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Article
Characterization of CuO:NiO/PS Hydrogen Gas Sensor
تىصيف متحسس غاز الهيدروجين CuO:NiO/PS

Authors: Isam M. Ibrahim --- Yahya R. Hathal --- Fuad T. Ibrahim --- Mudhafar H. Ali
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 6 Part (B) Scientific Pages: 1066-1074
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Thin films of copper oxide nanoparticles mixed with 6% nickel oxide are deposited on glass and Si substrates with orientation (111) utilizing pulsed laser deposition technique for the manufacture of hydrogen gas sensor. The films are annealed in air at 400 °C for two hours, then the structural and morphological properties are characterized using x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results of CuO:NiO/Si films are exhibited a polycrystalline monoclinic CuO and cubic NiO phases. In addition, the peak of Si located at 28.3º which refer to (111) direction. Furthermore, this peak becomes very broad with varying full width at half maximum for etching current density of 30 mA/cm2 at time of 30 min which confirms the formation of pores on the crystalline silicon surface. On the other hand, the average diameter of 84.31 nm and 34.98 nm for CuO:NiO on a glass substrate and PS, respectively, were obtained. A sponge-like structure is produced for PS which reveal that a part of pores transform to a larger structure. The peak sensitivity of 204.8% was observed at optimum operating temperature of 350°C.


Article
Adsorptive Desulfurization of Gas Oil Over Cu2O/AC, ZnO/AC and NiO/AC Adsorbents

Authors: S.H. Ammar --- S.A. Jaffar
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 856-863
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In the present work, Iraqi gasoil fraction was treated by using three prepared metal-impregnated activated carbon adsorbents for sulfur removal using adsorptive desulfurization method. In the first experimental section, commercial activated carbon was loaded individually with copper, zinc and nickel oxides and reaches the form of Cu2O, ZnO and NiO respectively. XRD, BET, surface area and metal content were determined for the three prepared adsorbents. The three prepared metal loaded adsorbents were tested for sulfur removal from Iraqi gasoil fuel via batch mode and continuous mode. In continuous operation, fixed bed adsorber packed individually with the three prepared adsorbents was used and breakthrough curves were generated. The results of the present study indicate that the desulfurization enhanced when metals zinc, copper and nickel were loaded onto activated carbon surface. Sulfur adsorption uptake by the three adsorbents followed the order Cu2O > ZnO > NiO (the highest desulfurization percent obtained via continuous mode for Cu2O, ZnO and NiO were 69.7%, 67.47% and 60.7% respectively). Moreover, it was exhibited that for batch mode experiments by increasing the adsorbent's concentration enhanced the sulfur removal by a noticeable amount. Whilst for the continuous mode experiments, it dealt mainly with contact time; thereby the maximum desulfurization percentage was obtained at the first 15 minutes.


Article
Synthesis and Characteristics of Electrochromic Glass with Multi-Layer Configuration Based on glass/ITO/WO3/ZrO2/NiO/ITO/glass

Authors: Zinah S. Abdulsattar --- Firas J. Kadhim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 18132065 23091673 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 17-22
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

In the present work, three transition metal oxides; tungsten trioxide (WO3), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and nickel oxide (NiO) were prepared as thin films. Spray pyrolysis and magnetron sputtering techniques were employed to deposit these thin films on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The smart window (device) with the configuration: glass/ITO/WO3/ZrO2/NiO/ITO/glass was fabricated and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. This device was tested by applying ±5V and high optical transmittance modulation at about 30.93% was observed.


