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Article
Eggshell Powder as An Adsorbent for Removal of Cu (II) and Cd (II) from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Authors: Ziad Tark Abd Ali زياد طارق عبد علي --- Mohammed A. Ibrahim محمد عبدالخالق ابراهيم --- Huda M. Madhloom هدى مهدي مظلوم
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2016 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 186-193
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The adsorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions onto eggshell was investigated. The effects of contact time, initial pH of solution, adsorbent dosage, initial metal concentration, agitation speed, and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cd(II) were 8.4 and 7.01 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, Enthalpy change and Entropy change have been calculated. These thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process was thermodynamically spontaneous under natural conditions and the adsorption was endothermic in nature. Experimental data were also tested in terms of adsorption kinetics, the results illustrated that the adsorption process was following pseudo second- order kinetics. In addition Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis suggests that Cu (II) and Cd (II) interact with metal oxides and -OH functional group present in eggshell powder.

تم التحقق في هذا البحث من استخدام قشور البيض كمادة ممتزة لامتزاز ايونات النحاس والكادميوم. وتم دراسة تاثير عدة عوامل منها زمن التوازن, الدالة الحامضيه الابتدائيه للمحلول, كمية الماده الممتزه, التركيز الابتدائى, سرعة الرج, بالاضافه الى درجه الحراره. وكان الحد الاعلى لسعة الامتزاز (8.4mg/g) و (7.01mg/g)لايونات النحاس والكادميوم على التوالي. كذلك تم حساب بعض العوامل الثرموديناميكية مثل Gibbs free energy Entropy, Enthalpy وقد اشارت هذه العوامل بان عملية الامتزاز هي عمليه ثرموديناميكيا تلقائية وماصه للحرارة . النتائج العمليه اشارت ايضا بان عمليه الادزوربشن تتبع ل" pseudo second- order kinetics " . واخيرا تم اجراء فحص FTIR الذي اشار بوجود تداخل بين ايونات النحاس والكادميوم مع اكاسيد المعادن والمجموعه الفعالة (-OH) الموجوده في قشور البيض.


Article
REMOVAL OF COPPER ION FROM WASTEWATER BY FLOTATION

Authors: Farah I. Abed --- Ahmed A. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 6 Pages: 1483-1491
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Several industrial wastewater streams may contain heavy metal ions, which must be effectively removal before the discharge or reuse of treated waters could take place. In this paper, the removal of copper( II) by foam flotation from dilute aqueous solutions was investigated at laboratory scale. The effects of various parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, initial copper concentration, air flow rate, hole diameter of the gas distributor, and NaCl addition were tested in a bubble column of 6 cm inside diameter and 120 cm height. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) were used as anionic and cationic surfactant, respectively. Ethanol was used as frothers and the optimal removal conditions have been established. Successful removals about (98%) and (76%) could be achieved for copper ions with SDS and HTAB, respectively. Copper removal reached about 80% under the optimum conditions at low pH; at high pH it became as high as 98% probably due to the contribution from the flotation of precipitated copper. It was found that the presence of NaCl in the solution reduced the recoveries. Adding ethanol at 1% concentration increased the removal efficiency. From the results the rate of flotation was found to be first order


Article
Inorganic ions level in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects

