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Article
Isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from suspected enterotoxaemia cases in lambs
عزل الجراثيم الهوائية و اللاهوائية من حالات التسمم المعوي المحتملة في الحملان

Author: N. S. Mechael نبال سامي ميخائيل
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894/20711255 Year: 2012 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 29-32
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens), while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

تم دراسة تسعون حالة اصابة بالتسمم المعوي مشخصة سريريا في الحملان في منطقة الحمدانية لعزل الجراثيم الهوائية واللاهوائية المسببة لتلك الاصابات وقد تم جمع نماذج براز من جميع الحالات المشكوك بها خلال الفترة من كانون الثاني لغاية حزيران 2008، اشارت النتائج الى عزل جراثيم لاهوائية (مطثيات بيرفرنجس) بنسبة 41,6% بشكل مفرد، بينما عزلت جراثيم اخرى من اصابات مختلطة من جراثيم مطثيات بيرفرنجس مع كل من جراثيم انتيروكوكس و جراثيم المكورات العنقودية بنسبة 26,04%، 20,83% على التوالي، وجراثيم المطثيات الانتانية مع كل من جراثيم المكورات العنقودية وجراثيم الاشيريكيا القولونية بنسبة 5,2% و 6,2% على التوالي. وكانت اعلى نسبة عزل للجراثيم من نماذج البراز التي جمعت خلال شهر نيسان. وقد اظهرت طريقة حضن ماكنتوش عزل نقي للجراثيم اللاهوائية لمطثيات بيرفرنجس، بينما امكن الكشف بطريقة ناقوس الشمعة عن 56 عزلة من اصابات مشتركة لجراثيم هوائية واخرى لاهوائية.


Article
Humoral Immune Response and Luminal Microorganisms in Patients with Indeterminate Colitis
الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية والجراثيم الجوفية في المرضى المصابين بالتهاب القولون

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Abstract

Abstract:Background: Microorganisms that directly interact with the intestinal mucosa are obscured by fecal flora. Some members of the endogenous faecal microflora have a clear detrimental role in most animal models of colitis and enteritis. This is strongly suspected to be the cause of indeterminate colitis.Objective: Determination of humoral immune response and luminal microorganisms in patients with indeterminate colitis.Patients & Methods: The study consisted of two groups: 75 patients groups with indeterminate colitis and control group consisted of 30 healthy volunteers. Sigmoidoscope and colonoscope examination were done for the patients group and biopsy were also taken from ulcer lesion for histopathological examination for confirming the diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from them and serum were collected for immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) levels and complement (C3 and C4) level by single radial immune diffusion method (Biomaghrib-Tunis). Fecal and rectal swabs were taken from those groups, cultured on different bacteriological media. Results: Males more than females are affected. The majority of them were complaining from rectal bleeding. Most of their diseased location was in rectum then sigmoid and ascending colon. Bacteriological results showed a significant decrease in the existence of Bacteroids fragilis (anaerobic bacteria) in patients group compared with control. Studying humoral immune response demonstrated a significant higher level in IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 in patients group and significant decrease in IgM level.Conclusions: Reduction in anaerobic bacteria might be a cause in initiation colitis with stimulation of immunoglobulins production and complement activation to overcome this inflammation.Key wards: colitis, Immunoglobulins, anaerobic bacteria.

الملخص : خلفية : الكائنات الحية الدقيقة التي تتفاعل مباشرة مع الجدار المبطن للأمعاء والتي تحجب البكتريا التعايشية الموجودة في البرازمن اداء دورها . حيث وجد بعض الميكروفلورا البرازية الذاتية لها دور واضح في معظم النماذج الحيوانية في تسبب التهاب القولون والأمعاء و يشتبه بشدة أنها سبب في التهاب القولون غير المحدد الهدف :تحديد الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية والكائنات الحية الدقيقة الجوفية في المرضى الذين يعانون من التهاب القولون غير محدد. المرضى والأساليب :اشتملت الدراسة على مجموعتين : 75 مريضا مصاب بالتهاب القولون غير محدد ، و مجموعة مراقبة تتكون من 30 متطوع من الاصحاء تم فحص المرضى بناظور القولون واخذ خزعة نسيجية منهم ومسحة من المستقيم والبراز للمرضى ومجموعة الاصحاء . تم جمع عينات الدم منهم ، وجمعت ا لامصال للتحري عن مستويات الغلويبولينات المناعية المضادة (الاضداد) IgG,IgA,IgM والمتمم C3 و C4 بطريقة النشر المناعي الشعاعي Biomaghrib-تونس. اخذت مسحات البراز ومسحات المستقيم من هذه الجماعات ، وتربيتها على اوساط زرعية مختلفة وعزلت البكتريا باستخدام أساليب بكتريولوجية مختلفة لعزل البكتيريا المعوية وفقا لنوع البكتريا. النتائج : في هذه الدراسة كانت نسبة الذكور اعلى من الاناث وكان معظمهم يعانون من نزف دموي عن طريق المخرج. اظهرت الدراسة الجرثومية فرق مهم احصائيا في قلة الجراثيم اللاهوائية في مجموعة المرضى وكذلك اظهرت الاستجابة المناعية الخلطية فرق مهم احصائيا في زيادة الاضداد IgG وIgA والمتمم C3, C4.الاستنتاجات: يمكن أن نستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان قلة الجراثيم اللاهوائية من الممكن ان تؤدي الى التهاب القولون ومن ثم تحفيز انتاج الاضداد والمتمم.


