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Article
Folk and Fairy Tales in Children's Literature as Illustrated by Cinderella and Little Snow White

Author: Luma Ibrahim Al-Barazenji
Journal: Al-Fatih journal مجلة الفتح ISSN: 87521996 Year: 2005 Volume: 1 Issue: 24 Pages: 225-231
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

At a time when many of our children are over-scheduled and over-stressed , we must ask ourselves what roles literature can play in their lives ? For many years , modern realistic fiction has been considered the most popular genre among young readers , perhaps because it was closer to the lives they know and , therefore , easier to read . such realistic fiction whether regional or historical provides opportunities for people to live vicariously in times and places they cannot experience any other way . Yet , sometimes many of the classic stories for children exist in the realm of fancy because of the timeless quality of such tales . Things that are most real in life can best be conveyed through fancy . Those who care about children and their literature have an obligation to inform themselves of the best and the latest thinking about the constellation of topics that will enable them to bring the two together most successfully . Writers usually believe in the vision of peace we offer our children insisting that violence , a brutal expediency and war are inevitable to get maturity . Apparently , it seems that it is nice to talk to children , to sing to them and to write fancy books feeding their imagination with dreaming tales of their futurely lives . Children want to feel some good tales to enhance highest ideals and purest dreams , then we expect our children to outgrow what we have taught them


Article
The Impact of Children's Stories in Developing Morality: A Study in Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women and Kate DiCamillo’s Raymie Nightingale

Author: Rawaa Jawad Kadhim
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 6 Pages: 432-443
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Most of the Critics all over the world are trying to focus on a new kind of literature which is called “children literature”. This kind of literature contains the same characteristics of the adult literature, but it depends on different minds, perceptions and different kinds of experience. It can be considered as an appropriate meditate or for developing mental abilities as well as helping children to be effective thinkers playing positive roles in life. This paper aims to discuss the importance of children literature, not only for its literary value ,but also for its ability to develop and change positively the behaviors and attitudes of children by the moral lessons that it contains. Little Women by Louisa May Alcott and Raymie Nightingale by Kate DiCamillo have been selected for this purpose.

حاول معظم النقاد من جميع أنحاء العالم التركيز على نوع جديد من الأدب من انواع الادب يسمى بأدب الأطفال. هذا النوع يحتوي على نفس خصائص أدب البالغين، لكنه يعتمد على افكار والتصورات والخبرات متنوعة والتي يمكن اعتبارها وسيله مناسبة لتطوير القدرات العقلية للاطفال بالإضافة إلى مساعدتهم على أن يكونوا مفكرين فعالين يؤدون أدوارًا إيجابية في الحياة. تهدف هذه الدراسة الى مناقشة أهمية أدب الأطفال، ليس لقيمته الأدبية فقط، وانما أيضا لقدرته على تطوير وتغيير سلوكيات ومواقف الأطفال بشكل إيجابي من خلال الدروس الأخلاقية التي يتضمنها هذا النوع من الادب.


Article
Customers emotional blackmail and reduce it the new product- study of the opinions of a sample of customers who deal with peak economy for household items in najaf al Ashraf
ابتزاز الزبون عاطفياً والحد منه باستخدام تصنيف المنتج الجديد دراسة تطبيقية لآراء عينة من الزبائن الذين يتعاملون مع شركة ذروة الاقتصاد للمواد المنزلية في النجف الاشرف

Authors: يوسف حجيم الطائي --- حيدر جاسم عبيد --- مهند حميد ياسر
Journal: journal of Economics And Administrative Sciences مجلة العلوم الاقتصادية والإدارية ISSN: 2227 703X / 2518 5764 Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 97 Pages: 27-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The challenges facing today's multi-customer and this is due to the multiplicity of products and speed in launching new products so search came to reveal the reveal the of the new product classification standards through a relationship (good products, low interest products, useful products and products desired) and the customer emotionally blackmail through deportation (fear, obligation and guilt). dentified the problem of the research in several questions focused on the nature of the relationship between the variables of research, and for that outline supposedly to search it expresses the head of one hypothesis and branched out of which four hypotheses subset, but in order to ensure the validity of the assumptions have undergone all multiple tests to ensure their validity, as it has been relying on the resolution as a way to get the data, Use Find descriptive analytical method as a way to search according to a random sample consisted of (315) as The questionnaire was distributed to customers as a sample to evaluate the search variables, either the research community was the (1500) customer and representing 21%, and extracted the results using statistical software (SPSS Pct v.16). The research found a set of conclusions that customers of the most important research sample is not clear they have the four categories above a way that makes those difficult emotionally exploited by the marketer.

