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Article
Renal Cell Carcinoma in Adolescents

Author: Tharwat I.Sulaiman * FRCS,CABS د. ثروت ادريس سليمان
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 / 24108057 Year: 2005 Volume: 47 Issue: 2 Pages: 211-213
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Malignant renal neoplasm: Because benign tumors of kidney are rare, so it is a good rule that all neoplasm of kidney which are recognized clinically should be treated as malignant. They are uncommon between the ages of 7&40(l).Rcna! cell carcinoma is the most common tumor of the kidney in adult. It arises from renal tubular cells.. It is rare in children &is more frequent in men than women. It is an adenocarcinoma &is the most common neoplasm(75%) of kidney. The tumor may invade loca!Iy& metastasize by way of blood stream &the lymphatics. Regional lymph nodes are involved in approximately 30% of patients, unfortunately sign &symptoms are usually meager until the disease is advanced. Gross haematuria is the most frequent presenting compliant. Diagnosis of mass in the kidney is best established by intravenous urogram(IVU). CT scan may confirm the diagnosis. Radical nephrectomy is treatment of choice &offers the only known chance of cure. The over all 5 years survival rate of patient is 35%.Angiomyolipoma (Hamartoma) is a benign tumor of the kidney that may rarely be confused with renal cell carcinoma. It occurs frequently in patient with tuberous sclerosis^. Wilms' tumor is the most common of malignant tumors of kidney in childhood. It is highly malignant mixed tumors consisting of connective tissue origin& epithelial structures ,it is usually discovered as palpable mass by mother or by examining physician. Treatment of primary tumor is radical nephrectomy. Adjunctive therapy with irradiation &chemotherapy is important in improving the survival. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common tumor of renal pelvis & ureter. Squamous cell carcinoma may occur because of metaplastic changes. Clinical behavior of this tumor is dependant on degree of cellular differentiation &extent of invasion.( !|

Keywords

case report


Article
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (case report) Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (prolonged QT interval and hearing loss)

Authors: Ali A.-A. Mohammad Al-Mousawi علي عبد الامير --- Kasim A. Ismail Al-Saedi قاسم اسماعيل --- Shokry F. Nassir شكري فائز
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 / 24108057 Year: 2016 Volume: 58 Issue: 1 Pages: 98-101
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (congenital LQTS and hearing loss) isa rare inherited disorder characterized by deafness present at birth (congenital) occurring in association with abnormalities affecting the electrical system of the heart , Iron-deficient anemia and elevated levels of gastrin are also frequent features of JLNS1. The severity of cardiac symptoms associated with Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome varies from case to case. Some individuals may have no apparent symptoms (asymptomatic); others may develop abnormally increased heartbeats (tachyarrhythmias) resulting in episodes of syncope, cardiac arrest, and potentially sudden death. Physical activity, excitement or stress may trigger the onset of these symptoms. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome is usually detected during early childhood and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.2

Keywords

case report


Article
Day Case Tonsillectomy in Children.
إجراء عملية استئصال اللوزتين لدى الأطفال كحالة يومية

Author: Ahmed Humadi (FICMS) د.احمد حمادي اختصاص الانف الأذن والحنجرة
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 57-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Day case surgery has become widely accepted as a safe alternative to the inpatient care in up to 70% of the cases at a children’s hospital. It has the advantage of minimizing the psychological trauma of hospitalization, decreasing nosocomial infection, less costly and frees up hospital beds.Objectives: To assess the advantages and disadvantages of this type of surgery.Methods: this is a prospective study, in which two hundred thirty childhood tonsillectomies were performed as a day-case in the department of otolaryngology at Al Shaheed Gazi hospital, Medical City Complex during the period from October 2009 to September 2010. The patients age range from 3-12 years (Mean 7.2 years).Results: 46.08% males and 53.91% females were included. A total of two hundred twenty three patients were discharged home six hours after the operation. It's found that the incidence of reactionary hemorrhage was 0.8% and the cases presented within 5 hours after leaving the theater. In 99.2% of cases, there was no evidence of serious reactionary hemorrhage.Conclusions: day case tonsillectomy in children is likely to be safe if the patients are discharged after 6 hours period of postoperative observation in day-case unit.

