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Article
Left Ventricular Function in Early Stages of Ischemia

Author: Nadiya Younis Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 26-29
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Ischemic heart diseases are common diseases that influence the heart performance via the changesoccurring in cardiac muscles resulting from the disease. These changes can affect the left ventricular wall,septum thickness and an eventual effect on the cardiac performance.AIM OF THE STUDY:The merit of this work is to investigate the effects of left ventricular function on patients who suffer fromearly ischemic heart.METHODS:Twenty five patients complaining from chest pain and diagnosed as angina were subjected to ourinvestigation, they were free from other cardiac diseases and have no previous heart attack their averageage was (52.85±12.69 years old). Eighteen normal individuals (control) with average age (48.33±12.55years old) are chosen and are free from any disease. M-mode, 2- dimensional parasternal long axis viewwas used in the measurements of LV interdiameter, septum and posterior wall thicknesses. Dopplerechocardiography tracing of four chamber apical view was obtained to indicate the ejection time andmitral flow velocities at early diastole E and at atrial contraction (end of diastole) A.RESULTS:The effect of early IHD was found on the interventricular septum (decreased by 44.18%), posterior leftventricular wall (decreased by 47.62%), fractional shortening (decreased by 28.93%), and ejection fraction(decreased by 20.05%). There was no significant change observed on the A/E ratio but a significantchange was seen on E wave only.CONCLUSION:In early of IHD, ejection fraction and percentage changes of wall thickness indicate cardiac performance.In addition reduced early mitral flow velocity is more frequent than the change in early to late mitral flowvelocity ratio.


Article
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention In octogerians compared with very young Patients
مقارنة للتداخل عن طريق الجلد للشرايين التاجية بين المرضى المسنين و المرضى صغار السن

Author: Ahmed Neama Rgeeb
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 125-130
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Still percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in elderly people challenging for the interventionist as complications and comorbidities are frequent in them.Aim of study: clinical and angiographic comparsion in PCI between the elderly and the young age patients. methods This is aretrospective comparative study enrolled 77 patients divided in to two extremes of age one more than 75 years old(38 patients) ,second younger than 45 years old(39).statistical Analysis: Both groups analyzed statistically according to their risk factors, angiographic results and in hospital outcome. Chi square taken for level of significance results: We find hypercholesterolemia ,hypertension and diabetes was frequent in young age people, smoking was more frequent with less significance .The elderly people had complex lesions and multivessels diseases .Incidence of drug eluting stents was less in elderly.

الخلفية:يعتبر مرض عدم كفائه الشرايين التاجية من الأمراض الشائعة في المجتمع.وتوسيع الشرايين التاجية بالبالون القسطاري هو العلاج القياسي لهذا المرض.نسبة التداخلات القسطارية لكبار السن قليلة نسبيا .الغرض من الدراسة:مقارنة النتائج السريرية والصورة الوعائية القسطارية للمرضى كبار السن مع الأصغر سناطريقة البحث:تم اخذ عينتين ل 77 مريضا مصابين بعدم كفائه الشرايين التاجية تم إجراء التداخلات القسطارية لهم في مركز النجف لجراحة القلب والتداخل القسطاري .المجموعة الأولى اكبر من 75 سنه والثانية اصغر من 45 سنة .تم دراسة المرضى وتسجيل عوامل الخطورة كالسكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم بالاضافة الى عوامل اخرى كذلك تم تحليل النتائج القسطارية كشكل الشرايين وشدة تصلبها .كذلك انواع الشبكات المستخدمة للعلاج ألتداخليالنتائج:وجدنا ان ارتفاع دهون الدم منتشرا بصورة مثيرة للانتباه في المجموعة الأصغر سنا.السكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم كان كذلك أكثر في صغار السن ولكن بقيمة اصغر اما التدخين فكان اكثر في صغار السن ولكن لم يرقى إحصائيا.وجدنا ان بار السن لديهم أوعية شريانية معقدة ومتعددة التضييق.نسبة استخدام الشبكات الدوائية في كبار السن كانت اقلالتداخلات القسطارية للشرايين التاجية في المرضى كبار السن مقارنة بصغار السن

