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Article
Diagnosis of phenylketonuria in Children with Autistic symptoms

Authors: Adel A. Kareem1 --- Husham zuhair Hammoodi --- Maher Mahdi Sallih3
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 2628-2633
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Autism is a behavioral syndrome with still poorly understood etiologies, nevertheless, phenylketonuria (PKU) was frequently associated with autistic symptoms, and the frequency of this association is variably reportedAim of the study: to bear in mind the diagnosis of phenylketonuria in children presented with autistic symptoms.Patient and methods: Patients with Autistic disorder was diagnosed according to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, We describe fourteen patients, eight males and six female, their presentation were autistic behavior with clinical findings included hair hypopigmentation, microcephaly , mousy urine odour and/or positive family history of sibling with same condition,Result: Autism was present in 14 (26%) of phenylketonuria cases diagnosed with same period; 12 patients had classic PKU and 2 had mild PKU, with average age 5.1 ± 2.696 , all of them are borne to related parent and they have one or more features making PKU index of suspicion.Conclusion: The present study confirms that PKU is one of the causes of autism. Delay in the diagnosis and management of PKU, may leads to significant incidence autistic features in these patients.

Keywords

Phenylketonuria --- Autism


Article
Identification of genetic mutations associated with autism in GABRB3 gene in Iraqi autistic patients
التحري عن الطفرات الوراثية ضمن الجين GABRB3 و المرتبطة بالتوحد في مرضى توحد عراقيين

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Abstract

This study was aimed to detect and identify genetic mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid receptor β3 subunit encoding gene (GABRB3) and its association with autism spectrum disorders. Forty autistic patients and 25 non-autistic as control group (5 unaffected sibling and 20 unrelated) with age range from 3 – 10 years were included in this study. Chromosomal DNA was extracted from blood samples followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of two targeted regions which include: (exon2-intron2-exon3) region and (exon 6) region of GABRB3 for subsequent DNA sequencing. Identical bands related to the targeted regions were present in all samples. A sample of PCR products of patients and controls were sequenced. Sequencing results revealed the presence of four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in four autistic patients (one SNP in exon2, two SNPs in intron 1 and one SNP in the beginning of intron 3) while four different autistic samples and three from control group had no mutations along this region. Exon 6 showed 100 % sequence identity in all samples (seven autistic and three from control group). The translation of nucleotides sequences into amino acid sequence revealed that the SNP in exon 2 caused a change of amino acid in the polypeptide sequence by changing the codon (AGA) which codes for arginine to (AAA) which codes for lysine. The online software tool, RaptorX was used for the prediction of the three dimensional structure of the polypeptides in which exon 2 carrying one SNP (30 a.a.) showed that 5 (16%) positions predicted as disordered, while the structure prediction of polypeptide translated from exon 3 was not obtained due to its small length (22 a.a.). Structure prediction of polypeptide of exon 6 (46 a.a.) showed that (0%) positions predicted as disordered, considering its lack of mutations. These results suggest the association of the detected SNPs with autism, especially the SNP located in exon 2 considering that it changed the polypeptide three dimensional structure, thus it could possibly alter its function. All SNPs are reported for the first time in this study except the one in intron 3 (rs755863611) which was previously reported.

