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Article
The Otological manifestation of temporomandibular disorders

Author: Mohammed Radef Dawood
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 45-48
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aims: To detect the frequency of TMD, analyzing its symptoms, and to determine its otological manifestations as otalgia, tinnitus, ear fullness, and hearing impairment. Patients and Methods: During 4 months period, 350 patients visiting ENT department for their ear complaints, only 72 patients were selected and submitted to this study by filling the questionnaire regarding their symptoms of TMD and their otological complaints, followed by full ENT examination (there is normal otoscopic finding) and clinical examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and adjacent area. Results: Among 350 patients, 72 patients had TMD (20.5%), 44 male (61.1%) and 28 female (38.9%). Regarding the most common TMD symptom TMJ pain (48.6%) was commonest, followed by joint clicking sounds (23.6%), pain on masticatory muscles (18.1%), and limitation of jaw movement with or without jaw deviation (9.7%), while the most common ear symptom was otalgia (52.7%),followed by ear fullness (23.6%), tinnitus (22.2%), and hearing impairment (1.3%). Conclusions: High frequency rate of TMD, the most common TMD symptom was TMJ pain and the most common ear symptom was otalgia.

Keywords

TMD --- Otological manifestation --- TMJ


Article
Does Hepatitis C Virus Infection is a Relevant Factor for Thyroid Dysfunction?

Authors: Saad Muhmood Hussain --- Abdul-Razak Sh. Hasan
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 140-145
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Because hepatitis C virus can replicate in cells other than hepatocytes, more than 5% of infected patients develop during the course of the disease at least one extrahepatic manifestations.Objective: Determination of the seropositivity rate of anti-HCV antibody among patients with thyroid dysfunction in Diyala province.Materials and methods: The present study was conducted from September/2008 to October/2009. 122 patients who presented with abnormal thyroid function tests. 29 (23.3%) of them were males with mean age 35.4 ± 19.0 years and 93 (76.7% ) were females with mean age 37.5±11.5 years. Additionally, 117 normal healthy blood donors were included as control group, the mean age 32.3 ± 8.7 years. Anti-HCV antibody was detected by ELISA technique. Repeatedly positive sera were confirmed by immunoblot assay. Data were statistically analyzed.Results: The preliminary results showed that the anti-HCV seropositivity rate among patients was insignificantly higher than controls (1.6% and 0.8%) respectively. Male and female were equally infected (50%). The age of infected male was 56 years, while the age of infected female was 47 years. Conclusion: Hepatitis C virus infection is not a risk factor for the development of thyroid dysfunction.


Article
The Association of Smoking with the Extra-Articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Mohammed Hadi Al-Osami --- Ali Abdul Majid Allawi --- Tahir Hussein Al-Saadawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 146-152
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affect all ethnic groups throughout the world, the main characteristic symptom is persistent synovitis of diarthroidal joints often symmetrical resulting in pain, stiffness, and limitation of movement. Smoking is the most established environmental risk factor for development, severity,and extra-articular manifestation of RA..OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between smoking and appearance of extra-articular manifestation.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A cross sectional study was conducted on 244 patients with RA meeting the American College of Rheumatology Criteria for the classification of RA. Patients data were obtained via face - to- face interview performed by rheumatologist. RA disease-related data, such as disease duration, drug use (all anti-rheumatic drugs , glucocorticoid use and NSAID's), history of smoking which is classified into current smoker, former Smoker ( patient discontinue smoking for at least three months ), and never smoker , also number of cigarette per day were also recorded.Extra-articular manifestation of RA were assessed in all patient by thorough physical examination, and the patient send for appropriate investigation to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS:Among 244 patients with RA, 76.2% were women and 23.8% were men, the females were significantly predominate the study samples (P<0.001). The mean (SD) age are 46.9 ± 11.4, the age varies with smoking history (P=0.043). It is significant to find that two third of patients (69.3%) not have smoking history (P<0.001) because majority of patients were female.Smoking is significantly increase rheumatoid factor positivity (P=0.013), Smoking is significantly associated with rheumatoid nodules (P<0.001), secondary Sjögren syndrome (P<0.001), and eye involvement (P=0.002), while there is no significant association with other extra-articular manifestations.. CONCLUSION:There is significant association between smoking and RA extra-articular manifestations