Keywords

Ischemia --- intervention --- elderly


Article
Association Between Amblyopia and Fundus Ischemic Changes

Author: Zainab Adel Hashim
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 634 -639
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study was done in Al- Diwaniah city in Iraq, extended from January 2015-April 2017 and involved 80 patients, among them number of females was higher than males (51 and 29 respectively) and their age range between 45-70 years. Data for the study was collected from the patients attending ophthalmological department in the hospital, out patients and private clinic either for regular checking or sent by their physician to be examined for the presence of ophthalmologic complications, (62) patients among them have combined hypertension and diabetes, (4) patients having only diabetes millets, (13) have DM, hypertension and hyperlipidemia and only one have just hypertension, this selected group all have amblyopia unilateral or bilateral; their visual acuities varied from mild to severe and their amblyopia caused by wide ranges of causes mainly refractive error, fundoscopic examination was done to see the association between amblyopia and fundal ischemic changes; the amblyopic eye have delayed awareness regarding ischemia and this affect fundus findings, this idea can be used in future to protect the eye from ischemia by delaying its response to neurological signals that incite cascade of ischemia by using a neuroprotective agents which act on GABArgic neurotransmitters and affect ischemic cascade .


Article
Indications of Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab in a sample of Iraqi patients
دواعي استخدام عقار بفاسيزوماب للحقن داخل السائل الزجاجي للعين لعدد من المرضى في العراق

Author: 1 Zaid R. Hussein, 2 Ahmed M. Hasan د.زيد رجب حسين ,د.احمد محمد حسن
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2018 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-83
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factors commonly used intravitreally for treatment of variable retinal disease worldwide, which help to regulate the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factors due to ischemia or/and other retinal insult.Objective: To review all cases of intravitreal bevacizumab given in the retinal unit of the Eye Specialty Private Hospital in Iraq from December 2015 to June 2016, pointing out the common indications. Methods: A retrospective study including all cases of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab recorded at the Eye Specialty Private Hospital from December 2015 to June 2016 were retrieved. Age, sex, laterality, diagnosis and the indication for injection were recorded in the data sheet prepared for the study.. The indications for intravitreal injection of bevacizumab are classified into four groups: Group 1: Intravitreal injection for diabetic complications. Group 2: Intravitreal injection for retinal vein occlusion. Group 3: Intravitreal injection for choroidal neovascul-arization Group 4: Intravitreal injection for other retinal disease.Results: A total of 306 patients underwent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab were enrolled in the study period. The most common indication was group 1 (intravitreal injection for diabetic complications [213 patients (69.6%)] followed by group 3 (choroidal neovascularization) [45 patients (14.7%)] and then group 2 (intravitreal injection for retinal vein occlusion) [42 patients (13.7%)] and lastly group 4 (intravitreal injection for other retinal disease) represent [6 patients (1.96%)]. Conclusion The most common indication for intravitreal bevacizumab was diabetic retino-pathy that need more care for early diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy and good screening programs to avoid complications.