Author: Wasan A. Abid Aun وسن عبد عون
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 93-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into the tissues supporting the teeth.Inorganic ions have been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease in saliva. The aims ofthe study were the detection of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions levels in saliva of chronicperiodontitis patients and healthy subjects and correlate the mean salivary levels of these ions with clinicalperiodontal parameters [plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachmentlevel (CAL)].Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of thirty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (18 malesand 12 females) and thirty healthy control subjects of both gender (15 males and 15 females) with age ranged from30 to 50 years. Both groups were without any systemic disease.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD)and clinical attachment level (CAL). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all subjects and the levels ofcalcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in each specimen were analyzed. For each group a statistical analysiswas done to estimate the levels of these ions in saliva and to correlate the mean of salivary inorganic levels withclinical periodontal parameters.Results: The present study showed that there was highly significant difference in the levels of salivary inorganic ions(Ca=2, Mg+2, K+1, Na+1) between chronic periodontitis patients and control group with increase in Ca+2, K+1, Na+1 ionslevels in saliva of chronic periodontitis and decrease in level of Mg+2 ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis than incontrol group. There was no correlation between the mean of PLI and Ca+2, Mg+2, K+1 and Na+1 ions in saliva ofchronic periodontitis and there was no correlation between the mean of GI and Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+1 ions and anegative significant correlation with K+1 ions. Concerning PPD and CAL there was no correlation between them andthe mean salivary inorganic levels in chronic periodontitis patients.Conclusions: Estimation of these electrolytes or inorganic ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis may be used aspotential diagnostic markers of active disease status in periodontal tissues and to predict the effective methods ofprevention and treatment


Article
An Evaluation of Ion Released from Two Brands of Brackets in Three Types of Mouthwashes

Authors: Arwa Gh. Ahmed --- Iman I. Al-Sheakli
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 155-160
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Mouthwashes used widely as ancillary to mechanical oral hygiene methods. Little information providedabout the effect of mouthwashes on ions released from orthodontic brackets. Therefore, the present study has beenestablished to evaluate the effect of different mouthwashes on the ion release and the biocompatibility of twobrands of brackets.Materials and Methods: Eighty premolar stainless steel brackets were used (40 brackets from Dentaurum and 40brackets OrthoTechnology Company). They were subdivided into four subgroups (n=10) according to immersionmedia (deionized distilled water, Corsodyl, Listerine and Silca herb mouthwashes). Each bracket was stored in aclosely packed glass tube filled with 15ml of the immersion media and incubated for 45 days at 37ºC. Chromium,nickel, copper and manganese ions release were measured using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while ironions release were measured by using Iron kit and spectrophotometer. For statistical analysis, t-test, analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) were used.Results: The results revealed that the ions released from Dentaurum brackets were significantly higher than that fromOrthoTechnology brackets in all type of immersion media except for Chromium ions in Corsodyl mouthwash. Therelease of copper and chromium ions was significantly higher in Listerine and Corsodyl mouthwashes than indeionized distilled water being related to the pH of the immersion media. While, the release of iron, nickel andmanganese ions in the three mouthwashes was comparable to that in deionized distilled water.Conclusions: The amount of released ions were below toxic levels and did not exceed the daily dietary intake, but itmay be recommended to avoid prolonged use of Listerine and Corsodyl mouthwashes in patients allergic tochromium


Article
The Effect of Acidity Level on Ions Released and Corrosion of Metal Orthodontic Appliances at Different Time Intervals (An In vitro Study)

Authors: Mohammed R. Thamer --- Sami K. Al-Joubori
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 168-174
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study measured the effects of three parameters pH value, length of immersion and type of archwireon metal ions released from orthodontic appliances.Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary halves simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that were immersed inartificial saliva of different pH values (6.75, 5 and 3.5) during 28 day period. Three types of archwires were used:stainless steel, nickel titanium and thermal activated nickel titanium. The quantity of nickel and chromium ions wasdetermined with the use of atomic force spectrophotometer while iron ions by spectrophotometer. Each orthodonticset was weighted two times, before the ligation and immersion in the artificial saliva and after 28 days at the end ofimmersion period using analytic balance device.Results: The release different metal ions was observed: nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe)). Statistically analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) and t-test were used. Results showed that (1) the appliances released measurable quantities ofallions examined; (2) the change in pH had a very strong effect on the release of ions; (3) the release of ions wasdependent on wire composition, but it was not proportionalto the content of metal in the wire and (4) orthodonticsamples showed decreases in the weight at the end of the study.Conclusion: Levels of released ions are sufficient to cause delayed allergic reactions. This must be taken into accountwhen type of archwire is selected, especially in patients with hypersensitivityor compromised oral hygiene


