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Multiplicity of minarets and the diversity of their names according to their function
تعددأشكال المآذن وتنوع مسمياتها تبعا لوظيفتها

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Abstract

The first beginnings of the emergence and development of the Art of Arab and Islamic architecture (with the tower and cylindrical minarets) of different types, forms and names, to the beginnings of the era of Islam, during the era of the Prophet Muhammad and the caliphs after him, until it reached the diversity and maturity that resulted from The first schools of Islamic art and architecture in the Al-Amawi period (45 – 132 AH), which were counted by researchers and specialists in a very complex and prosperous period of transition from the former art of Islam to a more developed and mature stage during the Abbasid period between the year (132-660AH),The views of the Western Orientalist researchers are almost devoid of reference to the artistic and technical achievements of the era of Islam, believing that the Arabs before and after Islam from the reign of prophecy had nothing to do with the architecture and the arts. After it, they are the ones who created and since the first year of emigration the first institutions and institutes of religious, scientific, medical and judicial and In all Muslim mosques and their religious and scientific schools, and in most of the funeral buildings, maqams, shrines,and tombs

ان البدايات الاولىلنشوء وتطورفنون العمارة العربية الاسلامية المتمثلة (بعناصر المئذنة) موضوع البحث، على اختلاف اشكالها وانواعها ومسمياتها، من اسطوانية وحلزونية ومنشورية وبرجية مربعة اومضلعة، تعود الى بدايات عصر صدر الاسلام، والمتمثلة بعهد رسول الله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم والخلفاء الراشدون من بعده، والتي تمثل اللبنة الاولى لنشوء وتطور العمائر الاسلامية وفنوها في ربوع الجزيرة العربية في بداية عهدها، حتى بلغت من التنوع والنضوج شيوع أولى مدارسالفن والعمارة الاسلامية ابان العصرالاموي (45–132ه)، والتي عد الباحثون والمتخصصونهذه المرحلةفي غاية من التعقيد والازدهار كونها مرحلة وسطية اشتملت على انتقال من الفنون السابقةللاسلام الىمرحلة اكثر تطورا ونضوجا خلال العصر العباسي وما بعده (132-660ه).


Article
Agriculture in the Kingdom of Palencia During the era of denominations (Historical Study)
الزراعة في مملكة بلنسية خلال عصر الطوائف ( دراسة تاريخية )

Author: Ansam Ghadban Abboud انسام غضبان عبود
Journal: ADAB AL-BASRAH آداب البصرة ISSN: 18148212 Year: 2006 Issue: 40 Pages: 95-124
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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