أن التحديات التي تواجه الزبون اليوم متعددة وهذا يعود الى تعدد المنتجات والسرعة في طرح منتجات جديدة لذا جاء البحث بهدف كشف العلاقة بين تصنيف المنتج الجديد من خلال معايير (المنتجات السارة, المنتجات قليلة الفائدة, المنتجات المفيدة والمنتجات المرغوبة) وابتزاز الزبون عاطفياً من خلال إبعاده (الخوف, الالتزام والذنب). وحددت مشكلة البحث في عدة تساؤلات تمحورت حول طبيعة العلاقة بين متغيري البحث, ولأجل ذلك وضع مخطط فرضي للبحث يعبر عن فرضية رئيسة واحدة وتفرعت منها أربعة فرضيات فرعية, ولأجل التأكد من صحة الفرضيات خضعت جميعها لاختبارات متعددة للتأكد من مدى صحتها, اذ تم الاعتماد على الاستبانة كوسيلة للحصول على البيانات. كما استعمل البحث المنهج الوصفي التحليلي كمنهج للبحث وفق عينة عشوائية تكونت من (315 ) اذ تم توزيع الاستبانة على الزبائن كعينة لتقييم متغيرات البحث, اما مجتمع البحث فكان ( 1500 ) زبون ويمثلون نسبة 21% , واستخرجت النتائج باستخدام البرنامج الإحصائي ( SPSS Pct v.16 ). وتوصل البحث الى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات من اهمها ان الزبائن عينة البحث لم تتضح لديهم التصنيفات الأربعة المذكورة آنفاً بالشكل الذي يجعل ممن الصعوبة استغلالهم عاطفياً من قبل المسوق.


Article
حياة النبي يوسف () السياسية في القرآن الكريم

Authors: أ.م.د. زينب فاضل مرجان --- قمر جبار علوان
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2016 Volume: 1 Issue: 23 Pages: 224-241
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Been the subject of the importance of the life of Prophet Yusuf (AS political) in the Qur'an in the bone position he held in the land of Egypt as well as the trials and tribulations suffered by the even field has been made available to him to serve as Egypt Aziz and his wealth of the importance and the impact on the history of the children of Israel. The research systems in the form of sub-themes start since he came to Egypt as a slave sells his brothers to a convoy of commercial passers-by debit want Egypt and the sequence of the tribulations suffered by then a theme Courting and entering prison unjustly and other events was chased had an impact on the history of the children of Israel and ending of his death (pTags: notes, understand, tells, obviously, it seems, we can say, turns, points out, transferred, Male, disagreed, continued, it became clear to us, little, gives us, it was said

قبل التطرق للحياة السياسية للنبي يوسف(ع)لا بد من الاشارة الى ولادة يوسف ونشأته, من المعلوم أن القرآن الكريم لم يذكر ولادة يوسف أو تأريخ ولادته وانما ابتدأ برؤياه التي كانت وراء الحقد والحسد المتزايد من أخوته تجاهه. روي عن الرسول محمد(ص) أنه قال: "الكريم ابن الكريم ابن الكريم ابن الكريم يوسف بن يعقوب بن اسحاق بن ابراهيم الخليل "وبذلك يتضح لنا نسبه الشريف من خلال هذا الحديث النبوي. ولم يشر القرآن الكريم أيضاً الى اسم أمه أو مكان ولادته ولا نعلم كيف أثبت علماء التفسير ان أمه هي راحيل أو على ماذا اعتمدوا في قولهم هذا؟ وربما يكون ذلك من التوراة التي اشارت الى ذلك بالتفصيل الا أنه مهما يكن من أمر فأنه أصبح من المعروف أن أمه هي راحيل. قبل الحديث عن الحياة السياسية للنبي يوسف() متمثلة في المنصب الذي شغله في بلاد مصر، لابد من الحديث عن المراحل التي سبقت ذلك والمحن والابتلاءات التي تعرض لها حتى أتيح له المجال ليشغل منصب عزيز مصر وما لهذا المنصب من أهمية واثر على تاريخ بني إسرائيل بصورة عامة ولذا ارتأينا ان نبدأ هذا المبحث بالنقطة التي انتهينا عندها عندما ألقاه إخوته في البئر ومروراً بالمراحل التي تبعت ذلك وانتهاءً بوصوله للمنصب ووفاته بعد ذلك.


