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Article
Obligations of Male's Circumcision in the Three Religions: A Comparative Study
موجبات خِــتـان الذكور في الأَديان الثــلاثــة ــــــ دراسة مقارنة ــــــ

Author: Thabet Mahdi Hamadi ثابت مهدي حمادي
Journal: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 Year: 2019 Volume: 26 Issue: 6 Pages: 58-90
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Allah Almighty has instituted circumcision and imposed it on the Father of prophets ((Ibrahim)) Peace be upon him. God makes it a sunna for those messengers and prophets who come after Ibrahim. Circumcision, in Jewish religion, is considered as a promise with Allah. Jewish people, however, practice it in such an excessive way. Christianity, on the other hand, does not show commitment to do it. Christianity, symbolically, interprets circumcision as the process of purging the spirit rather that the body and thus circumcision is replaced by Baptism in the New Testament. Islam agrees with the Jewish religion and contradicts Christianity. Islam considers this process a sunna that should be followed by any Muslim.

شرّع الله سبحانه وتعالى الختان وفرضه على أبي الأنبياء سيدنا إبراهيم، وجعله من سُنن الفِطرة لمن جاء من بعده من الرسل، فكان الختان بمثابة العهد مع الله في اليهودية التي غالت في أمره، وجعلته علامة عهد مع الله تعالى، وأوجبته على كل من اعتنق اليهودية, بخلاف المسيحية التي فسرته تفسيرًا رمزيًا، وأعطته دلالة مسيحية تتفق وإيمان العهد الجديد، فأكدوا أنَّ المقصود بالختان في التوراة هو ختان الروح، أي الكفُّ عن الآثام وليس ختان الجسد، وأحلت التعميد محله في العهد الجديد، أما الاسلام فقد أقر الختان، وجعله من سُنَن الفطرة، فالإسلام لم ينقض شريعة الختان الواردة في الأديان السابقة له، بل جاء مؤكدًا لها، فأقر ما شرّعه الله تعالى فيما جاء في اليهودية، ولم يخالفها كما فعلت المسيحية، فاتفق علماء الإسلام على مشروعية الختان، رغم اختلاف الفقهاء في حكمه، وقد استعمل علماء اللغة كلمات عدّة للإشارة إلى الختان مثل الخفض والخفاض والإعذار، والعامة هي كلمة ختان، أو طهور، أو طهارة.


Article
PHONOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC
نواحي صوتية في اللغة الإنكليزية والعربية

Author: Sua'ad Abd Ar-Rahman Eltaif سعــاد عبدالرحمــن الطيــف
Journal: Journal of Tikrit University for the Humanities مجلة جامعة تكريت للعلوم الإنسانية ISSN: 18176798 Year: 2019 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-16
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The present study deals with four phonological aspects which are part of communication through language. These aspects are found in English and Arabic, which are : assimilation, intonation, stress and elision . The aim of this study is to explain each aspect in both languages and make a comparison . This study presents definitions, explanation and examples to clarify the phenomenon. The two languages share some points, but there is no absolute similarity. These aspects are common in the recitation of the Glorious Quran. There are similarities and differences between the two languages.In English, there are three types of assimilation: regressive, progressive and coalescent. In the recitation of the Glorious Quran, there is assimilation with ghunnah( nasal twang) and without ghunnah ( nasal twang). In the recitation of the Glorious Quran , the assimilation is like the regressive English assimilation, the final consonant changes and be like the initial neighbouring sound. In the two languages, the definition of intonation means the rise and fall of a tone. It expresses a meaning and changes according to the type of a sentence. Stress means the amount of power through pronunciation the sound. English language includes special rules for stress. In Arabic , stress means the amount of power on the syllable of each utterance. The type of stress is affected by the number and kind of syllables in the word . Elision means the omission of a sound. The two languages may omit a consonant or vowel in a word to make the pronunciation easier .

تتناول هذه الدراسة اربع من الجوانب الصوتية , والتي هي جزء من التواصل عبر اللغة. وهذه الجوانب توجد في اللغتين العربية والإنكليزية . ومن بينها الإدغام والتنغيم والنبر والحذف . تهدف الدراسة الحالية الى تقديم شرح وأمثلة وعمل مقارنة لكل جانب في اللغة العربية والإنكليزية . ومن خلال استيعاب البحث الحالي يمكن ملاحظة اشتراك اللغة العربية ولإنكليزية ببعض النقاط المعينة, لكن ليس هناك تشابه تام بين اللغتين. ان النواحي الصوتية المقدمة في هذا البحث شائع تطبيقها ولا سيما في تلاوة القران الكريم . ففي اللغة الإنكليزية هناك ثلاث أنواع من الإدغام وهو الإدغام التراجعي والتقدمي والمندمج. بينما في تلاوة القران الكريم هناك ادغام بغنة وبغير غنة .قاعدة تطبيق الإدغام في تلاوة القران الكريم مشابهة للإدغام التراجعي في اللغة الإنكليزية , حيث ان الصوت الصحيح اخر الكلمة يتغير ويصبح مثل الصوت الصحيح التي تبدأ به الكلمة الثانية المجاورة للكلمة الأولى. اما ألقاعدة الصوتية الثانية فهي التنغيم , والتنغيم هو ارتفاع وانخفاض في نغمة الصوت. وانه في مفهومه الدقيق يعبر عن معنى , ويتغير وفقا لنوع الجملة , فيما اذا كانت خبرية او سؤالية. ثالثا النبر (التشديد), ويعني بروز وإظهار الصوت الذي تم التشديد عليه والنطق به. وتعريف النبر في اللغة العربية والأنكليزية هو يمثل نفس المعنى, لكن في اللغة العربية يتأثر التشديد بعدد ونوع المقطع الموجود في الكلمة. القاعدة الفونولوجية الرابعة هي الحذف , والحذف يعني الغاء او حذف النطق بصوت العلة او بالصوت الصحيح من الكلمة لجعل الكلام اكثر سهولة .