Article
Study of ZnO, SnO2 and Compounds ZTO Structures Synthesized for Gas-Detection
دراسة تراكيب ZnO , SnO2و مركباتها ZTO المؤلفة على الكشف الغازي

Authors: Farhad M. Othman --- Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead --- Alaa S. Taeeh
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2015 Volume: 33 Issue: 6 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1328-1340
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Semiconductor-based metal oxide gas detector of five mixed Z:S from zinc chloride salt (0,25,50,75,100%) ratios with tin chloride salt, were fabricated on glass substrate by a spray pyrolysis technique with thickness were about ( 0.2 ±0.05 µm) using water soluble as precursors at a substrate temperature 500 Cº±5, 0.05 M ,and their gas sensing properties toward (CO2 , NO2 and SO2 gas at different concentration (10,100,1000 ppm) in air were investigated at room temperature which related with the petroleum industry. Furthermore structural and morphology properties was inspecting. Experimental results show that the mixing ratio affect the composition of formative oxides (ZnO,Zn2SnO4,Zn2SnO4+ZnSnO3,ZnSnO3, SnO2) ratios mentioned in the above respectively, and related with the sensitivity of the tested oxidation gases.

في هذا البحث حضر كاشف شبه موصل اوكسيدي من خمس خلطات Z:S من ملح كلوريد الزنك (100, 75 ,50, 25,0%) مع ملح كلوريد القصديرحضرت و بطريقة الرش الكيميائي الحراري و بسمك حوالي (0.2 ± 0.05 µm) على قواعد من الزجاج و باستخدام الماء كمذيب , و بدرجات حرارة ترسيب بلغت(500 ±5) C° و بتراكيز (0.05) M ككاشف للغازات الملوثة مثل(CO2 , NO2و SO2) و بتركيز ((10,100,1000 ppm في الهواء و بدرجة حرارة الغرفة والمرتبطة مع الصناعة النفطية. تم تشخيص التبلور و مورفولوجية سطح الأغشية المحضرة بواسطة قياسات حيود الأشعة السينية XRD و المجهر الالكتروني الماسح SEM ومجهرة القوة الذري AFMلها . بينت النتائج أن نسبة الخلط تؤثر على تبلور الأكاسيد المتكونة و المركبات الثلاثية المتكونة حيث كانت (ZnO,Zn2SnO4,Zn2SnO4+ZnSnO3,ZnSnO3, SnO2) للنسب المذكورة في أعلاه على التوالي وترتبط مع حساسية الغازات المؤكسدة المفحوصة.


Article
A study of the Zn:Sn mixing ratio effect on the gas detector properties
دراسة تأثير نسبة خلط Zn:Sn على خصائص الكاشف الغازي

Authors: Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead ألاء علاء الدين --- Farhad M. Othman فرهاد محمد عثمان --- Alaa S. Taeeh ألاء صبيح تايه
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 27 Pages: 50-62
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Semiconductor-based metal oxide gas detector of five mixed from zinc chloride Z and tin chloride S salts Z:S ratio 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were fabricated on glass substrate by a spray pyrolysis technique. With thickness were about 0.2 ±0.05 µm using water soluble as precursors at a glass substrate temperature 500 ºC±5, 0.05 M, and their gas sensing properties toward CH4, LPG and H2S gas at different concentration (10, 100, 1000 ppm) in air were investigated at room temperature which related with the petroleum refining industry. Furthermore structural and morphology properties were scrutinize. Results shows that the mixing ratio affect the composition of formative oxides were (ZnO, Zn2SnO4, Zn2SnO4+ZnSnO3, ZnSnO3, SnO2) ratios mentioned in the above respectively, and related with the sensitivity of the reduction tested gases, best sensitivity was for H2S gas, have sensitivity about 80.61% and a response time of 10 seconds for the binary oxides and 89.57% and a response time of (5-2) seconds for the mixed ternary oxides.