Article
AN ASSESSMENT THE EFFICIENCY FOR A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH DIFFERENT HORIZONTAL AXIS BY USING TRACKING SYSTEM
الكفائة لمجمع شمسي ذي قطع مكافئ باختلاف الاحداثي الأفقي وباستخدم معقب شمسي

Author: Ali A. F. Al- Hamadani
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 48-57
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The solar energy in Iraq is available, but till now a little application for using it. The parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) technology, which considers being one of the low-cost and most operative technologies for solar power plant. The performance of a PTSC with solar tracking system has been experimentally investigated under Kut city, Iraqi climate conditions. The experimental work focused on changing the horizontal axis and mass flow rate of water. It has been started with 0o, 30o, 60o receptively. The zero angle represents an east direction, then rotate toward the south. The instantaneous efficiency was employed to evaluate the thermal performance of the PTSC. The equation had been solved using equation engineering solver (EES). The results showed that Kut city holds a good potential for such energy generation technology with an average efficiency of 38.8% and instantaneous efficiency that can reach as high as 70%. This study is highly encouraging the Iraq government to invest in the PTSC technology in Iraq to meet the increasing demand on electric power. The best efficiency is zero angle which represents the east direction. The efficiency, enhanced with the mass flow rate till certain value. The heat transfer coefficient for zero angle was significant compare with other angles. The result was validated with fixed parabolic trough and a good agreement. The performance improved with increase the mass flow rate till 30 kg/hr after that no any effect of it.

الطاقة الشمسية متوفرة في العراق لكن تطبيقاتهاقليلة. البحث يتناول دراسة عملية لمجمع شمسي ذي قطع مكفئ مع منظومة تعقب. البحث تم في الظروف الجوية لمدينة الكوت-العراق. الكفائة الحرارية والانية تم توضيفها لمعرفة الاداء الحراري لجهاز. الاحداثي الافقي تم تغييره للجهاز وللزوايا 0،30،60 حيث ان الزاوية ضفر تمثل الشرق ومن ثم التدوير باتجه الجنوب. النتائج بينت ان مدينة الكوت جيدة لتوليد الطاقة الكهربائية وان كفائة الجهاز 38.8% والكفائة الانية 70%. النتائج مشجعة للتطبيقات الشمسية في هذه المنطقة لسد النقص في الطلب على الطاقة. النتائج العملية وضحت ان افضل كفائة عند الزاوية هي الصفر. التغير في درجات الحرارة بين دخول الماء وخروجه اعلى عند الزاوية صفر. المجمع الشمسي تم مقارنته مع مجمع شمسي ثابت وكانت النتائج جيدة.

Keywords

The solar energy in Iraq is available --- but till now a little application for using it. The parabolic trough solar collector --- PTSC technology --- which considers being one of the low-cost and most operative technologies for solar power plant. The performance of a PTSC with solar tracking system has been experimentally investigated under Kut city --- Iraqi climate conditions. The experimental work focused on changing the horizontal axis and mass flow rate of water. It has been started with 0o --- 30o --- 60o receptively. The zero angle represents an east direction --- then rotate toward the south. The instantaneous efficiency was employed to evaluate the thermal performance of the PTSC. The equation had been solved using equation engineering solver --- EES. The results showed that Kut city holds a good potential for such energy generation technology with an average efficiency of 38.8% and instantaneous efficiency that can reach as high as 70%. This study is highly encouraging the Iraq government to invest in the PTSC technology in Iraq to meet the increasing demand on electric power. The best efficiency is zero angle which represents the east direction. The efficiency --- enhanced with the mass flow rate till certain value. The heat transfer coefficient for zero angle was significant compare with other angles. The result was validated with fixed parabolic trough and a good agreement. The performance improved with increase the mass flow rate till 30 kg/hr after that no any effect of it. --- الشمسي،المجمع الشمسي،المعادلات الهندسية، المعقب الشمسي


Article
Reform and modernization in the Ottoman Empire
الاصــلاح والتـحديث فــي العـهد العثمانّي الأخير