في هذه الدراسة المستقبلية تم دراسة ٢٣٠ طفل أجريت لهم عملية استئصال اللوزتين في م. الشهيد غازي الحريري - مدينة الطب للفترة من تشرين الأول ٢٠٠٩ ولغاية أيلول ٢٠١٠.عمر المرضى يتراوح بين ٣ إلى ١٢ سنة ( المعدل كان ٧،٢ سنة).وهذا يشمل ٤٦،٠٨ ٪ طفل ذكر و ٥٣،٩١ طفل أنثى .تم إخراج ٢٢٣ طفل من المستشفى أجريت لهم عملية استئصال اللوزتين بعد ٦ ساعات من إجراء العملية.وجدنا أن نسبة النزف كانت ٠،٨ ٪ وكانت معظم حالات النزيف حصلت خلال ٥ ساعات بعد مغادرة العملية.٩٩،٢٪ من الحالات لم يكن هناك أي دليل لنزف جدي وخطير.وبناء على ذلك فأن إجراء عملية استئصال اللوزتين كحالة يومية لدى الأطفال من المرجح أن يكون آمنا إذا المريض تم إخراجه بعد ٦ ساعات من المراقبة في وحدة الرعاية للحالات اليومية


Article
Trends of Neonatal Mortality in context of Case Overload in Al - Alwyia Pediatric Teaching Hospital at Baghdad during 2005-2012

Author: *Tareef Fadhil Raham, **Assad Muhsen Abood
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Data on the impact of neonatal and total pediatric admissions volume on neonatal mortality are sparse. Objectives: This study is done to estimate the neonatal mortality in relation to neonatal admissions and to total hospital admissions in Al-Alwyia Pediatric Teaching Hospital through years 2005-2012 Type of the study: A retrospective study.Methods: statistical records of all cases admitted to APTH were studied during 2005-2012.Results: Neonatal mortality decreased to the nadir at last year of study period (2012) and reached 6.1% of neonatal admissions compared to 2005 level which was 9.7 %. Mortality rate among premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants decreased also. The study also reveals that neonatal mortality constitute significant a contribution to childhood mortality (61.4 %) and morbidity (28.3%) throughout the study years. With a highly significant p value parallel to increasing number of neonatal admissions (case over load) , there is a trend of neonatal mortality rate to be decreased Case fatality rate also decreased among overall children to 3.5% in 2005 and to 3.3% in 2013 in spite of 2.4 times increase in neonatal admission during the study period.This neonatal overload is more than overall pediatric over load, because the total hospital admissions are increased just 1.2 times.Conclusions: The neonatal admissions case overload is high and increasing and constitutes a significant proportion of total childhood mortality. Neonatal mortality including premature and (LBW) infants is decreasing .Further actions are needed to meet global goals.


Article
Time to Discharge Patients From Day-Case Clinic Comparison Study between Patients Receivedspinal Versus General Anaesthesia

Author: Raghad Hannon Shinen Alsudani
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 488-493
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACK GROUND:Day case surgery issurgery where patient returns home on same day of surgery, saving resources, money decreases in-patients number with rapid turnover. Question about the ideal type of anasthesia for such surgery is of interest of many studies.OBJECTIVE:To comparing time to discharge after perianal surgery for patient received spinal anasthesia versus patients received general anasthesia, sample was taken between February 2007,and July 2010, in a private day clinic in Baghdad.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Study included 200 patients ASA(I-II), age 18-60 years. One hundred patients had been received spinal anasthesia with small dose lidocaine 2%, other 100 were received general anasthesia with either propofol or pentothal.RESULTS:Indicate thatspinal anaesthesia with small dose lidocaine achieves shorter time to discharge patients versus general anasthesia; mean time for spinal anasthesia was 105.69min and for general was147.57 min.CONCLUSION: Spinal anaesthesia is a good option for outpatient surgery in comparison to general anasthesia regarding time to discharge patients, and we can achieve better results by simple manipulation in techniques and drug dosage which might decrease unwanted side effects of S.A.