Article
POETIC JUSTICE IN SHAKESPEARE’S PLAYS

Author: Hazim Mahmood Ismail حازم محمود اسماعيل
Journal: Journal Of AL-Turath University College مجلة كلية التراث الجامعة ISSN: 20745621 Year: 2009 Issue: 5 Pages: 92-109
Publisher: Heritage College كلية التراث الجامعة

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Abstract

Unfortunately many atrocities in our world go unpunished, and many good people are punished for no reason whatsoever. This is because we often fail to maintain justice. But justice must be done one way or another. God is just and He expects us to do justice in the world we are living in. If we cannot do justice for one reason or another, poets and writers can. But where and how? If not in reality, they do it in the world they create in their works.The aim of this paper is to show where and how poets and writers do justice in their own world and in their own way. Four major characters have been chosen from four Shakespearean tragedies for this purpose. These characters are: Richard III, Iago, Macbeth, and Claudius All these four characters are Shakespeare’s most intriguing and plausible villains. They represent blind ambition. They do everything they can in order to serve their wicked purposes. But in the end justice takes its course and they get the punishment they deserve.

Keywords

POETIC --- JUSTICE --- IN --- SHAKESPEARE


Article
Honorifics in Arabic and English

Author: Enas Naji Kadim
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: ISSN: 27066894 (Online) ISSN: 27066908 (Print) Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Keywords

in Arabic and --- English


Article
- connectedness in tritopological space

Author: Asmhan Fleih Hassan Al-Zuhairy
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: ISSN: 27066894 (Online) ISSN: 27066908 (Print) Year: 2011 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract


Article
8- LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE: IS IT A SAFE PROCEDURE?

Authors: Hashim S Alkhayat --- Jassim H Salim --- Mohammad M Mohammad --- Salim M Albassam
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 54
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Salim M Albassam*, Mohammad M Mohammad@, Jassim H Salim@&Hashim S Alkhayat@*Department of surgery, Basrah Medical College, Iraq. @Department of surgery, Basrah GeneralHospital, Iraq.Correspondence to: Dr. Salim M Albassam, e-mail: albassamsalim@yahoo.caAbbreviation: Hb= Hemoglobin. ACS = Acute Chest Syndrome. ASA = American Society of AnesthesiologistsAbstractThe aim of this trial is to determine the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for treatment ofgall bladder stones in patients with sickle cell anemia (a controversial issue). Sixty patients fromboth sexes, between 19-35 years old with sickle cell anemia, all of them having gall bladderstones were included in this study in Endosurgery Center in Basrah General Hospital. Thepatients were divided into three groups, group one (19 patients) were selected for laparoscopiccholecystectomy on random preoperative background, the same thing was applied in group two(21 patients) whose patients were subjected to open cholecystectomy while patients in groupthree (20 patients) were selected for laparoscopic cholecystectomy on conditioned selection.Three mortalities and two serious morbidities were encountered in the group one and one mildmorbidity seen in group two and no mortalities or morbidities in group three. Laparoscopiccholecystectomy in sickle cell patients is a debatable issue, an increasing controversy aboutserious perioperative and postoperative morbidity were mentioned. The procedure itself wasaccused and an entirely opposed results were emerged from different studies all are debatable.In this study we noticed the big influence of the risk factors, preparation of patients for surgeryand the adherence to the principle anesthetic rules on the outcome after laparoscopiccholecystectomy in patients with sickle cell disease. This influence was limited in openprocedure. The controversy in the different trials lies on wither the problem is confined to thedisease itself or to the surgical method used for cholecystectomy or both.According to the results obtained from our study we believe that both the severity of the diseaseand the surgical procedure affecting the results, application of intra and post operative protocol(blood transfusion if Hb less than 9gm/dI, rehydration, oxygenation and respecting generalanesthesia rules are mandatory for the safety of the patients.