Article
Cutaneous manifestation among patients with β- thalassemia major

Authors: Sayran Izzaddin Kerim --- Dr. Kawa Mohamedamin Hasan
Journal: Iraq Joural of Hematology المجلة العراقية لامراض الدم ISSN: 20728069/25432702 Year: 2014 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 98-107
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Dermatological manifestations among β thalassemia major patients includingskin changes as well as nail, hair, oral mucosa changes and leg ulcer were reported amongthese patients, either due to the hemolytic process of the disease itself or as a sequel oftherapeutic effect taxes of blood transfusion and iron overload complication. In Kurdistanthere is no study has yet investigated the common dermatologic problems that coexist withβ-thalassemia major.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the commonly seen dermatologicproblems in patients with β-thalassemia major.Patients and Method: A descriptive cross sectional study performed at Erbil Thalassemiacenter, the study was conducted among 176 patients over a period extended from April, 2013to January, 2014. They were assessed for cutaneous manifestation with clinical importance ofstatic laboratory tests.Results: All patients enrolled in this study had at least one cutaneous manifestation. Thedisorders are in decreasing order of frequency was pallor, xerosis, jaundice, bronze skin,hyperpigmentation and the least frequent was vitiligo. Most of the of the findings (31.8%)were between (10-15) years age group. The mean age of patients, the mean duration of bloodtransfusion and the mean of serum ferritin level among patients with xerosis, pallor,hyperpigmentation and jaunduce was higher and was statistically significant (p<0.05) alsothere was a significant association between HCV positive and patients with xerosis,hyperpigmentation and jaundice (p<0.05).Conclusion: The cutaneous disorders are common among beta thalasemia patients, pallor,xerosis and jaundice were the common skin changes, while white streak (leukonychia)andgingivitis are the most common nail and oral mucoasa changes respectivly. Xerosis iscommon in patients recieving desferoxamine, serum ferritin level was higher in patients withxerosis,hyperpigmentation and jaundice.


Article
Rheumatological manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis

Author: Abbas T. Joda
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate and assess the rate of rheumatological manifestationsin patients with chronic viral hepatitis.Patients and Methods: Sixty four patients with chronic viral hepatitiswere included in this cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of viralhepatitis is established by clinical & laboratory study.Full history was taken from all patients with special concentration onrheumatological manifestations and complete clinical examination wasdone for all of them, blood test including liver function tests, viralserology, viral load, and renal function.Results: All together, sixty four patients were recruited and studied, fifty(32males and 18 females) of them (78.1%) had shown rheumatologicalmanifestations. Thirty one of patients were reported with HCV infection& 19 patients with HBV infection. The rate of chronic fatigue wasreported in 24 patients (48%). Myalgia was presents in 21patients (42%)which was more in patients with HCV. Arthralgia was present in 19patients (38%). Sicca syndrome was presented in 12 patients (24%).Schirmer's test was positive in 2 patients (4%). Skin rash occur in 6patients (11.1%). It's nonspecific purpuric rash, Arthritis was reported in 3patients (6%), all of them with HCV infection. Also there were 16 patients(32%) of all patients on treatment with interferon-alpha or antivirusmeasure or both.Conclusions: Chronic viral hepatitis infection patients shows variousrheumatological manifestations in more than 75% of cases so it issuggested to investigate patients with unexplained rheumatologicalmanifestations who are at risk for viral hepatitis for these viral infections


Article
The Visible and The Nvisible in Architecture: A study of Visibility-invisibility Duet and its Effect on Meaning in Architecture
الظاھر والمخفي في العمارة (دراسة الإظھار / الإخفاء كثنائیة وأثرھا على المعنى في العمارة)