Article
Economic of potato production for Atumn season 2015-2016, Baghdad governerate as practical case
اقتصاديات انتاج البطاطا للموسم الخريفي 2015-2016 ,محافظة بغداد-أنموذج تطبيقي

Authors: Faisal H. Nasser فيصل حسن ناصر --- Osamah K. AL-Ukeili اسامة كاظم جبارة
Journal: Jornal of Al-Muthanna for Agricultural Sciences مجلة المثنى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 40862226 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 23-33
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

The research aimed at estimating the production function and the total cost function, as well as measuring the efficiency of resource use, technical, economic, price and cost efficiency. The study was based primarily on a simple random sample of (155) farmers in Baghdad governorate for the autumn season (2015-2016), The double logarithmic formula was the most suitable for the production function. The resource efficiency criteria indicated that potato farmers were efficient in using resources (seed, phosphate fertilizer, human labor) and were inefficient in using irrigation and pesticides. Cubic formula was more suitable for the total cost function according to the statistical, econometrical, and economical tests., The optimum size of production and size that maximize profit were 119.069, 143.398 ton, respectively. Technical, economic and price efficiencies were estimated at 34.25933, 34.25937, and 73.521%, respectively. While the cost efficiency was estimated at (0.454), and the net farm income that achieved over all the sample less about (10380.741) thousand dinars than that achieved at optimal size.

استهدف البحث تقدير دالة الانتاج ودالة التكاليف الكلية فضلا عن حساب كفاءة استخدام الموارد والكفاءة الفنية والاقتصادية والسعرية وكفاءة الكلفة. اعتمد البحث بالدرجة الاساس على عينة عشوائية بسيطة قوامها (155) مزارعاً في محافظة بغداد للموسم الخريفي (2015-2016), كانت الصيغة اللوغاريتمية المزدوجة هي الاكثر ملائمةً لدالة الانتاج. وأوضحت نتائج معايير كفاءة استعمال الموارد أن مزارعي البطاطا كانوا كفؤين في استعمال موارد (التقاوي , الاسمدة الفوسفاتية , العمل البشري ) وغير كفؤين في استخدام موارد (الري و المبيدات)، بينما كانت الصيغة التكعيبية أكثر ملائمةً لدالة التكاليف الكلية وفقاً للاختبارات الاحصائية، والقياسية، والاقتصادية ومنها تبين أن الحجم الأمثل للإنتاج وحجم الانتاج المعظم للربح بلغا نحو (119.069, 143.398) طناً على الترتيب, قُدرت الكفاءة الفنية والاقتصادية والسعرية نحو (34.25933, 34.25937, 73.521)% على الترتيب, بينما بلغت كفاءة الكلفة نحو (0.454). وان صافي الدخل المزرعي المتحقق على مستوى العينة يقل بمقدار (10380.741) الف دينار عن نظيره المتحقق عند الحجم الأمثل. استنتج البحث ان مورد كمية التقاوي كان له الأثر الاكبر في انتاج البطاطا وان هناك هدراً في استخدام الموارد المتاحة ادى الى جعل الانتاج الفعلي اقل من نظيره المتحقق عند الحجم الأمثل المدني للتكاليف , ويوصي البحث بضرورة قيام المؤسسات ذات العلاقة بالعمل على توفير تقاوي البطاطا ذات النوعيات الجيدة لتغطية حاجة المزارعين المحليين, ومن المصادر الجيدة وفي الوقت المناسب و بالسعر المناسب لزيادة انتاج و انتاجية هذا المحصول المهم وتخفيض تكاليف الانتاج، فضلا عن حماية المنتج المحلي باتباع سياسات سعرية تضمن دخل مجزي للمزارعين .