الخلفيه: يعتبر عامل نمو بطانة الاوعيه الدمويه و (VEGF) من المركبات البروتينيه المزدوجه و الموجوده في جسم الانسان باربعة اشكال رئيسية ( -121، -165، -189، (VEGF-206 وتتميز فيما بينها بواسطة وزنها الجزيئي والقدرة على التصاقها بالهيبارين و درجة حموضتها .ان وظيفة ( VEGF) الاساسيه هي تحفيز الخلايا الطلائيه الداخليه على النمو لتشكيل الاوعيه الدمويه الفسيولوجية خلال مرحلة التطور الجنيني كما ان لها دورا فعالا في نمو الاوعيه الدمويه الثانويه او المصاحبه لبعض الحالات المرضيه كالاورام و حالات الاحتشاء او الاسكيميا . من جهه اخرى تعتبر هذه المركبات كعوامل قويه تزيد من نفاذيه جدران الاوعيه الدمويه مما يؤدي الى نضوح للسوائل من داخل الوعاء الدموي الى الانسجه المجاوره مسببا وذمه النسيج.الهدف : استعراض للحالات التي وردت الى وحدة امراض الشبكيه و السائل الزجاجي في مستشفى العيون التخصصي في العراق والتي خضعت لحقن السائل الزجاجي للعين بعقار افاستين (بيفاسيزوماب) .طرق العمل : تم جمع بيانات المرضى الذين خضعوا للعلاج بعقار افاستين عن طريق الحقن المباشر في السائل الزجاجي للعين للفتره من كانون اول 2015 و لغاية حزيران 2016 وكان عدد الحالات 306عين. تم تصنيف المرضى الى اربع مجاميع استنادا الى دواعي استخدام العقار و كالاتي ( المجموعه الاولى :اعتلال الشبكيه السكري ,المجموعه الثانيه : انسداد الاورده الشبكيه ,المجموعه الثالثه : التهاب الاوعيه المشيميه ,المجموعه الرابعه : امراض الشبكيه الاخرى) . النتائج : تم تحليل النتائج باستخدام النسب و النسب المئويه وكانت اكبر مجموعه هي الاولى بعدد اجمالي 213 عين( 69.6 % ) تليها المجموعه الثالثه 45 عين ( 14.7%) فالمجموعه الثانيه 42 عين (13.7 % ) واخيرا المجموعه الرابعه 6 عيون( 1.96 %).ِالاستنتاجات: ان دواعي استخدام عقار بفاسيزوماب (للحقن داخل السائل الزجاجي للعين ) الاكثر شيوعا في العراق هو اعتلال الشبكية السكري الذي يحتاج إلى مزيد من الاهتمام ببرامج الفحص المبكر لتشخيص المرض في بداياته و بالتالي حفظ المصاب من مضاعفاته. ه في حين كان الاوعية الدموية المشيمية بالمرتبة الثانية وانسداد الوريد الشبكي بالمرتبة الثالثةهو سبب مهم في كل بلد بما في ذلك العراق حيث ياتي بالمرتبه الثالثة. من المرجح ان يكون هذا الاختلاف بالنتائج بين البلدان المذكوره ناتج عن الاختلاف في الجنس البشري او ان تكون طرق التشخيص غير متطابقه وقد تكون هناك حاجة إلى مزيد من الدراسة


Article
Effect of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic Acid (DITPA) on Renal Ischemia/ Reperfusion Injury in a Mouse Model

Author: Najah R. Hadi 1, Ph.D, FRCP, FACP; Fadhil G. Yousif 2, FACS, FRCS, MD; Ayad A. Hussein 1 B.Sc
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2011 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-66
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Introduction: Acute renal failure (ARF) is an important clinical problem with a high mortality and morbidity. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) was considered one of the primary causes of ARF. Inflammatory process is thought to be the major mechanism that contribute to I/R injury. There are evidences of the importance of thyroid hormone (TH) in the response of the myocardium to ischemic stress and cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction. 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA) is a synthetic TH analogue with a low metabolic activity. Also DITPA have evidences of improving effects on I/R in heart through modulation of cellular signaling in response to ischemic stress and this modulation may be beneficial in protection from renal I/R damage. Objectives: The objective of present study was to assess the effects of DITPA onrenal I/R injury and the resulted kidney dysfunction in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Adult males of Swiss albino mice were randomized to three groups: I/R group (n=6), mice underwent 30 minute bilateral renal ischemia and 48 hr reperfusion. Sham group (n=6), mice underwent same anesthetic and surgical procedures except for ischemia induction. DITPA treated group: (n=6), I/R + DITPA (3.75 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection.After the end of reperfusion phase mice were sacrificed, blood samples were collected directly from the heart for determination of serum IL-18, IL-6, urea and Creatinine. Both kidney were excised, the right one homogenized for oxidative stress parameters (MDA and GSH) measurements and the left kidney fixed in formalin for histological examination.Results: Serum IL-18, IL-6, urea and Creatinine, kidney MDA levels and scores of histopathological changes were significantly (P< 0.05) elevated in I/R group as compared with that of sham group. Kidney GSH level was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in I/R group as compared with that of sham group. DITPA caused non-significant (P>0.05) changes in levels of all study parameters as compared with that of I/R group. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that DITPA insignificantly ameliorated kidney damage resulted from I/R.

