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Author: Dr. Haroun A.K. Shahad Dr. Samir M. Abdul Haleem
Journal: Iraqi journal of mechanical and material engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الميكانيكية وهندسة المواد ISSN: 20761819 Year: 2009 Volume: C Issue: first conf./ eng. coll. Pages: 465-483
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The internal combustion engines are generally a major source of air pollution.However the spark ignition engines are recognized by their carbon monoxide andunburned hydrocarbon emission. One of the methods used to reduce the emission ofthese pollutants is the blending of hydrogen with the gasoline fuel, either on a massbasis or on energy replacement basis. The present research study is devoted to concernwith developing a numerical model to predict the effect of hydrogen blending (based on energy replacement) on the emitted concentrate of carbon and nitrogen oxides and the temporal and local variation of cylinder temperature. It is found that hydrogen blending improves combustion process by increasingthe flame propagation speed and hence increasing maximum cylinder temperature. Thetiming of maximum cylinder temperature is also advanced due to hydrogen blending. It is also found that the hydrogen blending reduces CO and CO concentrationsand increases NO concentrations. It is found that when the hydrogen blending ratioexceeds 20% the engine performance is deteriorated. x2


Article
An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions of a Single Cylinder D.I Diesel Engine with Manifold Hydrogen Induction

Authors: Haroun A.K. Shahad --- Emad D. Abood
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2017 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 632-651
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Hydrogen is a clean fuel for internal combustion engines as it produces only water vapor and nitrogen oxides when it burns. In this research, hydrogen is used as a blending fuel with diesel to reduce pollutants emission and to improve performance. It is inducted in the inlet manifold, (continuous manifold induction), which is of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, variable compression ratio water cold diesel engine, type (Kirloskar). This technique of hydrogen blending is selected because of its simplicity and low cost. Hydrogen blending is built on the basis of energy replacement. A special electronic unit is designed and fabricated to control hydrogen blending ratio. The maximum achieved ratio is 30% of input energy and beyond that the engine operation becomes unsatisfactory. Tests are done with 17.5 compression ratio and 1500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption is reduced by 29% and the engine thermal efficiency increased by 16% at these operating conditions. The pollutant emissions of carbon oxides, UHC, and smoke opacity are dramatically decreased by 19.5%, 13%,and 45% respectively while NOx emission increased by 10%.

الهيدروجين هو وقود خالي من الملوثات عندما يستخدم في محركات الاحتراق الداخلي لأنه ينتج بخار الماء وأكاسيد النيتروجين فقط. في هذا البحث، تم استخدام الهيدروجين بعد مزجه مع وقود الديزل للحد من الملوثات وتحسين الأداء. تم أدخال الهيدروجين في مشعب دخول المحرك، ذو اسطوانة واحدة، رباعي الأشواط، حقن مباشر، تبريد مائي، نوع (كيرلوسكار). أن مزج الهيدروجين مع الديزل مبني على أساس استبدال الطاقة. تم تصميم وحدة الكترونية خاصة للسيطرة على نسبة مزج الهيدروجين وضخه أثناء شوط السحب فقط. أن أقصى نسبة مزج تم تحقيقها هي 30% على أساس الطاقة وأكثر من تلك النسبة تجعل شغل المحرك غير مرضي. أجريت التجارب بنسبة انضغاط 17.5 وبسرعة 1500 دورة في الدقيقة. تم تقليل استهلاك الوقود المكبحي بنسبة 29%، وزيادة في الكفاءة الحرارية للمحرك بنسبة 16%. وانخفضت انبعاثات الملوثات مثل أكاسيد الكربون، الهيدروكربون غير المحترق، والدخان بشكل كبير بنسبة 19.5%, 13%, 45%على التوالي, في حين حصلت زيادة في انبعاثات أكاسيد النيتروجين بنسبة 10%.

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