Article
Evaluation of Case detection rates of Pulmonary Tuberculosis before and after adoption of GeneXpert MTB/RIF

Authors: Suhad Hadi Mohammed --- Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed --- Ali Mahdi Al Mousawi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2C Pages: 1019-1025
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cities witnessing mass-gathering events, such as Kerbala-Iraq, are peculiar in respect to their needs in controlling tuberculosis. DOTS was implemented in Kerbala almost two decades ago. GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is adopted in the hope to escalate case detection rates, however, its performance is not evaluated yet. Records of 3254 patients suspected to have pulmonary TB whom they referred to the chest and Respiratory illnesses center of Kerbala governorate were analyzed. The overall trends of TB detection rates showed declining pattern over the year before the adoption of GeneXpert MTB/RIF. In the year of adoption of Xpert MTB/RIF, the detection rates raised, then after declined again. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF has added 17.7% increase in detectionrates.In conclusion: GeneXpertMTP/RIF usage had strengthen case detection rates especially for smear-negative cases


Article
Dental treatment needs and treatment achieved for children attending the clinic of pedodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul

Author: Ban S AL-MUKHTAR
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2001 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: S335-S342
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the reason for seekinig dental treatment and the type of treatment carried out for the children attending clinic of pedodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul.The study included (1850) case sheets which represent the total number of children that attend to the pedodotic clinic, during the academic year of 1997-1998.The result show that children with age (9-10) years have higher percent in attending the pedodontic clinic than other age groups.The result indicate that children attended to the clinic Seeking treatment for painful condition have higher percentage (36.11%) than other cases, then check up, esthetic problem, preventive therapy, trauma come in a lower percentage than the pain.The study reveal that the higher percentage of treatment done is extraction (29.06%) followed by scaling and polishing (20.27%), amalgam filling, preventive program, other type of treatment done in a lover percentage.


Article
Mediation in resolving disputes by peaceful means in Iraqi legislation (Comparative Study)
الوساطة في حل النزاعات بالطرق السلمية في التشريع العراقي ( دراســة مقارنـة )

Authors: mohammed abdalrda aflog محمد علي عبد الرضا عفلوك --- yaser etewi abod al zobadi ياسر عطيوي عبود الزبيدي
Journal: Risalat al-huquq Journal مجلة رسالة الحقوق ISSN: 20752032 Year: 2015 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 190-209
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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The mediation is can cevned at present time the most effective weans of resolving disputes by peaceful means and spread its scope not only to the criminal case butal so the civil case and personal stable affaires dispute differences in the criminal law.That mediation ( Allosaith ) in the field of criminal law means consensual in the criminal case and this term raises the questim that reuolves around the role of the case parties ( consensual wills ) and incompatible with the public lute rest or the principle of legality that means whether the criminal case- parties may dioable the course of the principle of legality or to waste of public interest which achieved in the course of criminal case and the rhythm of the criminal penalty

تعد الوساطة في الوقت الحاضر من انجع وسائل حل النزاعات بالطرق السلمية ، وأمتد نطاقها ليطـال الدعوى الجزائية فضلاً عن الدعوى المدنية والاحوال الشخصية ،على الرغم من اختلاف الأمر في القانون الجنائي. أن الوسائطة في مجال القانون الجنائي تعني الرضائية في الدعوى الجزائية وهذا المصطلح يثيــرتساؤل يدورحول دور الأطراف(رضائية الإرادات)وتعارضه مع المصلحة العامة أومبدأ الشرعية ، وبمعنى أخرهل يجوز للأطراف المعنية في الدعوى الجزائية تعطيل مبدأ الشرعية أو إهدار المصلحة العامة التي تتحقق في السير في الدعوى الجزائية وإيقاع الجزاء الجنائي؟


Article
Explaining and Reviewing (Callers, Voice Soften, Call for help,scar,adverb,distinction,and exception)
شرح وتحقيق (( المنادى، الترخيم، الاستغاثة، الندبة، الحال، التمييز، الاستثناء )) من مخطوط "توضيح قطر الندى، وبل الصدى" للشيخ عبد الكريم الدبَّان الحيالي الحسني المتوفى سنة ((1414 هـ - 1993 م))(( رحمه الله تعالى ))

