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Article
Some Immunological Aspects of Iraqi Influenza A Virus Infections

Author: Raghad H. Al-Azzawi
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2017 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 102-108
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In the last years, the world has been facing pandemic influenza which caused by influenza A virus. In this study detection of influenza A virus infection in Iraqi patients was done by r RT-PCR. Three hundred eighty (380) clinical respiratory secretions samples that were collected between December and April 2013, from different hospitals and they were sent to Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL)/National Influenza center/ Baghdad /Iraq. Among these samples only 35 samples (22 Males and 13 females all of them were adults) gave positive results (both TS (throat swabs) and NPS (nasopharyngeal swab)) for influenza A virus (9.2%). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1 α are pleiotropic cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of local inflammation during viral upper respiratory infections. Cytokines levels in both NPS and TS were determined. The result appeared that there was a significant difference between IL-6 and IL-1α, but there was no significant difference between IL-6 and IL-1 α in Ts and NSP. For the first time we try to detect C-reactive protein (CRP) in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and throat swabs (TS) and compared with serum, also to prove that this protein may be secreted in fluids other than serum. The result showed that 64.3% of both NPS and TS were positive for CRP. This may be due to that CRP in response to microbial infection, tissue injury, and immunomodulatory stimuli is synthesized and released by various cells.

Keywords

influenza A virus --- CRP --- IL-6 --- IL-1 alpha.


Article
Molecular Detection of Influenza A virus in Domestic Ducks and Geese in Basra Province, Southern Iraq

Authors: Firas T. Mansour --- Hazim T. Thwiny --- Harith A. Najim
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 125-129
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Avian influenza is one of the important viral diseases in poultry that can cause serious economic losses in many countries around the world, and occasionally infect human causing mild to severe illness. It is caused by avian influenza A viruseswhich have been isolated from avian species, particularly waterfowls that are considered the main reservoir for all influenza A virus subtypes. The aim of this study was to detect influenza virus from domestic ducks and geese in different geographical regions(Abu Al-Khasseb, Shatt Al-Arab, Zubair, and Al-Qurnah) of Basrah province, Southern Iraq. The study was conducted on 115 cloacal swabs collected from 60 ducks and 55 geese distributed in different regions of Basrah province. Samples were processed for RT-PCR to amplify matrix (M) gene that is conserved between all influenza A subtypes by using a set of universal primer. We demonstrated that influenza A viruses is prevalent in domestic waterfowls with a significantly higher percentage in ducks than geese; 42 samples (29 ducks and 13geese) were positive to viral M gene. In addition, the virus prevalence was significantly higher in the North of Basrah (Al-Qurnah region) than the other geographical regions. The overall findings of this study obtained a primary picture about the distribution of avian influenza viruses in our region, which is importantto prevent the spread of infection to poultry and eventually minimize the risk of acquiring infection to humans. According toour knowledge, this is the first study aimed to identify avian influenza viruses in waterfowls in Basrah province, Southern Iraq.

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