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Article
Using Recycled Construction Rubbles to Improve the Properties of Subbase
استخدام أنقاض البناءالمعاد تدويرها لتحسين خصائص السبيس

Authors: Shakir A. AL-Mashhadani --- Shatha Sadiq
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 21 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 549-564
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Demolished concrete structures proven to be a good source of construction materials. This paper studies the utility of using recycled construction rubbles to improve some properties of compacted subbase .Different subbase materials were produced with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% of recycled construction rubbles aggregate as a partial replacement of natural subbase. The standard tests were conducted on the choosed maerials before and after the replacement. It is found from the test results that the recycled construction rubbles can be used significantly to improve the properties of some types of subbase. The CBR values of the subbase materials prepared with crushed concrete, recycled bricks, and ceramic rubbles as a partial replacement were better than those of natural subbase materials. The performance of subbase containing crushed concrete rubbles was better than the performance of subbase containing crushed clay bricks and ceramics. The CBR values for all subbases were greater than 45%, which is accepted as per the requirements CRB specifications in Iraq.

اثبتت المنشات الخرسانية المهدمة بأنها مصدر جيد لمواد البناء. يدرس هذا البحث فائدة استخدام أنقاض البناءالمعاد تدويرها في السبيس لتحسين بعض خصائص السبيس المرصوص. تم انتاج مواد سبيس مختلفة و ذلك بخلط 0% , 25% ,50% و75% كنسبة تعويضية من السبيس الطبيعي. اجريت الاختبارات القياسية على المواد المختارة قبل وبعد الاستبدال. وجد من نتائج الاختبار ان انقاض البناءالمعاد تدويرها يمكن استعمالها بشكل جيد في تحسين خواص السبيس. كانت قيم CBR لمواد السبيس المهيئة من انقاض الخرسانة المسحوقة وانقاض الطابوق و السيراميك المعاد تدويره كاستبدال جزئي افضل من تلك المهيئة من مواد السبيس الطبيعية . كان اداء السبيس الحاوي على انقاض الخرسانة المسحوقة افضل من اداء السبيس الذي يحتوي على الطابوق الطيني و السيراميك المسحوق. كانت قيم CBR لجميع السبيس اكثر من 45% وهي قيمة مقبولة بموجب الهيئة العامة للطرق و الجسور العراقية.


Article
ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SUSTAINABLE SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE WITH CLAY BRICKS WASTE AGGREGATE

Authors: Thaer A. Al-Daebal --- Wasan I. Khalil
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 223-239
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The present study covers the use of different percentages (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of clay bricks waste as replacement by volume of coarse natural aggregates to produce sustainable self- compacted concrete (SCC). All mixes used containing 10% silica fume as a replacement by cement weight. The properties of SCC studied were, workability, fresh density, dry density, water absorption, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, modules of elasticity and thermal conductivity. The results show that the flow ability, filing ability, and passing ability of self -compacted concrete through steel reinforcement are decrease with the increase of clay brick waste content. In addition, the segregation resistance decreases with the increase of clay brick waste content of SCC. The use of clay brick waste aggregate causes reduction in density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, modules of elasticity and thermal conductivity of SCC. The percentage reduction increases with the increase of clay bricks waste content in self-compacted concrete.


Article
Determination of alpha particles concentration in Clay Bricks Samples by CR-39 Detector

Authors: Khalid Haneen Abass --- Mahmod Salim Karim
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2014 Volume: 22 Issue: 6 Pages: 1816-1819
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The aim of the present work is to determine the alpha particles concentration in clay bricks samples taken from Hilla, Karbala, Najaf, Baghdad, Diyala, and Samarra governorates, emitted from the radioactive elements (radionuclides) (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, and Po-218) by using nuclear track detector (CR-39), taken from many places of Iraq. Used one month irradiation time and then etched by 6.25 N of NaOH solution at temperature of 60 oC for 6 h. The results obtained have shown that the highest average alpha particles concentration in clay bricks samples was found in Najaf region which was 4.65 ppm, while the lowest average alpha particles concentration was found in Diyala region which was 1.26 ppm.