Article
DESIGN A SYSTEM TO ADSORB THE SOLUBLE METALLIC IONS USING BIOMASS MATERIALS TO MAINTAIN THE SAFETY AND STABILITY OF THE SATURATED LIQUIDS
تصميم منظومه لامتزاز الايونات الفلزيه الذائبه باستخدام مواد صديقة للبيئة للحفاظ على سلامة واستقرارية السوائل المشبعه

Author: Abbas A. Karwi عباس على محمود الكروى
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2018 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 91-105
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Researcher design an ionic system to adsorb ions from industrial water of companies and factories, system consisted of three integrated phases designed to test the efficiency of an unspecified number of residues of food as adsorb materials. We adsorb copper and cobalt ions, these ions are available at high rates in Al Musayab thermal station, high concentration of these ions pose a threat to the health of the population. In general, the presence of these ions in the proportions set by the World Health Organization, namely, (1mg/L) are very useful for the completion of the metabolic processes of the living cell, but a greater focus for this will lead to tremendous health risks. Testing processes proved that there is an exact match between empirical testes and typical results of (Freundlich and Langmuir) models, through the mathematical analysis of the trial data under different thermal conditions, all testes proved that (husks of sunflower) is the best hypertext filtered materials for its high adsorption efficiency which equal to (71%) with enthalpy equal to (33KJ/mol), followed in the second place (peel peanuts), these peels proved have an excellent efficiency which equal to (72%) with enthalpy equal to (-14.8KJ/mol). In general, food remnants which have been selected for testing on an ion adsorption system designed by researcher have high capacity to adsorb various ionic roots of industrial water of Al-Musayab thermal station.

قام الباحث بتصميم منظومه الامتزاز الايونى لمياه الشركات والمصانع, المنظومه تتكون من ثلاث مراحل متكامله مصممه لاختبار كفاءة عدد غير محدد من مخلفات المواد الغذائيه كمواد ممتزه, تم امتزاز ايونى النحاس والكوبالت والمتوفره بنسب عاليه فى مياه محطة المسيب الحراريه وهذايشكل خطرا على حياة الكائنات الحيه بشكل عام. وجود تلك الايونات ملغم/لتر) مفيدة جدا لاتمام العمليات الايضيه للخلية الحيه ولكن زيادة 1بالنسب التى حددتها منظمة الصحة العالميه وهى ( التركيز عن ذلك يؤدى الى مخاطر صحيه هائله. اثبتت نتائج الاختبار التطابق التام بين الفحوصات العمليه ونتائج نموذجى (لانكمير وفراندلج) النظريه وذلك من خلال التحليل الرياضى لمعطيات التجربه وتحت الظروف الحراريه المختلفه. نتائج LANGMUIR & FREUNDLIC التطابق مع الموديلات الرياضيه ( ) اثبتت ان الماده الممدصه (قشور زهرة الشمس) H 71 هى افضل ماده مفلتره لكفائتها العاليه فى الامتزاز ( -) كيلوجول/مول. يليها فى المرتبه 33 %) ومحتواها الحرارى الكامن ( 63 الثانيه قشور فستق العبيد الذى اثبت انها ذات كفاءة ممتازه ( %) ومحتوى حرارى كامن يساوى (- ) كيلوجول/مول. 14.8 وعليه فبشكل عام تعتبر مخلفات المواد الغذائيه التى تم اختيارها للاختبار فى منظومة الامتزاز والتى صممت من قبل الباحث ذات قدره عاليه على امتزاز مختلف الجذور الايونيه للمعادن الفلزيه الذائبه فى مياه محطة المسيب الحراريه.

Keywords

Processes --- Remnants --- Ions --- Efficiency --- Enthalpy.