Article
Evaluation of antibacterial action of photosensitizer solution activated by diode lamp and three intracanal medicaments (in vitro study)

Authors: Mohammed C. Hirais --- Hussain F. Al-Huwaizi حسين فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: The elimination of the microorganisms from the root canal systems, an important step for the successfulroot canal treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of the photoactivateddisinfection by using the toluidine blue O and a low- energy light emitting diode (LED) lamp .Materials and method: Sixty single rooted extracted teeth were decoronated, instrumented, irrigated, sealed at theapex and contaminated with endodontic anaerobic bacteria for 7 days to form biofilms in prepared root canals.Group I. Twelve teeth were medicated by photosensitizer (toluidine blue O) solution activated by diode lamp(FotoSan; CMS Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark).Group II. Twelve teeth were medicated by the tricresol formalin.Group III. Twelve teeth were medicated by the camphorated monochlorophenol (CMCP). Group IV. Twelve teethwere medicated by calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) paste. Group V. Without the intracanal medication (controlgroup). The bacterial swabs were taken before and after medication and following the photoactivated disinfectionprocedure immediately and after 7days. The canal contents were swabbed by paper points inserted to the rootcanals, serially diluted and cultured on blood agar. Survival fractions were calculated by counting colony-formingunits.Result: Treatment of the root canals with PAD (fotosan) caused a high significant reduction of the bacterial count,resulting in a 96.39% elimination of root canal bacteria, followed by root canal treated by tricresol formalin (groupII),then CMCP (group III) and Ca(OH)2 (group IV) respectively.Conclusion: Light activated disinfection possesses potent antibacterial action against the anaerobic bacteriacultivated in root canals


Article
Anaerobic Microbiological study of periodontitis in Salah Al – Deen City

Authors: Hadeel M. Younis. --- Mohemid M. Al- Jebouri.
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2016 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-15
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Oral flora responsible for periodontal disease is polymorphic. The periodontal infection results either from the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms in the tissues, or even the activation of already existing germs, but not pathogenic under normal conditions. The aims of this study was carried out to evaluate selected bacterial agents causing periodontitis. One hundred eighty samples were examined in the present study. Clinical measurements of periodontal parameters used included dental plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. The results of periodontitis were the most common anaerobic periodontal bacteria isolated from patients were peptostreptococcus prevotii which represented 15(8.3%) isolates, while prevotella intermedia, prevotella melani, prevotella disiens, Bifidobacterium sp., Fusibacterium mortiferum peptostreptococcus tetradius, and Wolinella sp. represented only 1 (0.5%) isolates.Also another anaerobic subgingival bacteria isolated from inflamed sites in patients were fusibacterium varium ,vellionella sp., campylobacter gracilis, capnocytophaga sp. ,peptostreptococcus magnus, peptostreptococcus micros, peptostreptococcus niger,peptostreptococcus anaerobius, staphylococcus saccharolyticus, streptococcus consellatus, and gemella morbillorum. Concerning to the results of this study the researcher concludes peptostreptococcus prevotii, prevotella intermedia, prevotella melani, prevotella disiens, Bifidobacterium sp., Fusibacterium mortiferum peptostreptococcus tetradius, and Wolinella sp. fusibacterium varium ,vellionella sp., campylobacter gracilis, capnocytophaga sp. ,peptostreptococcus magnus, peptostreptococcus micros, peptostreptococcus niger,peptostreptococcus anaerobius, staphylococcus saccharolyticus, streptococcus consellatus, and gemella morbillorum were the most common anaerobic periodontal pathogens isolated from patients in the present study.