اجريت هذه الدراسة بهدف التحري عن الطفرات الوراثية في الجين GABRB3 الذي يشفر للوحدة الثانوية بيتا 3 ضمن مستقبل الحامض كاما- امينوبيوتيريك في مرضى طيف التوحد. شملت الدراسة اربعين طفل مصاب بالتوحد و خمس و عشرون اخرين غير مصابين بالتوحد كمجموعة سيطرة ( خمس منهم من اشقاء الاطفال المصابين بالتوحد و عشرون اخرون غرباء) بمعدل عمر يتراوح بين 3 – 10 سنوات. تم استخلاص الحامض النووي منقوص الاوكسجين DNA من عينات دم المشتركين بالدراسة ، و استعملت تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل PCR لتضخيم منطقتين ضمن الجين و هي (exon2-intron2-exon3) و (exon 6) و حدد تسلسل القواعد النتروجينية لهذه المناطق لعدد من العينات و لوحظ ظهور اربع تباينات فردية متعددة الاشكال للنيوكليوتيدة (SNP) في اربع عينات لمرضى التوحد (الاول ضمن المنطقة المشفرة exon 2 و اثنان ضمن المنطقة الغير مشفرة intron 1 و الاخير في المنطقة الغير مشفرة intron 3) في حين لم يلاحظ وجود اي تباين من نوع SNP ضمن هذه المناطق في اربع عينات لمرضى التوحد و ثلاث عينات من مجموعة السيطرة. أما بالنسبة للمنطقة المشفرة exon 6 ، فان تتابع القواعد النتروجينية جاء مطابقا بنسبة 100 % مع قاعدة البيانات NCBI ضمن هذه المناطق و لجميع العينات التي تم تحديد التتابع لها ( 7 عينات مرضى توحد و 3 عينات من مجموعة السيطرة ). كشفت عملية ترجمة تسلسل القواعد النتروجينية للاحماض الامينية المشفرة لها عن ان التباين ضمن منطقة exon 2 قد سبب حدوث تغيير في حامض اميني ضمن سلسلة الببتيد المتعدد حيث تغير الكودون (AGA) و الذي يشفر للحامض الاميني الأرجنين الى الكودون (AAA) و الذي يشفر للحامض الاميني اللايسين. استعمل برنامج RaptorX للتنبؤ بالتركيب الثلاثي الابعاد لسلاسل الببتيد المترجمة من كل من المناطق المشفرة و أظهرت نتائج التنبؤ وجود 5 مواقع (16%) غير منتظمة ضمن منطقة exon 2 والمكونة من 30 حامض اميني ، بينما لم تحتوي منطقة exon 6 و المكونة من 46 حامض اميني على اي مناطق غير منتظمة ضمن التركيب الذي تم التنبؤ به لكونها خالية من التباين او الطفرات، اما بالنسبة للمنطقة exon 3 فلكونها قصيرة السلسلة الببتيدية (22 حتامض اميني ) فانه يصعب الحصول على تنبؤ لتركيبها الثلاثي الابعاد .من خلال هذه النتائج يمكن الإشارة الى وجود ارتباط بين التباينات و مرض التوحد و خصوصا الطفرة ضمن المنطقة المشفرة exon 2 بعد الاخذ بالاعتبار كونها سببت حدوث تغيير في تسلسل الببتيد المتعدد و بالتالي تغيير التركيب ثلاثي الابعاد للبروتين مما قد يؤثر على وظيفته. تم التوصل لهذه التباينات (SNPs) لاول مرة ضمن هذه الدراسة ما عدا التباين (rs755863611) ضمن منطقة intron 3 .


Article
Assessment of Sleep Disorder among Autistic Children
تقييم اضطرابات النوم لدى الأطفال المصابين بالتوحد

Author: Ali D. Abbas
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 63-72
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objectives: The study objectives are to identify sleep disorders among children with autism and to identify the association between sleep disorders for children with autism and their demographic characteristics including (age, gender, housing, educational level for mother, occupation status of the mother, and monthly income). Methodology: A descriptive analytical study. The study was conducted at the Rami Institute for the care of children with autism, Rahman Institute for the care of children with autism, and Noor Institute for the care of children with autism for the period between 2nd Dec. 2011 up to the 6th Feb. 2012.To achieve the objectives of the study, a non-probability (purposive) samples of (80) a child who was registered in the Institutes for the care of children with autism which indicate as above and according to special criteria. Data were collected by mother of the child suffering from autism. Instrument validity was determined through content validity, by a panel of experts. Reliability of the instrument was determined through the use of Pearson correlation coefficient for the test-retest approach, which was (0.85). Analysis of data was performed through the application of descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, and mean of score) and inferential statistics (Chi-square (x2) test).Results: The study showed that most of the items of sleep disorders own evaluation has got a high level of the arithmetic mean average.Conclusion: The researcher can conclude most of children with autism have sleep disorder.Recommendations: The study recommended the need to initialize the routine night to sleep by a health care provider for your child to give the child a bath or reading a story given to the child at night at the same time encourages the child to go to bed to sleep, and to help the child relax before bedtime by reading a book, back massage, or play soothing music, avoid TV and video games, and other stressful activities before bed.