Article
Removal of Zinc ions from industrial wastewater with wool fibers
ازالة ايونات الخارصين من مياه المجاري الصناعية بواسطة الياف الصوف

Authors: Ammar W. Ahmed عمار وعد الله احمد --- Salwa Shamran Jassim سلوى شمران جاسم --- Ayad H. Jassim اياد حمزة جاسم
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2010 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 1193-1201
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this research, the efficiency of low-cost unmodified wool fibers were used to remove zinc ion from industrial wastewater. Removal of zinc ion was achieved at 99.52% by using simple wool column. The experiment was carried out under varying conditions of (2h) contact time, metal ion concentration (50mg/l), wool fibers quantity to treated water (70g/l), pH(7) & acid concentration (0.05M). The aim of this method is to use a high sensitive, available & cheep natural material which applied successfully for industrial wastewater& synthetic water, where zinc ion concentration was reduced from (14.6mg/l) to (0.07mg/l) & consequently the hazardous effect of contamination was minimized.

في هذا البحث، تمت الاستفادة من كفاءة الياف الصوف غير المحسنة واطئة الكلفة لازالة ايون الخارصين من مياه المجاري الصناعية. تم ازالة ايون الخارصين بنسبة 99.52% باستخدام عمود الصوف البسيط. تم تنفيذ التجربة عند ظروف مختلفة، حيث ان زمن الاستبقاء (2 ساعة) وتركيز ايون الخارصين (50 ملغم/لتر) وكمية الياف الصوف الى الماء المعامل (70 غم/لتر) والدالة الحامضية(7) وتركيز الحامض (0,05 مولاري). ان الهدف من التجربة هو استخدام مادة طبيعية رخيصة الثمن ومتوفرة بكثره و ذات حساسية عاليه للايونات والتي تم تطبيقها بنجاح على مياه المجاري الصناعية والمياه المصنعة، حيث تم تقليل تركيز ايون الخارصين في هذه المياه من (14.6 ملغم/لتر) الى (0.07 ملغم/لتر) وهكذا تم خفض مستوى التلوث.


Article
STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF SOME COMPOUNDS AND IONS ON Escherichia coli ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY
دراسة تأثير بعض المركبات والأيونات على فعالية أنزيم الفوسفاتيز القاعديمن بكتيريا القولون

Author: KHALID .F.AL-RAWI خالد فاروق
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2007 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 58-69
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

The effect of some compounds and ions such as EDTA,Urea,KCN,2-Mercaptoethanol,BeCl2 and L-Phenyl alanine on the activity of Alkaline phosphatase extracted from Escherichia coli has been studied by using p-NitroPhenyl Phosphate as a substrate at a different concentrations (1.5„e10-1,3.0„e10-2,4.5„e10-3) M.,and the alkaline glycine regulating solution pH=10.5.Inhibition constant Ki and type of inhibition(competitive or noncompetitive)using Dixon plot for competitive & noncompetitive inhibition as well as the percentage of inhibition have all been calculated & I50 for different compounds.

KCN و Urea و EDTA تم دراسة تأثير بعض المركبات والأيونات مثلعلى فعالية أنزيم الفوسفاتيز القاعدي L-Phenyl alanine و BeCl 2- و 2 Mercaptoethanol وباستخدام Escherichia coli المستخلص من بكتريا الاشيريشيا القولون, 2-10 × 3 , 1-10 × كمادة أساس وبتراكيز مختلفة ( 1.5 p-NitroPhenylPhosphate(p-NPP)Ki وتم حساب ثابت التثبيط .pH = 3-10 ) مولاري والمحلول المنظم الكلايسين القاعدي 10.5 × 4.5ونوعية التثبيط (تنافسي أو غير تنافسي) باستخدام معادلة دكسون للتثبيط التنافسي والتثبيط الغير تنافسيI وكذلك تم حساب النسبة المئوية للتثبيط، كما تم حساب الثابت الذي يثبط 50 % من فعالية الأنزيم 502-10 ) مولاري . × للمركبات أعلاه بتراكيز مختلفة وباستخدام تركيز ثابت من المادة الأساس ( 3


Article
Preparation, Characterization and Structural Studies of Some Phenyl Isothiocynate Metal Complexes