Article
Prevalence of Anaerobic Bacteria in Periodontitis in Relation to Pocket Depth

Authors: Ghada Younis Abdul-Rahman --- Suhad Muwafaq Hamdoon
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 320-328
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims: : The study evaluated the prevalence of anaerobic bacteria in the subgingival plaque in periodontitis in relation to pocket depth. Materials and Methods :The study was performed on 97 sub-gingival plague sample , pockets depth were measured , anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified in relation to pockets depth. Results: In this study high prevalence of anaerobic bacteria in the periodontal pockets of patients suffering from periodontitis compared with the gingival sulcus of healthy subjects with marked shifting from mainly Gram positive facultative anaerobic bacteria in shallow pockets to mainly Gram-negative strict anaerobic bacteria in the deep pockets.Conclusion:. Anaerobic culture used in this study provided information about the susceptibility of the individuals to develop periodontal diseases. on bone.


Article
The role of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria innon gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men

Authors: Haitham B. Fathi هيثم بدر فتحي --- Haitham M. Al-Habib هيثم محمد الحبيب
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2010 Volume: 36 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 99-105
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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ABSTRACT
Objectives: To identify causative microorganisms of nongonococcal (NGU) urethritis in men.
Methods: A descriptive comparative study included 240 male patients with urethritis and 40 age-matched males free from urethritis was carried out. The urethral swabs were inoculated on different culture media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically.
Results: A 153 patients were considered as NGU cases. From them, 18 genera of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were isolated. Aerobic bacterial isolates were two times the anaerobic bacterial isolates. The type of growth was heavy among patients in comparison to scanty growth among controls. The most common microorganism in each group were Staph. epidermidis, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Bacteroides species.
Conclusion: Aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms are associated with urethritis in men. The confluent growth and dramatic response after treatment by appropriate antibiotics confirm the roles of the isolated bacteria in development of NGU in men.
Key words: Urethritis, nongonococcal urethritis, aerobic & anaerobic bacteria.

الأهداف: تشخيص أنواع الجراثيم المسببة لخمج الاحليل غير السيلاني وغير الكلاميدي عند الرجال.طريقة البحث: أجري البحث بالطريقة المسحية المقارنة على عينة مكونة من 240 مريضا مصابا بخمج الاحليل. قورنت النتائج مع نتائج الفحص لـ 40 متطوعا مطابقين للمرضى في العمر ولا يعانون من خمج الاحليل. أخذت مسحات من الاحليل وزرعت على أوساط مختلفة لزرع الجراثيم تحت ظروف هوائية ولا هوائية.النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الدراسة الحالية أن 106 مريضا كانوا يعانون من خمج الاحليل غير السيلاني وغير كلاميدي. تم عزل 18 جنسا مختلفا من الجراثيم الهوائية واللاهوائية وكانت الجراثيم من النوع الهوائي ضعف الجراثيم من النوع اللاهوائي. كان النمو الجرثومي كثيفا في عينة المرضى مقارنة مع النمو المتفرق والشحيح عند الأصحاء من العينة الضابطة. أن أكثر أنواع الجراثيم شيوعا في كل مجموعة هي المكورات العنقودية الجلدية، الكاردنيريلا المهبلية وجراثيم الباكتيرويدس.الخلاصة: أن الجراثيم الهوائية واللاهوائية التي عزلت من مسحة الاحليل في الدراسة الحالية لها علاقة سببية وثيقة مع الإصابة بخمج الاحليل عند الرجال ويدعم هذا الرأي نتائج النمو الجرثومي الكثيف للجراثيم المعزولة من المرضى وكذالك الاستجابة الجيدة للمرضى بعد إعطائهم المضاد الحيوي المناسب.


Article
Inhibition of bacterial growth around gutta percha cones by different antimicrobial solutions using antibiotic sensitivity test (An in vitro study)