في هذا البحث حضر كاشف شبه موصل اوكسيدي من خمس خلطات من أملاح كلوريد الزنك Z و كلوريد القصديرS و بنسب خلط Z:S بلغت %100, 75, 50 ,25 ,0 بطريقة الرش الكيميائي الحراري و بسمك حوالي (0.2 ± 0.05 µm) على قواعد من الزجاج و باستخدام الماء كمذيب, و بدرجات حرارة ترسيب بلغت500 ±5 C° و بتراكيز 0.05 M ككاشف للغازات الملوثة مثل(CH4 ,LPG و H2S ) و بتركيز(10, 100, 1000 ppm) في الهواء و بدرجة حرارة الغرفة والمرتبطة مع صناعة تكريرالنفط. تم تشخيص التبلور و مورفولوجية سطح الأغشية المحضرة بواسطة قياسات حيود الأشعة السينية XRD و المجهر الالكتروني الماسح SEM ومجهرة القوة الذري AFMلها. بينت النتائج أن نسبة خلط تؤثر على تبلور الأكاسيد المتكونة و المركبات الثلاثية المتكونة حيث كانت ZnO, Zn2SnO4, Zn2SnO4+ZnSnO3, ZnSnO3, SnO2)) للنسب المذكورة في أعلاه على التوالي وترتبط مع حساسية الغازات المختزلة المفحوصة, وكانت أفضل حساسية للغازH2S 80.61 ٪ وزمن الاستجابة 10 ثانية للأكاسيد الثنائية و89.57٪ وزمن الاستجابة من (5-2) ثانية لخليط الأكاسيد الثلاثية.


Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Tri Metal Oxides by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis Technique as a Gas Sensor
تصنيع و توصيف اكاسيد ثلاثية معدنية بتقنية الرش الكيميائي الحراري كمتحسس غازي

Authors: Farhad M. Othman فرهاد محمد عثمان --- Alaa A. Abdul-hamead ألاء علاء الدين --- Noor M. Ali نور محمد علي
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 132-140
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this research tri metal oxides were fabricated by simple chemical spray pyrolysis technique from (Sn(NO3)2.20 H2O, Zn(NO3)2.6 H2O, Cd(NO3)2.4 H2O) salts at concentration 0.1M with mixing weight ratio 50:50 were fabricated on silicon substrate n-type (111). (with & without the presence of grooves by the following diemensions (20μm width, 7.5μm depth) with thickness was about ( 0.1 ±0.05 µm) using water soluble as precursors at a substrate temperature 550 ºC±5, with spray distance (15 cm) and their gas sensing properties toward H2S gas at different concentrations (10,50,100,500 ppmv) in air were investigated at room temperature which related with the petroleum industry. Furthermore structural and morphology properties were inspecting. Experimental results show that the Zn2SnO4 and Cd2SnO4 thin films were achieved from the used salts and samples gas sensitivity which improved with the presence of substrate grooves. Which make the sensor suitable for the detection of lower .concentrations of hazard H2S gas in the petroleum industry.

في هذا البحث حضرت اكاسيد ثلاثية بطريقة الرش الكيميائي الحراري البسيطة من املاح (نترات القصدير والزنك والكادميوم) بتركيز(0.1M) وبنسب خلط وزنية 50:50 على قاعدة من السيليكون من النوع (n) بأتجاه (111) (بوجود وبعدم وجود الحزوز وبالأبعاد الآتية:عرض20μm, عمق7.5μm وبسمك حوالي (0.1 ±0.05 µm) بأستخدام الماء مذيبا وبدرجة حرارة ترسيب بلغت 550 ºC±5 وبمسافة رش (15 cm) ككاشف للغاز بتراكيز مختلفة (10,50,100,500 ppmv) في الهواء وبدرجة حرارة الغرفة والمرتبطة مع الصناعة النفطية.تم تشخيص التبلور ومورفولوجية سطح الاغشية المحضرة بواسطة قياسات حيود الاشعة السينية والمجهر الالكتروني الماسح ومجهر القوة الذري لها. اظهرت النتائج ان اغشية الاكاسيد المحضرة من الاملاح المستخدمة هي Zn2SnO4 و Cd2SnO4 وحساسية الغازات تحسنت بوجود الحزوز على السطح والتي تجعل من الكاشف مناسبا لكشف التراكيز القليلة من غازH2S الخطر في الصناعة النفطية.