Authors: Ali M . Jaafar Al -Khafaji علي محسن جعفر --- Mayce Aziz muhammed Al -Hilu میس عزیز محمد
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 11 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 353-376
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The importance of invisibility lies in the fact that it is a significant means to convey doubt and uncertainty which the consumer looks for before achieving full satisfaction. Moreover, the terms were presented as opposites, and have been studied separately or as a duet in many architectural surveys. However, those studies lacked a clear definition of the terms and the nature of transition between them as well as the meaning conveyed and how the consumer receives it. This generates the research problem which is "the lack of perception of the relationship between the visible and the invisible in architecture and its effect of the meaning". Thus, the research objective is “stating the connection between the visible and the invisible and its effect on the meaning”. The research falls in five parts, the first of which presents the definition of both terms (visibility and invisibility) and how they work as a duet. Besides, it derives a duet sample diagram which presents a group of mixed cases (visible invisibility, visibility and invisibility at the same time, and invisible visibility). The second part shows the direct and indirect architectural studies and a discusses the cases in the duet diagram; in addition to that, it analyzes the cases in which they appear (like the case of visibility that trigger invisible visibility, and the gradual transformation). The third part offers a final form of the diagram and analyzes its numerous features. The diagram also surveys its relation to the materialistic and immaterialistic, the external and internal effects, the visible and the invisible, the ideologic and material aspects, and the direct and gradual change among the stages of the diagram. The fourth part presents the analysis of two architectural examples to test the accuracy of the resulting diagram. Finally, there is the discussion of the results and a display of final conclusions.

برز مفهوم الإخفاء كأحد وسائل تحقيق متعة من خلال الشك وعدم اليقين الذي يبحث عنه المتلقي في ما يراه قبل الوصول إلى حالة القناعة التامة. كما برز الإظهار كمفهوم مقابل للإخفاء في العديد من الطروحات المعمارية التي تناقش حالاتهما منفردين أو بشكل علاقة ثنائية تجمعهما معاً ليؤثر أحدهما على الآخر وعلى قراءات المعنى، ولكن تلك الطروحات إفتقدت تعريفاً شاملاً للمفهومين في العمارة وطبيعة الإنتقالات بينهما، فضلاً عن إفتقادها إلى بيان تأثير ذلك على المعنى وكيفية إدراكه من قبل المتلقي. ومن هنا تحددت المشكلة البحثية بـ(عدم وجود تصور كافٍ يوضح طبيعة العلاقة بين الظاهر والمخفي في العمارة وأثره على المعنى)، وهدفه بـ(توضيح طبيعة العلاقة بين الظاهر والمخفي في العمارة وأثره على المعنى)، أما المنهج فتحدد بخمسة مراحل؛ أولاً: التعرف على كل من مفهومي الإخفاء والإظهار ودراسة العلاقة بينهما كثنائية، ظهر منها مجموعة من الحالات البينية هي (الاخفاء الظاهر، الإخفاء والاظهار معاً، والاظهار المخفي) تم بيانها في مخطط أولي لثنائية الإخفاء والإظهار، ثانياً: عرض الطروحات المعمارية التي تناقش الثنائية بشكل مباشر وغير مباشر ثم مناقشة الحالات التي تظهر على مخطط الثنائية (كحالة الاظهار الذي يثير إخفاءاً ظاهراً، والإنتقالات المتدرجة)، ثالثاً: إشتقاق المخطط بشكله النهائي بناءاً على ما ظهر في الدراسات وبيان خصائصه المتعددة بالعلاقة مع (المادي واللا مادي، التأثير الخارجي والذاتي، المرئي واللا مرئي، الجانب الفكري والمادي، والإنتقال المباشر والمتدرج بين مراحل المخطط)، رابعاً: إختبار المخططات الناتجة بتطبيقها على عينتين منتخبتين وصفياً وتحليلياً، خامساً: مناقشة نتائج وطرح الإستنتاجات النهائية للبحث.