Author: Yahya Majid Shahoth يحيى ماجد شاحوذ علي
Journal: Anbar University Journal of Islamic Sciences مجلة جامعة الأنبار للعلوم الإسلامية ISSN: 20716028/27068722 Year: 2010 Volume: 2 Issue: 5 Pages: 275-358
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Praise be to Allaah. Praise be to Allaah. His great face, and dear Sultan, should make us Muslims first and foremost, and specialize in those who serve them in the service of Islam and Muslims. On them all)).After ...The need to preserve the Koran from the Koran, distortion and melody was the first and main reason for the emergence of the Koranic studies, which have been of interest to Muslims since the Arabs contacted others in the Islamic Egypt ((Basra, Kufa)).The Qur'anic studies were many and varied, and was the science of grammar, one of these studies, began his first order to control the late speech in the verses points reached by Abu al-Aswad Aldali ((God's mercy)), in the middle of the first century AH.After this stage, he took his grammar lesson and expanded his subject and purpose, and found him specialized scholars who began studying the science of grammar for himself.Their approach was to extrapolate the language and observe the methods, scientists were going out to the valley of Najd, Hijaz and Tihama, settle its people and Achavhonhm and take them the standard language. Alongside this was the Book of God, the first tributary of the classical Arabic tributaries, and the inexhaustible miraculous, as well as the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (r), the most eloquent Arabs.All of this helped the scholars, led by Hebron bin Ahmed al-Farahidi (God's mercy) to go a long way in the mature grammatical studies that were the basis of the grammar lesson, followed by his student Siboih ((God's mercy)), who wrote his book "book."The efforts of scientists who came after them throughout the ages study, author, and explanations on the literature, footnotes, and others; all of this had its role in the retention and maintenance of the grammar lesson.Among the most prominent of these scientists, the investigator, the pride of Arabic, better than classified by the men of the eighth century AH in the rules of Arabic and applied to them, Jamal al-Din Ibn Hisham al-Ansari grammar ((died in 761 AH)) ((God's mercy)), in which Ibn Khaldoun ((may Allah have mercy on him)): ((We are still in Morocco hear that he appeared in Egypt, a world in Arabic is said to Ibn Hisham stepped down from Sibawayh)).Ibn Hisham al-Ansari ((may Allah have mercy on him)) many of the books and books, especially what is interested in the science of grammar - I mentioned when translated ((God's mercy)) in my study of the first part of this manuscript, including: "Qatar dew, but echo" He explained ((God's mercy)) an explanation he called "explain the diameter of dew, but echo," which is an important and useful explanation.We did not conceal that he was more useful to the people of his time than to us today, they were patient on science from us, what was wrong with the book "explaining the country" and others like them that it is long self, nor that it is much digress, nor that it is a complex sentence sometimes, nor that it is more complicated Prolonging in response to them, nor does it cite poetic evidence, most of which is not without ambiguity in meaning and hardness in the expression.It is, as is well known, a grammar book that students study in the intermediate stages of grammar lesson.However, Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim al-Dabbān (deceased in 1993 AH) ((may Allah have mercy on him)) found during the years of his teaching of the Arabic language and the book “Explaining Qatar the Dew, but the Echo”, that middle school students in terms of grammar lesson It is difficult because of the many mention of differences and prolongation in response, as well as with regard to the martyrdom of poetic evidence, most of which is not without ambiguity in meaning and hardness in the expression.He put ((God's mercy on him)) his explanation or clarification on this book, "explain the diameter of dew, but echo," and called: "clarify the diameter of dew, but echo", which we are studying and achieve.The book "Illustration", as his author ((God's mercy)) in his introduction, came in response to the request of his disciples, and what he saw ((God's mercy)) of the interest in the method and method that he used in his teaching of the material.He came as he wanted ((God's mercy)) clear facilitator, in easy words, and cited his questions with clear examples, easy to benefit from it.And envisioned ((God's mercy)) to be the way that the book put them useful. It is also, God willing, we see that it is an important explanation and clarification of great interest, especially for intermediate schooling in terms of grammar lesson, has become famous and spread among students and learners a lot, has been taught in religious schools, especially that the author ((mercy) Allah the Almighty is one of the great scientists of Iraq. The book is easy to deal with and understand its material, for what it has, as mentioned above.