الهدف من البحث الحالي هو حساب تركيز مطلقات ألفا في نماذج طابوق باستخدام تقنية عد آثار جسيمات ألفا المنبعثة من النوى المشعة ( (218Po, 226Ra, 232Th, 238Uباستخدام كاشف الأثر النووي (CR-39) لمناطق مختلفة من العراق هي الحلة، كربلاء، نجف، بغداد، ديالى، وسامراء. شععت النماذج لشهر واحد ومن ثم تم استخدام هيدروكسيد الصوديوم كمحلول قاشط وبعيارية 6.25 N وبدرجة حرارة مقدارها 60 oC لمدة 6 ساعات. وقد أوضحت النتائج التي حصلنا عليها أن أعلى معدل لتركيز مطلقات ألفا في نماذج الطابوق النجف حيث بلغت 4.65 ppm, بينما اقل معدل لتركيز مطلقات ألفا في نماذج الطابوق كان في ديالى حيث بلغ 1.85 ppm.


Article
THE EFFECT OF WASTE BRICK POWDER AS CEMENT WEIGHT REPLACEMENT ON PROPERTIES OF SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE

Authors: Mohammed Moslah Salman1 --- Mohammad Zohair Yousif
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 (part-6) Pages: 116-130
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Construction and Demolition ( C&D ) waste constitutes a major portion of total solid waste production in the world. The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of addition of waste Yellow Clay brick powder (YCBP) on the behavior of concrete (C25) at both conditions; fresh and hardened on the mechanical properties of concrete through by using of different partial replacement of powdered brick with cement until 50 percent by weight (0% , 5% , 10% , 15% , 20% , 25% and 50%) and addition 10% of micro SF by weight replacement of cement to produce concrete and to reduce the impact on environment by consuming the material generally considered as waste product. The yellow clay brick was crushed and grinded manually and also sieve through 75µm sieve size in order to be fineness as cement. Cubes of size 150mm, Cylinders of size 300mm x 150mm and prisms of size 100mm x 100mm x 500mm were casted and tested, different ratios of waste CBP have been used to study its effect on the workability (slump flow), compressive strength and splitting tensile strength for 7, 14 and 28 days; and the modulus of rupture for 28 days. The results compared with the reference specimens and study the relationship between the mechanical properties of concrete. The addition was the use of waste as an alternative to cement and up to 10% with a slight decrease in the properties of concrete compared with ordinary concrete


Article
MANUFACTURING GREEN CEMENTING MATERIAL

Authors: Mohammed Moslah Salman1 --- Mohammad Zohair Yousif
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 6 Pages: 55-69
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Construction and Demolition ( C&D ) waste constitutes a major portion of total solid waste production in the world. The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of addition of waste Yellow Clay brick powder (CBP) on the behavior of cement mortar and concrete of Grade (C25) at both conditions; fresh and hardened on the mechanical properties of concrete through by using of different partial replacement of powdered brick with cement until 100 percent by weight (0% , 5% , 10% , 15% , 20% , 25% , 50% and 100% ) to produce concrete and to reduce the impact on environment by consuming the material generally considered as waste product. The yellow clay brick was crushed and grinded manually and also sieve through 75µm sieve size in order to be fineness as cement. Cubes of size 150mm x 150mm x 150mm, Cylinders of size 300mm x 150mm and prisms of size 100mm x 100mm x 500mm were casted and tested, different ratios of waste CBP have been used to study its effect on the workability (slump flow), compressive strength and splitting tensile strength for 7, 14 and 28 days; and the modulus of rupture for 28 days. The results compared with the reference specimens and study the relationship between the mechanical properties of concrete.