Authors: Asmaa K. Ayal --- Shatha F. Nareen --- Abbas Ali Salih Al-Hamdani
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 253-260
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Phenyl isothiocynate complexes of Cu (I), Cu(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Fe (III),Cr(III) and Ce(III) have been prepared and analyzed spectroscopicaly by Elementalanalyses and atomic absorption technique; the magnetic susceptibility and theconductivity have also been measured and molar ratio of Ligand: Matale with moleratio method and Job Method. From these measurement it is concluded that Cu(I),Fe(III) and Mn(II) form tetrahedral complexes, while Cu (II) Forms square plannercomplexes, and Cr (III) and Ce(III) forms octahedral complexes.


Article
Studying The Effect of Copper And Zinc Ions on The Corrosion Rate of Carbon Steel
دراسة تأثيرايونات النحاس والزنك على تأكل الفولاذ الكربوني

Author: Nervana A. Abd Alameer
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 4 Pages: 730-742
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

An experimental work was performed to study the effect of Zn, Cu ions onthe corrosion rate of carbon steel in distilled and tap water solution containing, 25& 50 ppm concentration of Zn, Cu ions at pH range 4, 6 &8 in distilled water andat pH8 in tap water at room temperature under both static for 10 weeks and 1, 2,6 &12 hours with dynamic conditions. The obtained results showed that thecorrosion rate was increased in the presence of 50 ppm of Cu ions in tap water(2.326 mpy) after 10 weeks, under static conditions, whereas under dynamicconditions, it was reached (10.511 mpy), the presence of fine suspended solidparticles in the solutions may also cause an increase in corrosion rate due to theirmovement over the carbon steel surface .In contrast, the presence Zn ions insolution as sacrificial anode, therefore, the corrosion rate was 2.24 times less thanthat in presence of Cu ions, at the same conditions. In distilled water, thecorrosion rates were decreasing slightly with adding Zinc and copper ionscomparing to absence of metals ions in solution except at pH4 in the presence50ppm of Cu ions may be accounted due to the increasing in the conductivity ofthe solution, under static conditions. At 25ppm of Zn ions lowering in corrosionrate may be explained that the Zn ions were protected carbon steel surface bysacrificial. In the absence of Zn, Cu ions were also carried out.

تم في هذا البحث دراسة تأثير ايونات النحاس والزنك على معدل تأكل الصلب25,50 ) من ايونات ) ppm الكربوني بالماء المقطر وماء الحنفية الحاوي على تركيز4,6 للماء المقطر و 8 لماء الحنفية بدرجة حرارة الغرفة & النحاس والزنك عند حامضية 8ولمدة 10 اسابيع بدون تحريك في حين تم حساب معدل التأكل في حالة التحريك للاوقات 1و50 من ايونات ppm 12 ساعة .اظهرت النتائج ان معدل التأكل ازداد بوجود & 2و 62.326 ) بعد 10 اسابيع للظروف الساكنة في حين mpy) النحاس لماء الحنفية حيث وصل10.511 ), ويعزى سبب ذلك الى وجود mpy) وصل معدل التأكل في حالة التحريك الىالمواد الصلبه العالقة بماء الحنفية والتي تتحرك بسهوله فوق سطح المعدن . وعلى العكس,( وبما ان الزنك يعتبر قطب مضحي للصلب الكربوني لذلك فأن معدل التأكل قلَ ب ( 2.24مرة من وجود ايون النحاس عند نفس الضروف. اما في حالة الماء المقطر فأن معدل التأكلقل بشكل طفيف عند اضافة ايونات النحاس والزنك مقارنة بمعدل التأكل عن المحاليل عديمةبدون تحريك والتي من (pH الايونات عدا النسب العالية من ايونات النحاس عند حامضية ( 425 لايونات الزنك فقد ppm الممكن ان تعمل على زيادة التوصيلية للمحلول , اما في حالةانخفض معدل التأكل باسلوب التضحية وكذلك تم حساب معدل التأكل بغياب ايونات الزنكوالنحاس.

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