Article
Intelligent Modeling of Metal Oxide Gas Sensor

Authors: Omar F. Lutfy --- Alaa A. Abdul-Hamead
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 7 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 777-783
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Due to the complexity of the gas detection process, traditional modeling techniques cannot provide accurate modeling performance to reproduce the behavior of this difficult process. In this paper, an intelligent modeling technique is utilized to develop an accurate model to represent the complex and nonlinear gas detection process. In particular, in this study nickel Oxide NiO gas sensor, which was specifically fabricated by a simple chemical spray pyrolysis technique. In the process, the nickel chloride hexahydrate salt was used at a concentration of (0.05 M) and a temperature of 350 ºC. Because of this process, the thickness of NiO was 0.1μm. Inspection was done using three different testing techniques; X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and the sensitivity test of NiO for Methane gas CH4 in the range of (0-500) ppmv. Inspection results show that the film was crystalline, has a cubic system, and without cracks or open pores. On the other hand, the sensitivity results were disparate and low in value within the considered range. From the real-time experiment described above, training samples were gathered to develop the desired process model. The considered modeling technique was based on exploiting the wavelet network (wavenet) to represent the nonlinear function of the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) structure. In model development process, the experimental data were utilized as the training samples for the wavenet-based NARX model. As the modeling accuracy, the proposed wavenet-based NARX model attained a value of 1.895 × 10-12 for the root mean square of error (RMSE) criterion.


Article
Study effect of window and BSF layers on the properties of the CZTS / CZTSe solar cell by SCAPS–1D
دراسة تأثير الطبقة النافذة وطبقة BSF على خصائص الخلية الشمسية eCZTS / CZTS باستخدام SCAPS - 1D

Authors: Alaa H. Najim علاء حسين نجم --- Ayed N. Saleh عايد نجم صالح
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2019 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 77-83
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The solar cell CZTS / CZTSe was studied using SCAPS-〖1D 〗^* computer simulator. It was noted that increasing the thickness of the absorber layer p-CZTSe from 250nm to 5μm leads to increase the IV curve. thus increasing the values of Voc, Jsc, FF,

لقد تم دراسة الخلية الشمسية CZTS/CZTSe باستخدام المحاكي الحاسوبي SCAPS-1D, وقد تبين أن زيادة سمك طبقة الإمتصاص p-CZTSe من 250nm إلى 5µm يعمل على زيادة المنحني I-V وبذلك تزداد كل من قيم Voc، Jsc ، FF ،


Article
Optical Properties of vanadium pentoxide prepared by sol gel method
الخواص البصرية لخامس أوكسيد الفناديوم المحضر بطريقة السول جل

Author: Hashim M. Jabbar هاشم محمد جبار
Journal: Journal of Kufa - physics مجلة الكوفة للفيزياء ISSN: 20775830 Year: 2018 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-7
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) thin film were deposited using the sol-gel technique. An aqueous solution of V2O5was used for depositing the thin films on glass substrates. The structural and optical characteristics of both non-annealed and annealedV2O5 thin films were examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and double-beam UV-visible spectrophotometry. The X-ray diffraction study of the V2O5thin films revealed a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline nature. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in term of Wlemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model, many dispersion parameters such as single oscillator energy (Eo ),dispersion energy ( Ed ), refractive index ( n(0) ), were discussed using Miller’s rule, the optical absorption at the fundamental absorption edge dielectric constant (), moment of the dielectric constant optical spectrum( M-1 ,M-3 )and energy gap by Wimple-DiDomenico approximation ( )have been calculated, non- linear optical susceptibility ( ) has been discussed, direct energy gap by Tauc relation ( ), and Urbach energy of the localized states (Eu) were also calculated. The results were found to be consistent with the data of the previous studies carried out on V2O5 thin films.https://doi.org/10.31257/2018/jkp/100101

حُضرت أغشية رقيقة من خامس أوكسيد الفناديومبطريقة–سول جل-وتم دراسة الخواص البصرية للنماذج المسخنة وغير المسخنة بمدى الاطوال الموجية -- 190-1200 نانو ميتر-- بطريقة نموذج وامبلديد منكو للمتذبذب الوحيد، أذ تم إيجاد العديد من معاملات التشتت ، كما تم إيجاد الحد الثالث اللاخطي للتأثيرية البصرية بأستخدام قاعدة ميلر،كذلك حساب حافة امتصاص الطاقة البصرية وتم حساب فجوة الطاقة وطاقة يورباخ للمستويات المقيدة.

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