Author: Nagham A. Al-Hyali نغم الحيالي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 26-32
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Decontamination of gutta percha cones was important factor for success of root canal treatment. Theaim of the present in vitro study was to identify and to compare the antimicrobial effect of following disinfectionsolutions: 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Iodine, tetracycline hydrochloride solution, EDTA & formocresol mixed withzinc oxide eugenol, on E faecalis, E coli and Candida albicans using sensitivity testMaterials and Methods: Three types of microorganisms were isolated from infected root canals (E faecalis, E coli andCandida albicans) and cultured on Mueller Hinton agar petri-dishes. Disinfection of gutta percha cones done byimmersion in six disinfection solutions (six groups), the groups are: distill water (used as control group), 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate, Iodine, tetracycline hydrochloride solution, EDTA & formocresol mixed with Zinc oxideeugenol. The immersion times were 5 min. and the incubation was aerobically at 37 °C for 24 hr. for bacterial speciesand at 28°C for 48 hr. for candida albicans. After incubation, zones of inhibition (no growth of bacteria) wereexamined around the gutta percha cones & diameters of the zones were measured with a boley gauge. The meansof inhibition zones for each group were measures and statistically analyzed among groups using ANOVA and LSDtests at 0.05 significance level.Results: There is highly significant differences (P=0.000) among all the tested groups. 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconateshowed the maximum antibacterial efficacy (broader zones of inhibition) against E faecalis. Compound offormocresol + Zinc oxide eugenol showed the maximum antibacterial efficacy against Candida albicans, and E coli.The minimum antibacterial efficacy against Candida albicans occurred with tetracycline group, while against Efaecalis and E coli occurred with EDTA groupConclusion: All the tested materials had antibacterial efficacy against Candida albicans, E faecalis and E coli; butchlorhexidine gluconate and compound of formocresol & Zinc oxide eugenol, are more effective agents for a rapiddisinfection of gutta-percha cones in five minutes


Article
Analysis of antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers against endodontic pathogens using agar diffusion test (In vitro study)

Author: Maha A. Habeeb
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 27-34
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Antibacterial action of root canal filling is an important factor for successful root canal treatment, so theaim of the study was to identify and to compare the antimicrobial effect of new sealer (GuttaFlow) to commonlyused endodontic sealers (AH Plus, Apexit and EndoFill) against four endodontic microbes.Materials and methods: Twenty patients aged (30-40) years with infected root canals were selected. Four types ofmicroorganisms were isolated from root canals (E faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, E coli and Candida albicans) andcultured on Mueller Hinton agar Petri-dishes. After identification and isolation of bacterial species, agar diffusionmethod was used to assess the antibacterial action of four contemporary endodontic sealers used in root canalobturation (AH Plus, Apexit, EndoFill and GuttafFlow). Four wells measuring (5mm depth and 4mm diameter) werecreated in each Petri dish and sealer was applied into them incubated overnight at 37 C° for bacterial species and48 hr. at 37 C° for Candida albicans prior to determination of results. Zones of inhibition (no growth of bacteria) wereexamined around the wells containing sealer & diameters of the zones were measured in mm. The mean of inhibitionzones for each group was measured and statistically analyzed among groups using ANOVA and between groupsusing LSD tests.Results: There was a highly significant difference (P<0.001) among all the tested groups. EndoFill showed themaximum antibacterial action against tested microorganisms. GuttaFlow showed moderate to weak antimicrobialeffect, Apexit had weak effect, while AH Plus had no antibacterial action.Conclusion: All the tested materials except AH Plus had antibacterial efficacy against E faecalis, Staphylococcusaureus, E coli and Candida albicans. EndoFill had favorable results among tested sealers and E faecalis was the mostresistant bacteria, but none of the materials totally inhibited microbial growth. Thus, endodontic treatment must beperformed under aseptic conditions


Article
Bacteriological Findings within Internal Implant Hole Following Flapless Implant Placement

Authors: Abbas S.AL-Mizraqchi --- Basima GH. Ali --- Khudair Ali Abd
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 13-16
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: Microbial penetration inside the implant's internal hole creates a bacterial reservoir that is related with an area of inflamed connective tissue opposite the fixture-abutment junction and this can affect the health of the peri-implant tissue.Aims of the study: Evaluate the types aerobic and anaerobic bacterial count-percentage and difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic microflora in the implant screw hole three months after implant placement. Monitor the periodontal health status of all patients, throughout the study.Material and methods: Study methodology; Eight partially edentulous patients received 20 dental implants and these implants done with flapless surgical procedure. All patients examined clinically to determined their oral health status by examination of their plaque index, Gingival index and Bleeding on probing, each two weeks for 90 days (8visits) throughout the study period. Three months after that, the plaque sample collected from the internal hole of fixture and transfer to bacterial investigation and assessment the amount of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.Results: Although the anaerobic viable count is higher than that of aerobic, but with statistically not significant difference between those counts (P>0.05).