الهدف: تهدف الدراسة الى تقييم اضطرابات النوم بين لأطفال المصابين بداء التوحد والتعرف على العلاقة بين اضطرابات النوم للأطفال المصابين بداء التوحد والخصائص الديموغرافية التي تتضمن (العمر ،الجنس ،السكن ،المستوى التعليمي للأم، الحالة المهنية للأم، و الدخل الشهري).المنهجية: دراسة تحليلة وصفية حيث أجريت في كل من معهد رامي ومعهد الرحمن ومعهد النور لرعاية الاطفال المصابين بالتوحد للمدة بين 2 كانون الاول 2011 ولغاية 6 شباط 2012.ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة اختيرت عينة غرضية غير إحتمالية مكونة من (80) طفل مسجل في المعاهد أعلاه وحسب معايير خاصة بهم، جمعت البيانات الخاصة بالدراسة من خلال أم الطفل المصاب بالتوحد وفق أستمارة تم بناؤها وتصميمها من قبل الباحثون لأغراض الدراسة الحالية. تم تحقيق ثبات أدوات القياس من خلال أستعمال معامل ارتباط بيرسون والذي كانت (0,85). أما مصداقية المقياس فقد تحققت من خلال عرضها على مجموعة من الخبراء لغرض مراجعتها وتقويم درجة مصداقيتها. قام الباحثون باستعمال الإحصاء الوصفي (التوزيع التكراري والنسبة المئوية ومعدل القياس) والإحصاء الاستنتاجي (أختبار مربع كاي) لغرض تحليل بيانات الدراسة.النتائج: اظهرت الدراسة بان اغلب فقرات التقييم الخاصة باضطرابات النوم قد حصلت على مستوى عالي للمتوسط الحسابي .الاستنتاج: إستنتجت الدراسة الى ان معظم الأطفال المصابين بالتوحد لديهم اضطرابات في النوم. التوصيات: أوصت الدراسة الى ضرورة تهيئة برنامج روتين ليلي للنوم من قبل مقدم الرعاية الصحية للطفل كأعطاء الطفل حماماً أو قراءة قصة تعطى لطفل ليلا في نفس الوقت الذي يشجع فيه الطفل الذهاب الى الفراش لنوم , ومساعدة الطفل على الاسترخاء قبل النوم من خلال قراءة كتاب، تدليك الظهر، أو تشغيل الموسيقى الهادئة، تجنب التلفزيون وألعاب الفيديو، وأنشطة أخرى مرهقة قبل النوم.


Article
Assessment of Behavioral disorders of children with Autism
تقييم الاضطرابات السلوكية لدى اطفال التوحد

Authors: Kawther Salman Dawood --- Ali Kareem Khudhair
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2015 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 184-191
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Autistic disorder is a neurological disorder that causes a broad area of behavior impairments in children, including: hyperactivity, short attention span, impulsivity, aggressiveness, self – injurious behavior, tempers tantrum and abnormalities of eating or sleeping may be found. There is an increased rates of autism reached to 10-17%per year. It is the fastest-growing serious developmental disability in the worldwide over the past decades.Objective: The study aims to assess the autistic child behavior. Methodology: A descriptive correlational study was conducted from Jun 15th 2013 to October 15th 2013 on children with autism in Baghdad city.Purposive (non-probability) samples of 78 autistic children who are clients and receive care in the private specialization centers for autism were selected to participate in the current study. The study uses a parent-completed questionnaire for data collection. The behavior of autistic child was assessed using the Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA). Results: The findings indicated that most children were males of 4-12 years old with mean 5.78 years. The highest percentage of children reported a moderate level of the impairment in social interaction, behavioral pattern problems, sensory responses abnormalities and lack of emotional responses. And the highest percentage of children reported a mild level in communication difficulties and delay in cognition and perceptual functioning. Half of children reported a moderate level of the total score of behavioral problems for all domains.Conclusions: All autistic children displayed the same behavioral disorders with different levels of severity. There is no significant relationship between the severity of autistic behavior and the child’s age and the child’s sex. Recommendations: The study recommends that Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs policy should give the autistic children support and high quality of services to help them to coping with this disorder. Those children need for specialrehabilitative and behavioral programs dealing with their behavioral problems.