Article
STUDY OF USING THE CRUSHED CLAY BRICKS WITH NATURAL AGGREGATE AS UNBOUND SUB BASE PAVEMENT LAYER IN SEGREGATED FORM

Authors: Ali Abdulla Abed --- Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 496-504
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Construction and demolition of buildings and structures are producing excess or waste material which is including concrete, brick, steel, etc. Conservation and reuse of resources is a necessity in achieving sustainability across the globe, crushed brick could be safely added to crush rock blends in pavement sub-base applications with percent up to 25%. The experimental work was consisted of two groups of samples depending on percent volume of each material, each group samples have 6 different layering blends patterns prepared by spreading the pure materials in layers (segregated form) of Crushed Bricks Sand (CBS) and Natural Aggregate (NA), in addition to the two control samples and then experimentally tested to compare with the requirements of Iraqi specification for roads and bridges. The experimental work was consisted of Atterberg limits, sieve analysis, moisture-density relationship and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests. The results show that using of the crushed bricks as sand with natural aggregate as unbound subbase in segregated form is feasible and agreed with the Iraqi specification requirements because the CBR of CBS was improved when blended with the NA at all the patterns, the best pattern is that which containing three layers NA and two CBS (60% NA and 40% CBS by volume) and the NA was at the top, then CBS in alternated sequence that improves the CBR value to 1.6 times compared with NA control or 8 times of CBS control because the sporadic distribution reduces the effect of the low bearing material, in another words; collect the layers of the same material doesn't give best improvement.


Article
Behavior of Customary Jack-Arch Slabs in South of Iraq

Authors: Sa'ad Fahad Resan --- Abbass Oda Dawod
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2015 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 441-452
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Jack arch slabs are brickwork arches supported by steel beams. Jack arch slabs have long been used extensively to floor and roof houses in Iraq especially in the middle and south. Due to their easy construction together with low cost, the jack-arch slab is still widely used in Iraq and many countries. Static tests were conducted to determine the effect of span width and camber configuration on mechanical properties of brickwork arch specimens. The relative weakness of this type of flooring highlighted the need for developing appropriate retrofitting schemes. Strengthening jack arch by ferrocement layer has been introduced. The strength, load –displacement relationship and failure modes of jack arch specimens were presented. The test results indicated that the composite action between jack arch slab and ferrocement layer highly improved flexural strength, stiffness and ductility without considerably increases the weight of the slab.

تعرف سقوف الاقواس المرفوعة بانها تشكيل من اقواس البناء بالطابوق المستندة بواسطة جسور من الحديد (تعرف هذه السقوف محليا بالعقادة). يستخدم هذا النوع من السقوف بصورة واسعة لانشاء سقوف المنازل خصوصا في وسط و جنوب العراق. وبسبب سهولة انشائها بالإضافة لكلفتها الواطئة, يعتبر هذا النوع من اكثر الأنواع شيوعا و انتشارا في العراق وفي الكثير من البلدان الأخرى. ورغم الشيوع والأهمية النسبية لهذا النوع من الانشاء لعموم المجتمع العراقي لارتباطة بالكلفة الواطئة, لا توجد دراسة واضحة متعلقة بالتحليل الانشائي لهذا النوع من السقوف.تم اجراء فحوص مختبرية لبيان تاثير عرض الفضاء وكذلك تاثير التقوس على الخصائص الميكانيكية لنماذج من سقوف الطابوق المرفوعة. وتم تحليل نماذج مقواة بواسطة الفيروسمنت لبيان إمكانية تطوير التحمل الانشائي لهذا النوع من السقوف المعروف بالضعف نسبة لسقوف الخرسانة المسلحة. و تم استعراض و تحليل النتائج المختبرية المتمثلة بقيم التحمل و علاقات الاحمال مع الازاحات بالإضافة لانماط الفشل. وبينت النتائج المختبرية ان فعالية التركيب مع الفيروسمنت قد حسن مقاومة الانثناء, الجساءه, و المطيلية بصوة فائقة بدون زيادة معتبرة في الوزن.


Article
Study of Raw Materials for Manufacturing Perforated Clay Bricks (Chamchamal, and Qaradagh Regions in Sulaimani/ Iraq)
دراسة مواد أولية لتصنيع الطابوق الطيني المثقب (في مناطق جمجمال وقرداغ في السليمانية / العراق)

Author: Kamal Ahmad Rashed كمال أحمد رشيد
Journal: Sulaimania Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة السليمانية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 24101699/24156655 Year: 2017 Volume: 4 Issue: 4 Pages: 51-67
Publisher: university of Sulaimania جامعة السليمانية

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Abstract

There is no information about the optimum molding moisture content and molding pressure on the physical and mechanical properties of clay bricks. In this paper, the effect of moisture content and applied pressure during molding of brick samples for two selected locations of Sulaimani province in Iraq were studied. After firing the molded brick samples at a temperature of 1000oC, the physical and mechanical properties were studied from the following tests: firing shrinkage, water absorption, dry density and uniaxial compressive strength. The results indicate that the optimum moisture content for molding and manufacturing of clay bricks is within (0.6 to 0.7) of plastic limit of the raw materials. Also, it was found that the sufficient applied pressure during molding of clay bricks is 6 MPa.