تمهيد: الفشل الكلوي الحاد من المشاكل السريرية المهمة مع معدلات أمراضية و وفيات عالية. احد الأسباب الأساسية للفشل الكلوي الحاد هو نقص الإرواء الدموي /أعادة الإرواء(ن/ا). يعتقد أن العملية الالتهابية والإجهاد ألتأكسدي من الأسباب الرئيسية المسببة لذلك ن/ا. DITPA هو مثيل صناعي للهرمون الدرقي بفعالية ايضية قليلة ولهو (بالإضافة إلى الهرمون الدرقي) أدلة على تأثيرات محسنة على ن/ا في القلب من خلال تعديل إرسال الإشارات الخلوية المستجيبة إلى أجهاد نقص الإرواء الدموي و هذا التعديل قد يكون مفيدا في الحماية من ضرر ن/ا الكلوي .الأهداف: أن الهدف من الدراسة الحالية هو لتحديد تأثيرات DITPA على الإصابة الكلوية بنقص الإرواء الدموي /أعادة الإرواء والاعتلال الوظيفي الكلوي اللاحق في نموذج الفار. طرق العمل: تم توزيع ثمانية عشر ذكرا بالغا من الفئران البيضاء السويسرية العرق توزيعا عشوائيا على ثلاث مجاميع:- مجموعة ن/ا (6 فئران): 30 دقيقة من نقص الارواء الدموي الكلوي الثنائي الجانب ثم 48 ساعة من اعادة الارواء.- مجموعة التظاهر (6 فئران):اي التظاهر بنقص الارواء حيث ان الفئران اخضعت لنفس طرق التخدير والعملية من دون احداث نقص الارواء .- المجموعة المعالجة بDITPA: (6 فئران) ن/ا + DITPA(3,75ملغ/كغم) بالحقن داخل غشاء البريتون نصف ساعة قبل نقص الإرواء و جرعة ثانية في بداية إعادة الإرواء.في نهاية فترة اعادة الارواء تمت التضحية بالفئران , تم أخذ نماذج الدم من القلب مباشرة لتحديد مستوى IL-18, IL-6 , اليوريا و الكرياتينين في مصل الدم و ايضا تم نزع كلا الكليتين ,اخذت اليمنى ومزجت ثم تم تحديد معاييير الإجهاد التاكسدي (MDA & GSH) . اما الكلية اليسرى فقد عوملت بالفورمالين للفحص النسيجي.النتائج: في نهاية الدراسة وجد ان مستويات IL-18, IL-6 واليوريا والكرياتينين في مصل الدم وMDA في الكلية وحاصل نقاط عد التغيرات النسيجية كانت اعلى معنويا (0.05 >p )في مجموعة ن/ا من تلك في مجموعة التظاهر. مستوى GSH في الكلية نقص معنويا (0.05 >p )في مجموعة ن/ا عن ذلك في مجموعة التظاهر.DITPA لم يحرز تغيرات معنوية (0.05

Keywords

: renal --- ischemia/ reperfusion --- TH --- DITPA.