الحمدُ للهِ حمداً كما ينبغي لعظيمِ وجههِ، وعزيزِ سلطانهِ، أن جعلنا مسلمين أولاً وآخراً، وخصنا فيمن خصهم بخدمةِ الإسلامِ والمسلمين، والصلاةُ والسلامُ على أشرفِ الخلقِ والمرسلين نبينا وسيدنا محمد بن عبد الله المبعوث رحمة للعالمين، وعلى آلهِ وصحبهِ الطيبين الطاهرين (( رضوان الله تعالى عليهم أجمعين )).وبعــد ...فكانت الحاجة إلى الحفاظِ على القرآنِ الكريمِ من التصحيفِ والتحريفِ واللّحنِ السبب الأوّل والرئيس لنشوءِ الدراسات القرآنية، التي كانت موضع اهتمام المسلمين منذ أن اتصل العرب بغيرِهم في المصرين الإسلاميين (( البصرة، والكوفة )).وكانت الدراسات القرآنية كثيرة ومتنوعة، وكان علم النحو أحد هذه الدراسات، بدأ أوّل أمرهِ بضبطِ أواخر الكلم في الآيات بالنقطِ الذي توصل إليهِ أبو الأسود الدؤلي (( رحمه الله تعالى ))، في منتصف القرن الأوّل الهجري.وبعد هذه المرحلة أَخَذَ الدرس النحوي يستقل، واتسع موضوعه، وغرضه، ووجد له دارسون مختصون بدؤوا يدرسون علم النحو لذاتِهِ.وكان منهجهم هو استقراء اللّغة وملاحظة الأساليب، فكان العلماءُ يخرجون إلى بوادي نجدٍ والحجازِ وتهامة، يستقرون أهلها ويشافهونهم ويأخذون عنهم اللّغة الفصحى. وكان إلى جانبِ هذا كتاب الله تعالى الرافد الأوّل من روافدِ اللّغةِ العربيةِ الفصحى، والمعين المعجز الذي لا ينضب، وكذلك سنة نبيه محمد (( r ))، أفصح العرب .وقد ساعَدَ كلّ ذلك علماء النحو، وعلى رأسِهم الخليل بن أحمد الفراهيدي (( رحمه الله تعالى )) على المضي شوطاً في الدراسات النحوية الناضجة التي كانت الأساس للدرسِ النحوي وجاءَ بعده تلميذه سيبويه (( رحمه الله تعالى )) الذي وضع كتابه "الكتاب".وتضافرت جهودُ العلماءِ الذين جاؤوا بعدهم على مرِّ العصورِ دراسةً، وتأليفاً، وشروحاً على مؤلفاتٍ، وحواشياً، وغيرها؛ كان لكلِّ ذلك دوره في تقعيدِ الدرس النحوي والحفاظِ عليهِ.ومن بين أبرز هؤلاء العلماء العلاّمة المحقق، فخر العربية، أفضل من صَنَّفَ من رجالات القرن الثامن الهجري في قواعدِ العربيةِ والتطبيقِ عليها، جمال الدين ابن هشام الأنصاري النحوي (( المتوفى سنة 761هـ )) (( رحمه الله تعالى ))، الذي قال فيهِ ابن خلدون (( رحمه الله تعالى )): (( مازلنا ونحن بالمغربِ نسمعُ أَنَّهُ ظَهَرَ بمصر عالمٌ بالعربيةِ يقالُ له ابن هشام أنحى من سيبويه )).