لا توجد معلومات كافية حول تأثير الرطوبة والضغوط التي تستخدم أثناء الصب على الخصائص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية للطابوق الطيني. تم في هذا البحث دراسة تأثير نسبة الرطوبة والضغوط التي تستخدم أثناء صب عينات الطابوق في موقعين مختارين في محافظة السليمانية. وبعد حرق عينات من الطابوق المصبوب عند درجة حرارة ( 1000ە م )، تم التعرف على الخواص الفيزيائية والميكانيكية باستخدام الاختبارات التالية: الانكماش الحراری ، امتصاص الماء ، الكثافة الجافة وقوة الضغط ذو محورين. وتشير النتائج أن نسبة الرطوبة المثالية لحد اللدونة للمواد الخام أثناء صب وتصنيع الطابوق الطيني هي ( 0.6 - 0.7 ). اضافة الى ذلك فقد وجد أن الضغط الكافي أثناء صب الطابوق الطيني هو 6 ميجا باسكال.


Article
استخدام كسر الطابوق الطيني المعاد كبديل عن الحصى في انتاج بلوك نمطي اقتصادي

Author: سلام سمعان عبدالاحد
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2010 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 952-974
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

During the last 5 decades , it is evident that there is a drastic need for close cooperation between the Iraqi architect and other engineers, technicians working with him , towards solving particular problems related to materials , system building technology in Iraq .The architect need to become a leader of the building team instead of becoming“a Hero”.The research develop a light weight modular block (25x25x12.5cm), equivalent in volume to 3 bricks (25x12.5x7.5 cm).The proposed modular block use broken or crushed bricks as an aggregate instead of stone. The block can be handled easily, it can be produced mechanically i.e. via compressors or manually. The research cover the use of recycled “broken or crushed” bricks by making samples , record photos and statistics .The samples uses 40-65% of the volume recycled bricks .The insulating factor increased up to 70 -80% while cost decreased by approximately half. The paper is one of many applied research topics needed to be tackled on recycling, sustainability and environment improvement in Iraq

خلال العقود الخمسة الماضية اتضح ان هناك حاجة ماسة الى تعاون وثيق بين المهندس المعماري العراقي والمهندسيين والفنيين العاملين معه لوضع حلول محددة في "مواد ونظم وتكنولوجيا البناء في العراق" . المهندس المعماري يجب ان يكون قائد مجموعة البناء ويترك دور البطل و كمثال على هذا التفاعل قمنا بهذا البحث " استخدام كسر الطابوق الطيني المعاد كبديل عن الحصى في انتاج بلوك نمطي اقتصادي" .البلوك قياساته (25x25x12.5cm) ويعادل في الحجم ثلاثة طابوقات فنية. المقترح يستخدم كسر الطابوق الطيني كمادة تخلط مع الرمل والاسمنت وبدون استخدام الحصى و يمكن انتاجه يدويا او ميكانيكيا . البحث استخدم الطابوق المكسر اوالمهشم. وتم عمل بلوكات نموذجية وتم فحصها و تصويرها.استخدم البحث 40-65% من كسر الطابوق في حجم الخلطة الخرسانية , وقد اتضح زيادة قيمة العزل الحراري بمقدار 70-80%, كما لاحظ الباحث ان كلفة بناء الجدران الحاملة وغير الحاملة عند استخدام البلوك المقترح تقل بحوالي النصف عن كلفة البناء بالطابوق الفني بالاسعار السائدة حاليا.ان هذا البحث المتواضع هو واحد من العديد من البحوث المطلوبة في العراق عند استخدام مواد البناء المعادة في انتاج مواد بناء جديدة .

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