Article
Antibiotic Sensitivity profile of bacteria isolated from wounds and skin infections
حساسية البكتيريا المضادات الحيوية المعزولة من الجروح والالتهابات الجلدية

Author: Orass M.S. Al –Taee اوراس الطائي
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2013 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 199-107
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The choice of antibiotic is usually based on previously published susceptibility testing and previous s clinical success. Anaerobic bacteria are important because they dominate the diagnose flora. Some of these infections are serious and have high mortality rate. It has to be paid more attention to anaerobic infections because special precautions are needed for appropriate collection and transport of specimens.Aim of the study: To study the sensitivity profile of bacterial strains isolated from several types of infected skin and wounds toward several antibiotics. Methods: The study included 98 strains isolated from 150 patients with skin and wound infections patients hospitalized into Al-Diwanya teaching hospital from January 2009 to January 2010. A total of 150 samples were selected from patients with skin and wounds Infections including samples of burn wounds, cutaneous ulcer, surgical wounds, acnes and pustules . For the disc diffusion testing: ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, Erythromycin, Cloxacillin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, Amoxicillin, Rifampin, Metronidazole, clindamycin, Ceftazidim, penicillinV, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol and amoxicillin _ clavulanic acid, disc were used.Results: In our research, we examined 150 specimens. Aerobic bacteria were recovered from 48 (32%) specimens, anaerobic bacteria only were recovered from 27 (18%) specimens, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were recovered from 75 (50%) specimens. Ciprofloxacin was highly active drug that could eradicate the major pathogens bacteria from skin and wounds infection. Although metronidazole has relatively poor efficacy by itself, in combination with penicillin V the susceptibility of the bacteria in this study was virtually the same as amoxicillin.Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin seems to remain the antibiotic of choice because of its efficacy in polymicrobial infections, relatively narrow spectrum for bacteria found in skin and wounds infections, low toxicity, and low cost.

وعادة ما يستند اختيار المضادات الحيوية على المنشورة سابقا اختبار الحساسية والنجاح السريرية السابقة ق . البكتيريا اللاهوائية هي مهمة لأنها تهيمن على الحياة النباتية تشخيص. بعض هذه الإصابات خطيرة و يكون معدل وفيات عالية. لا بد من إيلاء المزيد من الاهتمام للالتهابات اللاهوائية لأن هناك حاجة إلى احتياطات خاصة لجمع و نقل المناسبة specimens.Aim الدراسة: دراسة الملف الشخصى حساسية السلالات البكتيرية المعزولة من عدة أنواع من الجلد المصابة والجروح تجاه العديد من المضادات الحيوية. الأساليب: وشملت الدراسة 98 سلالات معزولة من 150 المرضى الذين يعانون من التهابات الجلد و الجروح المرضى في المستشفيات في اغتيال الحريري، Diwanya تعليم المستشفى خلال الفترة من يناير 2009 إلى يناير 2010، تم اختيار ما مجموعه 150 عينات من المرضى الذين يعانون من التهابات الجلد والجروح بما في ذلك عينات من حروق . ، القرحة الجلدية والجروح الجراحية، حب الشباب و البثور . لاختبار القرص نشرها : الأمبيسلين ، جنتاميسين ، الأميكاسين ، السفيوركسيم ، cefoperazone ، سيبروفلوكساسين ، بيبيراسيلين ، الاريثروميسين ، كلوكساسيلين ، السيفترياكسون ، السيفتازيديم ، أموكسيسيلين ، ريفامبين ، ميترونيدازول ، الكليندامايسين ، Ceftazidim ، penicillinV ، ميثوبريم - sulfamethoxazol و أموكسيسيلين _ حمض الكلافولانيك ، قرصية استخدمت .النتائج : في بحثنا ، درسنا 150 العينات. تم انتشال البكتيريا الهوائية من 48 ( 32 ٪ ) عينات ، والبكتيريا اللاهوائية تم انتشال 27 فقط من ( 18 ٪ ) عينات ، و انه تم انتشال مختلطة البكتيريا الهوائية واللاهوائية من 75 ( 50 ٪ ) عينات . كان سيبروفلوكساسين المخدرات نشطة للغاية التي يمكن القضاء على البكتيريا الممرضة الرئيسية من الجلد والعدوى الجروح. على الرغم من أن لديه ميترونيدازول فقيرة نسبيا فعالية في حد ذاته، في تركيبة مع البنسلين V كانت حساسية البكتيريا في هذه الدراسة تقريبا نفس أموكسيسيلين .الاستنتاجات : سيبروفلوكساسين يبدو أن يظل المضاد الحيوي في الاختيار بسبب فعاليته في التهابات متعدد المكروبات ، الطيف الضيقة نسبيا للبكتيريا موجودة في الالتهابات الجلدية والجروح ، سمية منخفضة، والتكلفة المنخفضة.

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