcome may be further investigated by longitudinal studies.Key words:Oxidative Stress, Preterm women, Post-term women, Malondialdehyde, Hexanoyl-Lysine Adduct.

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