الخلفية:اضطراب التوحد هو اضطراب عصبي يسبب قصورا كبيرا في سلوك الأطفال ويشمل: فرط الحركة، و ضعف الانتباه،والتهور, والعدائية, وإيذاء الذات, ونوبات الغضب, وأيضا اضطرابات الطعام والنوم. هناك تزايدا في معدلات حدوث التوحد يصل إلى 10-17% سنويا. و يعد اضطراب التوحد هو الإعاقة الإنمائية الأكثر تزايدا في العالم خلال العقود الماضية.الهدف: تهدف الدراسة إلى تقييم سلوك أطفال التوحد.المنهجية: أجريت دراسة وصفية ترابطية للمدة من الخامس عشر لشهر حزيران ولغاية الخامس عشر لشهر آب سنة 2013 على أطفال التوحد في مدينة بغداد. تم اختيار عينة عمدية غير احتمالية من 78 طفلا توحديا يتلقون العناية في المراكز الخاصة برعاية أطفال التوحد للمشاركة في هذه الدراسة. تم استخدام استبانة لغرض جمع العينة. لتقييم سلوك أطفال التوحد تم اعتماد (المقياس الهندي لتقييم التوحد). النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الدراسة ان معظم الأطفال هم من الذكور الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 4-12 سنة ومتوسط أعمارهم 5.78. وان أعلى نسبة منهم كان لديهم قصورا في التفاعل الاجتماعي, ومشكلات نمط السلوك, وضعف في الاستجابات الحسية والاستجابات العاطفية بمستوى متوسط. و أن أعلى نسبة منهم كان لديهم صعوبات الاتصال و ضعف في الوظائف العقلية والإدراك بمستوى خفيف. نصف الأطفال كان لديهم مستوى متوسط من الاضطرابات السلوكية لكل المحاور.الاستنتاجات: كل الأطفال المصابين باضطراب التوحد لديهم نفس الاضطرابات السلوكية بمستويات مختلفة الشدة.ليس هناك علاقة ارتباطية بين شدة السلوك التوحدي و عمرو جنس الطفل.التوصيات: توصي الدراسة بضرورة اعتماد وزارة الصحة و وزارة العمل و الشؤون الاجتماعية خطة لتقديم الدعم ومستوى جيد من الخدمات لأطفال التوحد لمساعدتهم في التغلب على صعوبات هذا الاضطراب. و أيضا هؤلاء الأطفال بحاجة إلى برامج تأهيلية و سلوكية خاصة تتعامل مع المشكلات السلوكية لديهم.


Article
Analysis of Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphism in Samples of Iraqi Children with Autism

Authors: Nada Abed AL-Majeed AL-Ansari --- Esraa Mahmood Majeed Ahmed --- Haider Abdulmuhsin AL-Maliky
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 28-38
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aims: Is to find relationship between autism and absence of Glutathione-Stransferase (GSTs) genes GSTT1 and GSTM1, which are responsible for detoxification from the body. Methods: The present study includes the collection of (sixty) Iraqi children with a psychiatrist autism, the range of their age was 2-10 years. All blood samples were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in laboratories of college of science (for Woman) Baghdad University for detection of the presence or absence of the gene encode for glutathione protein, and determination of the level of mercuryand lead in blood samples. Results: The results of the study showed that the male: female ratio in autistic children is (5.7:1). The percentage of children who have (GSTM1-null) genotype was 55.9% higher than the children 44.0% with (GSTM1-positive) genotype while the frequency of (GSTT1-null) genotype (11.8%) was lower than that of (GSTT1-positive) genotype (88.1%) in the tested cohort.The numbers of parents who have a positive GSTM1 genotype are lower than other groups while the number of parents who have a positive GSTT1 is higher than in other groups. The present study reveals that the presence of high concentrations of mercury in the blood samples for all children with autism compared with their families and with the normal value. Conclusions: It is concluded from the present study that the deletion or absence of GSTM1 genotype in autistic children is higher than presence. This indicates that GSTM1- null genotype is related to the ASD but not as a risk factor for autism. The highfrequency of GSTT1 positive genotype in autistic children and their parents is an indicator for a relationship between them. Further studies with large size of samples is needed to detect the activity of oxidative stress effect of enzymes encoded by alleles of GSTT1 genes.


Article
SEASON OF BIRTH EFFECTS ON KURDISH AUTISTIC CHILDREN
تاثيرات موسم الولادة على الاطفال الكرد المصابين بالتوحد

Author: TWANA A. RAHIM توانا رحيم
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2014 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 12-19
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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ABSTRACTBackground and objectives Influence of season of birth has been predictable for differentneuropsychiatric disorders including Autistic disorders. The objectives of the study is toexamine the association between months as well as season of birth and the risk of AutisticDisorder.Methods The sample recruited all Kurdish autistic children (359) in Hawler who werediagnosed by Kurdistan Autism Committee from 2009 due to the end of 2012. The researchercollected necessary data throughout the four-year period of the study.Results Although January birth rates outnumbered the rest months, the study found nosignificant correlation between particular season of birth and the risk of Autistic Disorder.However, Kurdish autistic children’s birth rates were significantly more during colder half ofa given year.Conclusion Findings of current report do not support the notion of seasonal pattern of birthin Autistic Disorder.