Author: م. شاهين سهام عبدالرزاق
Journal: Alustath الاستاذ ISSN: 0552265X 25189263 Year: 2018 Volume: 2 Issue: 226 Pages: 115-141
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The boundaries of the Ottoman Empire span several centuries on a vast expanse, across the ancient continents of the world, with different races, diverse peoples and multiple faiths, and the Ottoman Empire was one of the forces that influenced the course of international politics at the time, and then it was weakened by the political balance and administrative, which was governed by the laws of the sultan between the central authority on the one hand, and those who carry out that policy from Baswat and Pikatagwat... and others on the other hand.The weakness is growing in state institutions and despite repeated attempts by some sultans to restore power and prestige to the body of the sprawling empire, it has achieved little or nothing.The first reformist calls were inspired by the spirit and principles of Islam in remedying the imbalance, and the reformers advocated the necessity of applying Islamic law within the various institutions, to return to its prosperous past, and on that basis the pioneering attempts were based on Islam and its basic principles at a stage where it did not expand The Ottoman Empire in the European-style quotation, as the European superiority was not as impressive as the Ottomans and pushed them to quotation, and the Ottomans were preparing themselves a major state during the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century, and during that stage many of the leaders of the movement tried Reform in the Ottoman Empire, doing self-reliant reforms not on the quotation from the West, including Shaykh al-Islam Saad Eddin Effendi, Osman II, Murad IV and others. The nature of the research required it to be divided into an introduction, six axes and a conclusion, the first axis addressed the beginning of the Ottoman retreat since 1683, and the signs of weakness experienced by the Ottoman state, as well as the emergence of European supremacy during that era, and the emergence of a number of early Ottoman reformers and their role in the beginnings The reform process.The second theme was devoted to the ways in which they showed Salim III in the reform, which led to his eventual execution, and the third axis was devoted to the study of the reign of Sultan Mahmud II at an important stage of the nineteenth century, with the appearance of a number of eminent personalities in Egypt and Iraq, as well as some changes of Europe. The fourth axis touched upon the Ottoman organizations, the efforts of a number of Ottomans and their influence on Western culture, which led to the promulgation of a number of important decrees (orders), including the line of Sharif kolkhanf in 1839 and the decree of Humayun in 1856, and a number of laws including the Land Law of 21 April 1858 The law of the Tarabo of 14 January 1859, as well as the state law of 1864, and its interpretation in the stabilization of the new correctional grounds. The fifth axis dealt with a brief presentation of the results of the movement of Ottoman organizations, and its influence in the Arab States, especially the state of Baghdad, and devoted the sixth (last) to the features of the Iraqi reformist Midhat Pasha, the most important administrative works in the state of Baghdad, as well as giving a brief presentation Of the subsequent changes to the reign of Medhat Pasha until the early 20th century.In conclusion, we tried to show the most important conclusions reached through the research hubs, seeking reference to several related sources including a number of research and university messages as well as the use of the International Information Network (Internet), and these sources can be identified through the margins Search or list of sources.

امتدت حدود الدولة العثمانية قروناً متعددة على رقعة واسعة, عبر قارات العالم القديم, ويحيا فيها اجناس مختلفة وشعوب متنوعة واديان متعددة, وكانت الدولة العثمانية من القوى التي اثرت في مجرى السياسة الدولية آنذاك, وعلى الرغم من المحاولات المتكررة من بعض السلاطين لإعادة القوة والهيبة إلى جسد الامبراطورية المترامية, الا انها لم تحقق إلا شيئاً وتقدماً ضئيلاً. واستلهمت الدعوات الاصلاحية الاولى روح الاسلام ومبادئه في علاج الخلل, ونادى المصلحون بضرورة تطبيق الشريعة الاسلامية داخل المؤسسات المختلفة, لتعود إلى سالف عهدها المزدهر, وعلى ذلك الاساس كانت المحاولات الرائدة تستند إلى الاسلام ومبادئه الاساسية في مرحلة لم تتوسع فيها الدولة العثمانية في الاقتباس من النمط الاوروبي, إذ لم يكن التفوق الاوروبي بالقدر الذي يثير اعجاب العثمانيين ويدفعهم للاقتباس منه, كما ان العثمانيين كانوا يعدون انفسهم دولة كبرى خلال القرن السابع عشر وبداية القرن الثامن عشر, وخلال تلك المرحلة حاول الكثير من قادة حركة الاصلاح في الدولة العثمانية, القيام بالاصلاحات المعتمدة على الذات لا على الاقتباس من الغرب, ومن بينهم شيخ الاسلام سعد الدين افندي, عثمان الثاني, ومراد الرابع وغيرهم. واقتضت طبيعة البحث تقسيمه على مقدمة وست محاور وخاتمة, تناول المحور الاول بداية التراجع العثماني منذ عام 1683, وعلامات الوهن التي تعرضت لها الدولة العثمانية, فضلاً عن بروز التفوق الاوروبي خلال تلك الحقبة, وظهور عدد من المصلحين العثمانيين الاوائل ودورهم في بدايات العملية الاصلاحية. وكرس المحور الثاني لبحث السبل التي ارتاها سليم الثالث في الاصلاح, والتي ادت إلى اعدامه في نهاية المطاف, وخصص المحور الثالث لدراسة عهد السلطان محمود الثاني في مرحلة مهمة من مراحل القرن التاسع عشر, وذلك بظهور عدد من الشخصيات البارزة في مصر والعراق, فضلاً عن بعض التغيرات الاوروبية. وتطرق المحور الرابع إلى التنظيمات العثمانية, وجهود عدد من العثمانيين وتأثرهم بالثقافة الغربية, الامر الذي إلى صدور عدد من المراسيم (الفرمانات) المهمة, منها خط شريف كولخانة في 1839 ومرسوم همايون عام 1856, وعدد من القوانين منها قانون الاراضي الصادر في 21 نيسان 1858 وقانون الطابو الصادر في 14 كانون الثاني 1859, فضلاً عن قانون الولايات سنة 1864 ودروها في تثبيت الاسس الاصلاحية الجديدة. أما المحور الخامس؛ فتناول عرض موجز لنتائج حركة التنظيمات العثمانية, وتأثيرها في الولايات العربية لاسيما منها ولاية بغداد, وكرس المحور السادس (الاخير) لتناول ملامح تجربة مدحت باشا الاصلاحية في العراق, واهم اعماله الادارية في ولاية بغداد, فضلاً عن اعطاء عرض موجز للمتغيرات اللاحقة لعهد مدحت باشا حتى بدايات القرن العشرين. وفي الخاتمة حاولنا عرض اهم الاستنتاجات التي التوصل اليها من خلال محاور البحث, تطلب البحث الرجوع إلى العديد من المصادر ذات العلاقة شملت عدد من البحوث والرسائل الجامعية فضلاً عن الاستعانة بشبكة المعلومات الدولية (الانترنت), ويمكن التعرف على تلك المصادر من خلال هوامش البحث او قائمة المصادر