Article
Effect Nigella Sativa (Black Seed) on Liver Enzymes in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

Author: Mustafa Taha Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: supplement Pages: 654-657
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur in a variety of clinical settings and this remains a significant problem. Oxygen free radicals, produced on reperfusion have been shown to play a major role in hepatic I/R injury. Various therapeutic effects have been described for Nigella sativa. Additionally, it has been presented that Nigella sativa (orientalis) oil has protective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. Therefore, it seems possible that the administration of Nigella sativa (orientalis) oil might protect the liver against the ischemia reperfusion injury . OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Nigella sativa (orientalis) oil prevents hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were divided into three groups as control (Group 1), I/R group (Group 2), and Nigella sativa oil (NS) treatment group (Group 3). All rats underwent hepatic ischemia for 60 min followed by 60 min period of reperfusion. Rats were intraperitoneally infused with only 0.9% saline solution in group 2. Rats in group 3 received NS oil (0.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally, before ischemia and before reperfusion. Blood samples were harvested from the rats, and then the rats were sacrificed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined. RESULTS: The levels of liver enzymes in group 3 were significantly lower than those in the group 2. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa oil treatment protects the rat liver against to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Article
Diagnostic Value Of Post Exercise Systolic Blood Pressure Response In Ischemic Heart Disease

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Background: The normal decline in systolic blood pressure during recovery phase of treadmill exercise dose not occur in most patients with coronary artery disease, in others recovery values systolic blood pressure may even exceed the peak exercise value. Objectives: Treadmill exercise test parameters indicating the presence and extent of coronary artery disease have traditionally included such as exercise duration, blood pressure and ST-segment response to exercise. The three –minute systolic blood pressure ratio is another important indicator of presence and significance of coronary artery disease is useful and obtainable measure that can be applied in all patients who are undergoing stress testing for evaluation of suspected ischemic heart disease and this increase the sensitivity of exercise test . Type of the study: A prospective study.Methods: Between April 2011 and April 2012 ,all patients underwent treadmill exercise test , echocardiography coronary angiography in Ibn Ab-bitar Hospital Cardiac Surgery. Clinical and procedural data for patients undergoing treadmill and coronary angiography were prospectively collected and entered into database specially designed for the present study.To calculate mean systolic blood pressure ratio for each , Measurement of blood pressure in the 3rd minute of recovery time and divided by peak systolic blood pressure during exercise test ,after excluding patients . Coronary angiography was done for all patients who under went treadmill exercise test and multiple views were taken accordingly to clarify the lesion and critical lesion defined as >50% stenosis in LMS and >70% stenosis in LAD,LCX and RCA. Results: We studied 100 patients In the period from April 2011 to April 2012, 78(78%) male and 22 (22%) a female with a mean age 55.49±7.60 who undergone treadmill exercise testing and coronary angiography to assess the chest pain, 32 patient had normal blood pressure 68 had hypertension and 24 patients had normal coronary angiography and 76 patients had abnormal coronary angiography. SBP/3 minute recovery blood pressure ratio was significantly higher in patient with coronary artery disease than patient without coronary artery disease (mean ±SD O.92±0.09 VS 0.81 SBP/3 minute recovery blood pressure ratio was significantly related with the severity of coronary artery disease its higher in three vessels than one vessel disease 0.95±0.10 vs0. 91 ±0.01 p-value 0.0001.Conclusions: post exercise blood pressure response in patients with coronary artery diseaseis higher than patients with normal coronary artery .post exercise blood pressure is related to the severity of coronary artery disease


Article
Cardioprotective effect of tetrahydroisoquinoline following I/R through down-regulation of ICAM-1 signaling pathway