خلفية وأهداف البحث: من الممكن التنبؤ بتأثي ا رت موسم الولادة على نسب ظهور مختلف الاضط ا ربات العصبية و النفسية. من جملة هذه الاضط ا ربات، اضط ا ربات التوحد لدى الاطفال هو د ا رسة العلاقة بين مختلف الأشهر وكذلك موسم الولادة مع خطر ظهور اضط ا ربات التوحد.طرق البحث: شملت العينة جميع الأطفال الكرد المصابين بالتوحد والبالغ عددهم ( ٣٥٩ ) في مدينة اربيل و الذين تم تشخيصهم من قبل لجنة تشخيص التوحد في المدينة و في الفترة الممتدة بين عام ٢٠٠٩ لغاية نهاية عام ٢٠١٢ . لقد قام الباحث بجمع البيانات اللازمة طيلة فترة الد ا رسة البالغة أربع سنوات.النتائج: على الرغم من أن معدلات الولادة في شهر كانون الثاني قد فاقت نظي ا رتها في بقية الأشهر، أثبتت الد ا رسة عدم وجود ت ا ربط مهم بين أي موسم معين من الولادة مع خطرظهور اضط ا ربات التوحد. ومع ذلك، لقد كانت معدلات ولادة الأطفال الكرد المصابين بالتوحد أكثر بشكل ملحوظ خلال النصف الاكثر برودة من السنة.الاستنتاج: نتائج التقرير الحالي لا تدعم مفهوم التأثير النمطي لموسم الولادة وانعكاسه على ظهور اضط ا ربات التوحد في تلك المواليد.

Keywords

Autism --- Seasonality --- Risk Factors


Article
Psychological Distress in Parents of Autistic Children in Baghdad City
الكرب النفسي عند أولياء أمور الأطفال المصابين بالتوحد في مدينة بغداد

Author: Qahtan Q. Mohammed قحطان محمد
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2015 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-64
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objectives: The study aims to: (1) assess psychological distress in parents of autistic children, (2) identify the relationship between psychological distress and parents' socio-demographic characteristics such as (age, marital status, relationship with child, educational level and monthly income) and (3) identify the relationship between parent's distress and some of children' socio-demographic characteristics such as (gender, age, birth order and mean number of children).Methodology: A descriptive–analytical study that was carried out from December 12th, 2011 to May 1st, 2012. on a purposive (non- probability) sample of 120 parents (father and mother) who have children with autism and send their children to the delayed care centers in Baghdad. Data were collected through the use of the constructed questionnaire and the process of the self-administrative report. The questionnaire was consisted of three parts: parents' socio-demographic characteristics, autistic children' socio-demographic, and parenting stress scale. Content validity of the instrument was determined through the use of panel experts and the internal consistency of the instrument was determined through the pilot study and the computation of Alpha Correlation Coefficient (r = 0.83). Data were analyzed through the application of descriptive and inferential statistical approaches by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0.Results: The findings revealed that most of sample were mothers in normal marital status who fall in the age group 26-35 years old graduated from institute or college and living in nuclear families with barely sufficient monthly income. Most of the children were firstborn male fall in the age group of 3-7 years and most of families have 1-3 children/family. Parents of autistic children are experiencing moderate level of parenting distress. There is strong negative relationship between parents' ages with family type and there is moderate relationship among other variables. There is positive relationship between parenting stress, child's gender and birth order and there is no relationship with other variables.Recommendations: The study recommended providing adequate knowledge for parents about how to deal with their child through sessions and brochure; focusing on coping strategies for parents with autistic child should be taken in consideration by media to decrease distress and further studies should be conducted as survey to include all over the country.