ولابن هشام الأنصاري (( رحمه الله تعالى )) العديد من المؤلّفاتِ والكتبِ لاسيما ما يهتمُ منها بعلمِ النحو ـ وقد ذكرتها عند ترجمته (( رحمه الله تعالى )) في دراستي للجزءِ الأوّلِ من هذا المخطوط ـ ومنها: كتاب "قطر الندى، وبل الصدى" وقد شرحه (( رحمه الله تعالى )) شرحاً أسماه "شرح قطر الندى، وبل الصدى"، وهو شرحٌ مهمٌ ومفيدٌ.ولسنا نكتمُ أَنَّهُ كانَ أكثرُ إفادة لأهلِ عصرِهِ منهُ لنا اليومَ، فقد كانوا أصبرُ على العلمِ منّا، فما كان يَعيبُ كتاب "شرح القطر" وأمثاله عندهم أنَّهُ طويلُ النفسِ، ولا أنَّهُ كثيرُ الاستطرادِ، ولا أنَّهُ معقدُ الجملةِ أحياناً، ولا أنَّهُ يكثرُ من ذكرِ الاختلافات والإطالةِ في الردِّ عليها، ولا أنَّهُ يستشهدُ بالشواهدِ الشعريةِ التي لا يخلو أكثرُها من غموضٍ في المعنى وعسرٍ في الإعرابِ.وهو ـ كما معروف ـ كتابٌ نحوي يدرسُهُ الطلبة في المراحلِ الدراسيةِ المتوسطةِ الخاصة بالدرسِ النحوي.إلاّ أَنَّ الشيخ عبد الكريم الدبَّان (( المتوفى سنة 1993هـ )) (( رحمه الله تعالى ))، وَجَدَ خلالَ سنوات تدريسه للّغةِ العربيةِ، ولكتابِ "شرح قطر الندى، وبل الصدى"، أَنَّ طلابَ المراحلِ الدراسيةِ المتوسطةِ ـ فيما يخص الدرسِ النحوي ـ يجدون فيهِ صعوبة من جراءِ الإكثار من ذِكرِ الاختلافات والإطالةِ في الردِّ عليها، وكذلك ما يتعلّق بالاستشهادِ بالشواهدِ الشعريةِ التي لا يخلو أكثرها من غموضٍ في المعنى وعسرٍ في الإعرابِ.فوضَعَ (( رحمه الله تعالى )) شرحَهُ أو توضيحَهُ على هذا الكتاب "شرح قطر الندى، وبل الصدى"، وأسماه: "توضيح قطر الندى، وبل الصدى"، الذي نحن بصددِ دراستِهِ وتحقيقِهِ.وقد جاءَ كتاب "التوضيح"، كما قال مؤلِّفه (( رحمه الله تعالى )) في مقدمتِهِ، تلبية لطلبِ تلاميذه، ولِما رآه (( رحمه الله تعالى )) من الفائدةِ في الطريقةِ والمنهجِ الّذين كان يتَّبِعُهُما في تدريسِهِ للمادةِ.فجاءَ كما أراده (( رحمه الله تعالى )) واضحاً ميسراً، بعبارةٍ سهلةٍ، واستشهد لمسائلِهِ بأمثلةٍ واضحةٍ، يسهلُ معها الإفادة منه.وتوخى (( رحمه الله تعالى )) أنْ تكون الطريقة التي وضعَ عليها الكتاب نافعة. وهي كذلك ـ إنْ شاء الله ـ فإنّا نرى أَنَّهُ شرحٌ وتوضيحٌ مهمٌ ذو فائدةٍ كبيرةٍ ولا سيما للمراحلِ الدراسيةِ المتوسطةِ فيما يخص الدرسِ النحوي، وقد ذاع صيتُ هذا الكتاب وانتشر بين أوساط الطلبة والمتعلمين كثيراً، وقد دُرِّسَ في المدارسِ الدينيةِ، ولاسيما أَنَّ مؤلِّفَه (( رحمه الله تعالى )) من أكابرِ علماءِ العراقِ. والكتابُ سهلُ التناولِ والفهمِ لمادتِهِ، لما يمتازُ بهِ، بما ذكرنا آنفاً.

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