Article
Neuroblastoma: A Clinico-Epidemiological Study in AL-Khadhimyia Teaching Hospital

Author: Sawsan Sati' Abass*, Mais Ryiad**
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 530-536
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Neuroblastoma is the third most common childhood cancer, after leukemia and brain tumors, and is the most common solid extra cranial tumor in children. The term neuroblastoma is commonly used to refer to a spectrum of neuroblastic tumors (including neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas, and ganglioneuromas) that arise from primitive sympathetic ganglion cells.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this research is to study the epidemiological and clinical feature ofneuroblastoma in a group of Iraqi infants and children who were admitted to the pediatric ward of Al-Khadhimyia Teaching Hospital .PATIENTS AND METHOD:The study was done over a period of three months from 1st of Feb. 2010 to the end of Apr. 2010.In reviewing all files, 18 cases were collected from the Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Consultation Clinic in Al-Khadhimyia Teaching Hospital, they were diagnosed and treated consequently in the pediatric ward / hemato-oncology unit over a period of 9 years (2002-2010). Data regarding age, sex, residence, site of primary disease and clinical presentation were taken from the recording files in the pediatrics Hemato-Oncology Clinic. Methods used to diagnose our patients includes, fine needle aspiration of tumor mass, Bone marrow aspiration & biopsy of different sites. Chemotherapy was the main line of treatment.RESULTS:The total number of studied cases was eighteen cases. The median age was 15 months with male to female ratio of (0.63:1), 9 cases (50%) were below 1 year. Abdominal mass was the commonest site of tumor 12 cases (67%), weight loss was the most common symptom 18 cases (100%) followed by abdominal distention 14 cases(78%), abdominal mass represent the most common sign in 12 cases(67%). Stage IV was noticed in 9 cases (50%), 10 cases (56%) were a high risk group, 7 cases (38.8%) had bone marrow metastases, 6 cases (34%) finished treatment and survive, 4 cases( 22%) relapsed, 2 cases(11%) died.CONCLUSION:The majority of cases were recognized during the first two years of age .Female were involved more than male. The outcome of treated cases was good and accepted. Abdominal mass is the commonest site , weight loss is the commonest symptoms.


Article
The poetic image and manifestations of the manifestations of the poet Mohammed Almagout group (joy is not my profession) model
الصورة الشعرية ومظاهر تجلياتها عند الشاعر محمد الماغوط مجموعة (الفرح ليس مهنتي) أنموذجاً

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* Between the research of the importance of the image in the production of significance, and the sources that share the language in their production, and stated their ratings: artistic, literary and poetic and the respective competence of their respective field.* Referred to the definitions of the ancients and modernists, and the diversity of poets and poets alike: as is the case when the poet Mohammed Almagout:1- The film or scene.2 - color.3 - the cumulative picture.4 - the paradoxical picture.5. The objective equivalence.* Finally, the research pointed to the sources of the image at Almagot.

* بين البحث أهمية الصورة في انتاج الدلالة، والمصادر التي تشارك اللغة في انتاجها، وذكر تصنيفاتها: الفنية والأدبية والشعرية واختصاص كل منها بحقلها المعين.* اشار الى تعريفاتها عند القدماء والمحدثين، وتنوعها عند الشعراء والشاعر الواحد: كما هو الحال عندا لشاعر محمد الماغوط:1- اللقطة السينمائية او المشهد.2- الصورة اللونية.3- الصورة التراكمية.4- الصورة المفارقة.5- المعادل الموضوعي.*وأخيرا أشار البحث الى مصادر الصورة عند الماغوط.