Article
NEUROENDOSCOPY EXPERIENCE IN BASRAH

Author: Khalid N Mayah
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2007 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In the last decade the endoscope became one of the most important neurosurgical tools, its use increasing with time and gaining popularity.Since May 2005, forty six neuroendoscopy procedures were performed in two hospitals in Basrah, 34 were Endoscopic third ventriculostomies (ETV) to treat hydrocephalus, three arachnoids cyst fenestrations, three ventricular tumor biopsies, and one operation to remove third ventricle tumor partially that already biopsied, three colloid cyst removed and one septotomy to treat encysted hydrocephalus, One case of craniopharyngioma had catheter implanted via the endoscope.The patients� age ranged from 3 weeks to 70 years, However of the patients who had ETV, 37% (11/34) were younger than one year age.Over one week to twenty months (mean follow up period were 11 months), During that time and for patients who had ETV symptoms of raised intracranial pressure that necessitated a shunt define the failure of treatment, That encountered in two patients , both were younger than one year age. Although time of follow up was rather short, the success rate was 100% for patients older than one year of age who had definite obstructive hydrocephalus.ETV has become the treatment of choice for certain pediatric and adult hydrocephalic conditions. Saving patients from shunt dependence and complications improving the outcomes and avoiding subsequent morbidity and mortality.


Article
Effectiveness of Combination Therapy with Thalidomide and Dexamethasone in Patients with Myeloma

Authors: Abdul Hamimeed Abdul Majeed AL-Kassir --- Bassam Francis Metti --- Alaadin Sahham Naji --- Yaseen Mohydeen Taher
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-95
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROND:Thalidomide is the first in the class of drugs as an immune modulatory drugs (IMiDs). In vitro data suggest that the drug and its metabolites may inhibit angiogenesis, in addition it may modulate adhesion molecules of myeloma cells and their surrounding stroma,.The combination of thalidomide plus dexamethasone is a feasible and active regimen in the treatment of multiple myeloma as It emerge an oral alternative to infusional chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin ,dexamethasone currently used as pretransplantation induction therapy for myeloma.OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy ,response rate and safety using the combination of thalidomide-dexamehasone as front line therapy and in relapsed , refractory cases of myelomaMATERIAL AND METHODS:Between February 2008 up to January 2010, thirty five cases of multiple myeloma received a combination of Thalidomide and Dexamethasone for 4 cycles. Those patients had been followed and evaluated at National Centre of Hematology.All cases of myeloma were staged at diagnosis according to Durie – Salmon Staging system. Response based on criteria by Chronic Leukemia and Myeloma Task force ( EBMT criteria ) as complete response (CR), good partial response(GPR) and no response(NR) .RESULTS:After 4 cycles of therapy , 6(17%) patients achieved complete response,22( 62.9%) patients achieved good partial response, 3(8.6%) patients with minimal response and 4 ( 11.4% ) patients fail responded to treatment .Of those who failed treatment, three patients died two of them with heart failure and one with multi organ failure. Concerning the toxicity , The most common side effect was related to neurotoxcity in form of peripheral neuropathy and thromboembolic disease. Otherwise most of the remaining side effects were rated as mild to moderate CONCLUSION: Thal-Dex is an effective myeloma treatment in terms of response , easy to use as outpatient clinic and avoid complications related to line access or cardiac toxicity that related to other treatments.


Article
Some Functions of Ellipsis in Religious Texts

Author: Abbas Deygan Darweesh
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2010 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 265-279
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Ellipsis is the non-expression of sentence elements whose meaning can be retrieved by the addressee ( ). In grammatical analysis ellipsis is a term used for a sentence, where for reasons of economy, emphasis or style a part of the structure has been omitted. Using ellipsis can restrict possible readings, express otherwise ineffable meanings, clarify discourse functions and establish rapport between the addresser and the addressee.


Article
CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF FEMALE PATIENTS WITH FISSURE IN ANO IN AL-KADHIMIYA CITY, BAGHDAD

Author: Qahtan A. Mahdi قحطان عدنان مهدي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 238-242
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Fissure in ano is a common painful anal problem in female patients.Objective:To study the sociodemographic variables of female patients with fissure in ano, and to identified the characteristic of anal fissure and their treatment among those patient in Al-Imamian Al-Kadhimiyian Medical City and two private hospitals.Methods:This is a prospective study that was carried out from May 2008 to May 2011. Two hundred fifty female patients with fissure in ano were interviewed regarding their age, marital state, address, level of education, clinical presentation and the subsequent management.Result:The commonest age of presentation in females was between 21-30 years. 78% of them were living at the peripheral areas of north of Baghdad, and 79.6% were of low level of education (primary school or below). The prevalence was found more in women with high parity especially when their child delivery was supervised by a midwife in their location. All patient has presented with anal pain, 55% were associated with bleeding per rectum and 64.2% with constipation. The location of fissures was 51.6% anterior, 48% posterior, 0.4% lateral in position. Less than half of patients underwent a surgical treatment. 77% of them were treated by lord dilatation under anesthesia and 23% by lateral sphinecteromty.Conclusion:Factors which had an impact on the clinical course and management of fissure in ano in female patients were found to be the social status, the level of education and the parity, therefore to prevent this illness, a cooperation between the heath services and the family health center and the government is necessary in order to overcome such a common problem.Keywords:Fissure in ano, Female

Keywords

Fissure in ano --- Female

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