Keywords

The boundaries of the Ottoman Empire span several centuries on a vast expanse --- across the ancient continents of the world --- with different races --- diverse peoples and multiple faiths --- and the Ottoman Empire was one of the forces that influenced the course of international politics at the time --- and then it was weakened by the political balance and administrative --- which was governed by the laws of the sultan between the central authority on the one hand --- and those who carry out that policy from Baswat and Pikatagwat... and others on the other hand. The weakness is growing in state institutions and despite repeated attempts by some sultans to restore power and prestige to the body of the sprawling empire --- it has achieved little or nothing. The first reformist calls were inspired by the spirit and principles of Islam in remedying the imbalance --- and the reformers advocated the necessity of applying Islamic law within the various institutions --- to return to its prosperous past --- and on that basis the pioneering attempts were based on Islam and its basic principles at a stage where it did not expand The Ottoman Empire in the European-style quotation --- as the European superiority was not as impressive as the Ottomans and pushed them to quotation --- and the Ottomans were preparing themselves a major state during the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century --- and during that stage many of the leaders of the movement tried Reform in the Ottoman Empire --- doing self-reliant reforms not on the quotation from the West --- including Shaykh al-Islam Saad Eddin Effendi --- Osman II --- Murad IV and others. The nature of the research required it to be divided into an introduction --- six axes and a conclusion --- the first axis addressed the beginning of the Ottoman retreat since 1683 --- and the signs of weakness experienced by the Ottoman state --- as well as the emergence of European supremacy during that era --- and the emergence of a number of early Ottoman reformers and their role in the beginnings The reform process. The second theme was devoted to the ways in which they showed Salim III in the reform --- which led to his eventual execution --- and the third axis was devoted to the study of the reign of Sultan Mahmud II at an important stage of the nineteenth century --- with the appearance of a number of eminent personalities in Egypt and Iraq --- as well as some changes of Europe. The fourth axis touched upon the Ottoman organizations --- the efforts of a number of Ottomans and their influence on Western culture --- which led to the promulgation of a number of important decrees --- orders --- including the line of Sharif kolkhanf in 1839 and the decree of Humayun in 1856 --- and a number of laws including the Land Law of 21 April 1858 The law of the Tarabo of 14 January 1859 --- as well as the state law of 1864 --- and its interpretation in the stabilization of the new correctional grounds. The fifth axis dealt with a brief presentation of the results of the movement of Ottoman organizations --- and its influence in the Arab States --- especially the state of Baghdad --- and devoted the sixth --- last to the features of the Iraqi reformist Midhat Pasha --- the most important administrative works in the state of Baghdad --- as well as giving a brief presentation Of the subsequent changes to the reign of Medhat Pasha until the early 20th century. In conclusion --- we tried to show the most important conclusions reached through the research hubs --- seeking reference to several related sources including a number of research and university messages as well as the use of the International Information Network --- Internet --- and these sources can be identified through the margins Search or list of sources. --- الاصلاح، التحديث، العهد العثماني.

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