Article
Manifestation independence of the independent bodies
مظاهر استقلال الهيئات المستقلة

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AbstractBodies considered independent Hiatt relatively recent deliberately created for states to carry out the functions of a sensitive nature and mission Taatnahy about the ability of traditional management, or that the legislator Dabbagh out of custody to these devices. To this end, given this Bodies independence necessary for the exercise of its activity, but notes that the concept of independence, such as one of the titles that were raised in question debates, despite being a common element lays Bodies independent, as it seems the word independence in all addresses Bodies Independent States which have adopted, As shown in all the definitions that have been said in question, due to the fact that this independence in nature, especially, as it represents a concept unfamiliar in institutional building traditional as we'll show, so it was necessary to study take note of its features and dimensions. besides highlighting how to handle the legal systems contemporary and including Iraqi legislator with the provisions of these guarantees.Secondly, the research problem: The independence of the independent Bodies among the most important topics clouded by uncertainty in the field of study Bodies independent, so the study was to provide a thorough answer to many of the questions that degrade of this problem.

ملخص البحث تتمتع الهيات المستقلة بالاستقلال ، ولعل من نافلة القول ان هذا الاستقلال ليس مطلقا( )؛ وإنما نسبيُ كما عبر عنه الفقيه الانكليزي Howard Machin( )، إذ يتعذر بموجب العقل والمنطق الإقرار بوجود هيآت سائبة في النظام القانوني للدولة ، وينبني على ذلك إن خضوع الهيآت المستقلة للرقابة البرلمانية والرقابة القضائية لا يمس بأي حال من الأحوال باستقلاليتها ؛ فالبرلمان بوصفه المعبر عن إرادة الشعب يراقب السلطة التنفيذية ، والهيآت المستقلة بوصفها سلطة إدارية لا تستثنى من هذا المبدأ ، كما تخضع للرقابة القضائية حالها في ذلك حال الأشخاص الأخرى تبعاً لمبدأ الولاية العامة للقضاء كما سنلاحظ ، لذا فان تقرير الرقابة البرلمانية والقضائية يعد أمراً مستقراً في النظم الدستورية الحديثة ؛ إذ يمثلان دعائم مبدأ المشروعية ودولة القانون ، يضاف إلى ذلك هذا الاستقلال يتفاوت من هيأة مستقلة إلى أخرى ، أي ان الهيآت المستقلة عموماً لا تتمتع بالدرجة نفسها من الاستقلال. من ذلك إذا ما أردنا تحديد معنى الاستقلال بصورة دقيقة نقول إن الاستقلال إنما يكون في مواجهة السلطة التنفيذية . لكن إذا كان الأمر كذلك فما المقصود بهذا الاستقلال ؟ يراد بالاستقلال عدم خضوع الهيآت المستقلة للرقابة الرئاسية أو الوصائية ، كما لاتتلقى أوامر أو تعليمات من جهة أخرى ، فضلا عن ان السلطة التنفيذية لاتتمتع بحرية في عزل أعضائها ، وفي المقابل يقتضي القول ان الاستقلال لايعني انها تعمل بمعزل عن الأهداف الحكومية ؛ بل هي هيآت ساندة للحكومة. ويذكر إن المحكمة الاتحادية العليا في العراق تعرضت لتحديد معنى الاستقلال الفني في رأيها الاستشاري بخصوص استفسار مجلس النواب – لجنة النزاهة عن معنى الاستقلال الوارد في المادة (102) من الدستور وجاء في الرأي: (...وضعت المحكمة الاتحادية العليا الاستفسار موضع التدقيق والمداولة وتوصلت إلى ما يأتي :- (1-إن الاستقلال المقصود في المادة (102) من الدستور هو ان منتسبي الهيأة وكلا حسب اختصاصه مستقلون في أداء مهامهم المنصوص عليها في قانون الهيأة لا سلطان عليهم في أداء هذه المهام لغير القانون ، ولا يجوز لأي جهة التدخل أو التأثير على أداء الهيأة لمهامها الا ان الهيأة تخضع لرقابة مجلس النواب في أداء هذه المهام ، فإذا ما حادت عنها أو تجاوزتها فان مجلس النواب يملك لوحده محاسبتها ، ويتخذ الإجراء المناسب في ذلك بها ، ومعنى ذلك إن هذه الهيأة تدير نفسها بنفسها وفقا لقانونها شانها شان البنك المركزي الذي يتمتع بهذه الاستقلالية لتمكينه من أداء مهامه دون تدخل من إحدى الجهات)( )