Author: Bassim I Mohammad
Journal: Muthanna Medical Journal مجلة المثنى الطبية ISSN: 2226146x Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 122-132
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Myocardial injury caused by ischemia followed by reperfusion mediates a complex series of inflammatory response that reduces the benefit of medical interventions, such as percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary bypass surgery. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential cardioprotective effect of tetrahydroisoquinoline against myocardial I/R, and the mechanistic pathway of this effect. A total of 32 adult (4 – 6 months) male Albino-Webster mice were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: (1) sham-control group, (2) ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) operated group, (3) vehicle-treated group, and (4) tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ)-treated group receiving TIQ 10 mg/kg once daily shortly before I/R. ELISA technique was performed to measure myocardial and plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), chemokine (MCP-1), and cTn-I. In addition, the activity of ICAM-1 was analyzed by Western blot. Further, the ischemia changes and myocytes injury were examined by histopathological assessment using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. The results demonstrated that treatment with TIQ markedly improved left ventricular function (LVF) in mice, and reduced plasma level of cTn-I as marker of cardiac injury. Moreover, the effects of TIQ was associated with attenuations in both chemokine and cytokines expression following I/R, that accompanied by down-regulation of activation of ICAM-1 pathway. In conclusions, this study revealed that treatment with TIQ was able to improve LV function after I/R. This improvement was associated with reductions of inflammatory response and activity of ICAM-1, as mechanistic link of its action.


Article
Evaluation Of Nurses Practices Concerning Chest Pain Management For Patients In The Emergency Unit
تقويم ممارسات الممرضين المتعلقة بالعناية بآلام الصدر للمرضى في وحدة الطوارئ

Author: Ali D. Abbas
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 24-33
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective(s): The study objectives are to evaluate of nurses' practices concerning chest pain management that are provided for patients in the emergency unit and to finding out the relationship between the nurse's practices and the demographic characteristics that includes (age, gender, level of education, years of experience, and training session).Methodology: A descriptive study which was using the quantitative design. The study was conducted at the Medical City/ Baghdad Teaching Hospital; Al-Karama Teaching Hospital, and Al-Kindi Teaching Hospital Starting from Sep. 2nd 2012 up to the 15th of April 2013. To achieve the objectives of the study, A non-probability (purposive) samples of (70) a nurse who was consisted of all nurses who provide emergency nursing care for patients which suffering from chest pain and according to special criteria. Data were collected by an application of direct check list observation as a means of data collection. Nurses were observed while they are working in the emergency unit during the day. Instrument validity was determined through content validity, by a panel of experts. Reliability of the instrument was determined through the use of Pearson correlation coefficient for the researcher and co-observes reliability approach, which was (0.85). Analysis of data was performed through the application of descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean of score, Relative sufficiency) and inferential statistics (Chi-square (X2) test). Results: The results of the study indicated the evaluation of the mean of scores and relative sufficiency for nurse's practices to management of chest pain for patients in the emergency unit was out of comparison and there is no significant association between training session of sample and nurses’ practices scores. While there is high significant association between ages, gender, level of education, years of experience in emergency unit and nurses’ practices.Conclusion: The study concluded most of nurses that work in emergency unit have inadequate practices to manage chest pain.Recommendations: The study recommends to prepare special training programs for nurses in this area to reinforce their practices and promote their experiences and providing opportunity for nurses in emergency unit to continuing updating their education to maintain knowledge and practices.