Article
Autism Among Children Attending Pediatric Psychiatric Department in Child's Central Teaching Hospital in Baghdad: a Descreptive Study

Authors: Autism Among Children Attending Pediatric Psychiatric Department in Child's Central Teaching Hospital in Baghdad: a Descreptive Study --- Jaafar Muhamed Hassan --- AL- Ghabban --- Haider Abdul Muhsin
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 504-511
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Autism is a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders that affects children from all ethnic andsocioeconomic backgrounds. The diagnosis is based on their developmental and medical history as wellas observations of their social, communicative, and play behaviors that usually begin before age of threeyears.OBJECTIVE:A descriptive study of autism to describe the prevalence of autism among childhood psychiatricdisorders, the age for diagnosis of autism, sex distribution, family history and the clinical features ofautism.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional study included a sample of 208 children with psychiatric disorder, who wereattending pediatric psychiatric department evaluated for the criteria of autism. Data collected wereincluding (the age at the diagnosis, sex, family history and clinical characters included the main clinicalfeatures and other associated features of autism).RESULTS:Of the 208 patients registered psychiatric problem, 33(15.87%) met criteria for autism, the mean age forthe diagnosis of autism was 5.45 years with the boys more predominant than girls. Three main clinicalfeatures of autism are communication abnormality, social abnormality and behavioral abnormality. Thecommunication abnormality were the most commonest features. Other associated features includedenuresis (the commonest), encopresis, sleep problems, over activity and anxiety. Macrocephaly andseizure are important clinical characters of autism presented in 12% and 9.1% respectively.CONCLUSION:Autism is not rare and autistic children represent a significant subgroup of children with seriouspsychiatric disturbance. Speech delay and abnormalities in language are the hallmark features ofautistic disturbance.


Article
Autism Among Children Attending Pediatric Psychiatric Department in Child's Central Teaching Hospital in Baghdad: a Descreptive Study

Authors: Entissar Hadi AL- Shimery --- Jaafar Muhamed Hassan --- AL- Ghabban --- Haider Abdul Muhsin
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 504-511
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Autism is a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders that affects children from all ethnic andsocioeconomic backgrounds. The diagnosis is based on their developmental and medical history as wellas observations of their social, communicative, and play behaviors that usually begin before age of threeyears.OBJECTIVE:A descriptive study of autism to describe the prevalence of autism among childhood psychiatricdisorders, the age for diagnosis of autism, sex distribution, family history and the clinical features ofautism.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional study included a sample of 208 children with psychiatric disorder, who wereattending pediatric psychiatric department evaluated for the criteria of autism. Data collected wereincluding (the age at the diagnosis, sex, family history and clinical characters included the main clinicalfeatures and other associated features of autism).RESULTS:Of the 208 patients registered psychiatric problem, 33(15.87%) met criteria for autism, the mean age forthe diagnosis of autism was 5.45 years with the boys more predominant than girls. Three main clinicalfeatures of autism are communication abnormality, social abnormality and behavioral abnormality. Thecommunication abnormality were the most commonest features. Other associated features includedenuresis (the commonest), encopresis, sleep problems, over activity and anxiety. Macrocephaly andseizure are important clinical characters of autism presented in 12% and 9.1% respectively.CONCLUSION:Autism is not rare and autistic children represent a significant subgroup of children with seriouspsychiatric disturbance. Speech delay and abnormalities in language are the hallmark features ofautistic disturbance.


Article
Behavior Management of Children with Autism

Author: Assist. Prof. Dr. Baydaa Ali Othman Al – Rawi, BDS, MSc,PhD, Pediatric Dentistry* أ
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) is a term refers to the overarching group of conditions to which autism spectrum disorder (ASD) belongs .Objective: This study was designed to determine the existing behavior of children with autism in dental sitting, the behavior improvements in recall dental visits and evaluate the improvement in oral hygiene with using specific visual pedagogy chart.Type of the study: Cross-sectional study.Methods: Forty children of both genders, ages ranged from 4 – 6 years having primary teeth only were selected whose medical history included a diagnosis of autism. The behavior of the children in dental sitting were assessed according to the Frankel scale. The dmft index in the first visit was measured, with codes and criteria established by the WHO(1997).Behavior management method used was one or more of the followings: (physical restraint, "Tell-Show-Feel and Do" technique, verbal and non – verbal communication, reinforcement, parent present / absent).Results: The samples represent by 22 males and 18 females autistic children with no statically significant difference (p> 0.05).The dmft index of autistic children in the first visit. The dmft (mean ± SD) for males was (7.818 ± 0.98) while for females was (6.922 ± 1.09).The frequency of children showed treatment acceptance without difficulty was increase in the recall visits.Conclusions: The dental professional should be flexible to modify the treatment approach according to the individual patient needs.

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