Article
The complaint is systematic In the poetry of Mohammed bin Abdul AL- Malik AL- Zayat
تمظهرات الشكوى اسلوبياً في شعر محمد بن عبد الملك الزيّات

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Abstract

In this work, I chose to search for the relationship between the complaint of the poet (Muhammad bin Abdul Malik al-Zayat, deceased 232 e) and its impact on his poetic language, on the And the reader may be surprised by the existence of the purpose of complaint to a poet such as Zayyat, who lived the greater part of his life of influence and a wonderful blessing under the section of the successors of the sons of Abbas until he turned over All this in the era of Almtawakil Who had eaten at him and tormented him until he died of torture. The title of the research was (the formations of the complaint methodically in the poetry of Mohammed bin Abdul Malik al-Zayat) and made him in three subjects represented in the compositions, meaning and sound, each part of this mabahith took part of the methodological lesson in the application, the structures were comprehensive sections of meanings in the methods of news and demand And presentation, delay, etc., while the significance included the level of the graphic, which is divided into metaphor, metaphor, metaphor and mental metaphor according to the models you have chosen, but the audio has revealed the side of the audio rhythm aware of the ear to include the accumulation of sound and manifestations of natural rhetoric and repetitions such as repeating certain structures and More vocabulary than others in context.

من الثابت في الدراسات الأدبية واللّغوية بصورة عامة أنّ الأسلوب في جوهره تجسيد لأفكار صاحبه, إن كان فرحاً أو حزناً أو حبّاً أو كُرهاً, وفي هذا العمل اخترت البحث عن العلاقة بين شكوى الشاعر(محمد بن عبد الملك الزيّات المتوفى232هـ) وأثرها في لغته الشعرية, على وفقِ كون الأسلوب تمظهرات لغوية معينة, ويجِّسد الشاعر من خلالها ما يريد بثّهُ للمتلقّي أو ليُنفّس عن مكنوناتِ ذاتهِ, وربّما يستغرب القارئ وجود غرض الشكوى لدى شاعر مثل الزّيات الذي عاش الشطر الأكبر من حياته صاحب نفوذٍ ونعمةٍ فارهةٍ في ظلِّ قسمٍ من خلفاء بني العباس الى أن انقلب ذلك كلّه في عصر المتوكل الذي نكّل به وعذّبه في التنّور إلى أنْ تُوفي من أثر التعذيب.فكان عنوان البحث (تمظهرات الشكوى أسلوبياً في شعر محمد بن عبد الملك الزّيات) وقد جعلته في ثلاثة مباحث تمثّلت في التراكيب, والدلالة والصوت, فكلّ مبحث من هذه المباحث تناول جانباً من الدرس الأسلوبي في التطبيق, فكانت التراكيب شاملة اقسام علم المعاني في اساليب الخبر والطلب والتقديم والتأخير...الخ في حين أنّ الدِلالة شملت المستوى البياني الذي يتفرع الى تشبيه واستعارة وكناية ومجاز عقلي بحسب النماذج التي اخترتها, واما الصوت فقد كشف عن جانب الايقاع الصوتي المُدْرك بأُذْنٍ ليشمل التراكمات الصوتية ومظاهر التجنيس البلاغي والتكرارات كتكرار تراكيب معّينة ومفردات اكثر من غيرها في السياق.وحاولتُ من خلال المنهج الأسلوبي في الدراسة, أنْ أَضع يدي على الآثار اللّغوية للشكوى, تلك الآثار أو المظاهر اللّغوية كانت وسيلة الشاعر في إِيصال مضامين أشعاره في غرض الشكوى, واعتمدت اسلوب الاختيار لنماذج التحليل وبكيفيةٍ تنسجم مع حجم البحث ومتطلباته.

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