الهـدف: تهدف الدراسة الى تقويم ممارسات الممرضين المتعلقة بالعناية المقدمة للمريض المتعلقة بالم الصدر في وحدة الطوارئ وايجاد العلاقة بين ممارسات الممرضين والخصائص الديموغرافية والتي تشمل العمر، الجنس، المستوى التعليمي، سنوات الخبرة، والدورات التدريبية.المنهجيـة: دراسة وصفية أجريت في مدينة الطب/ مستشفى بغداد التعليمي و مستشفى الكرامة التعليمي و مستشفى الكندي التعليمي للفترة بين 2 كانون الاول2012 ولغاية 15 نيسان 2013.ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة تم اختيار عينة غرضية (غير أحتمالية) شملت (70) ممرض الذين يقدمون الرعاية التمريضية الطارئة للمرضى الذي يعانون من ألم في الصدر وفقا لمعايير خاصة. جمعت المعلومات من خلال أستمارة المراقبة حيث لوحظ الممرضين أثناء عملهم في وحدة الطوارئ خلال النهار. تم تحديد مصداقية الأداة من قبل لجنة من الخبراء. تم تحديد ثبات الاداة من خلال استخدام معامل ارتباط بيرسون والتي كانت (0.85). تم إجراء تحليل البيانات من خلال تطبيق الإحصاء الوصفي( التكرارات ، النسبة المئوية ، الوسط الحسابي المرجح والكفاية النسبية ) ، وتطبيق التحليل الاستنتاجي الذي يضم (اختبار مربع كاي ). النتائـج: أشارت نتائج الدراسة الى ان تقويم الوسط الحسابي و الكفاية النسبية فيما يتعلق بممارسات الممرضين حول العناية المقدمة لآلام الصدر في وحدة الطوارئ كانت خارج المقارنة وليس هناك علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية بين الدورات التدريبية وممارسات العينة. في حين أن هناك علاقة معنوية عالية بين ممارسات الممرضين في وحدة الطوارئ والأعمار والجنس، ومستوى التعليم، وسنوات الخبرة في مجال الرعاية التمريضية الطارئة.الاستنتاجات: إستنتجت الدراسة الى ان غالبية الممرضين الذين يعملون في وحدات الطوارئ يمتلكون خبرات غير كافية في مجال العناية بآلام الصدر.التوصيـات: أوصت الدراسة على ضرورة أعداد برامج تدريبية خاصة للممرضين والممرضات في هذا المجال لتعزيز مهاراتهم وتعزيز خبراتهم. و إتاحة الفرصة للممرضين والممرضات في وحدات الطوارئ إلى مواصلة استكمال تعليمهم للحفاظ على معارفهم ومهاراتهم ذات العلاقة بالعناية بآلام الصدر.


Article
Effect of immune modulation on brain ischemia reperfusion injury

Authors: Hashim T. Raheem --- Najah R. Hadi --- Karrar J. Kareem --- Kahlaa A. Kadhim
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2015 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 166-175
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury is a complex process resulting in cellular damage and death. Ischemia and reperfusion in the brain induces an inflammatory response which may exacerbate initial levels of tissue injury. In this study, we investigated the possible immune modulation of rosuvastatin in brain ischemia reperfusion injury via interfering with inflammation. Twenty four adult albino rats were randomized into four groups (each of 6) as follow: Group (1) sham group: the rats were subjected to the same surgical procedures as other groups but the common carotid arteries were not occluded; Group (2) control (ischemic-reperfused) group: the rats were subjected to the same surgical procedures as other groups with bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min. followed by reperfusion for 1 hr but without drug; Group (3) control vehicle group: three days before surgery, rats received daily the vehicle of rosuvastatin drug, normal saline (0.9% Nacl) (1 ml/kg/day) intraperitoneally, then anesthesia and surgery with BCCAO for 30 min. followed by reperfusion for 1 hr were done and Group(4) rosuvastatin treated group: rats received daily rosuvastatin intraperitoneally. The dose of rosuvastatin was (10 mg/kg /day) for three days before the surgery, then anesthesia and surgery with BCCAO for 30 min. followed by reperfusion for 1 hr. At the end of the experiment, the levels of cerebral IL-6 significantly (p < 0.05) increased in control group as compared with the sham group. Histopothological analysis showed that rats in control group showed significant cerebral injury. Treatment with rosuvastatin significantly counteracted the increase in the cerebral levels of IL-6. Histopathological analysis revealed that rosuvastatin significantly reduced the severity of cerebral injury in the rats underwent BCCAO. We concluded that inflammatory cytokines are involved in global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury can be modified by rosuvastatin via its anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible immune modulation of rosuvastatin in brain ischemia reperfusion injury.

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