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Article
The effects of different concentrations of Alum solutions on Mutans streptococci (in vitro study)

Authors: Raed F. AI-Huwaizi رائد الحويزي --- Wael S. Al-Alousi وائل الالوسي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 146-151
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Alum has been used as a treatment medication in cases of oral and gingival ulcers, and also asantiseptic mouthwash. This study aimed to examine the effects of different concentrations of Alum on inhibition zone,viability counts and adherence ability of Mutans streptococci compared with deionized water and chlorhexidinegluconate in vitro.Materials and methods: The study dealt with an in vitro study to establish a concentration of Alum mouthrinse thatwould have the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration. The second partevaluated the anti-adherence ability of the experimental agents.Results: This study found that the antibacterial effect of Alum increases with its concentration from 50 to 10000 PPMbut still weaker than 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate. Only concentrations of 5000 and 10000 PPM showed negativeadherence of Mutans streptococci to the tooth surface.Conclusions: This study found that the antibacterial effect of Alum increases with its concentration from 50 to 10000PPM but still weaker than 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate. Only concentrations of 5000 and 10000 PPM showednegative adherence of Mutans streptococci to the tooth surface


Article
Dental caries among a group of boys with β-thalassemia major (10-12 years old) in relation to salivary Mutans streptococci

Authors: Raghad R. Al-Zaidi رغد الزيدي --- Sulafa K. El- Samarrai سلافة خالد السامرائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 157-159
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disorder that may affect general and oral health.The purpose ofthis study was toassess the severity of dental caries in relation to oral cleanliness, mutans streptococciamong a groupof boys with beta thalassemia majorin comparison with a control group.Materials and Methods: The study involved 30 boys with BTM aged 10-12 years compared to 30 healthy boys with thesame age group. d1-4mfs and D1-4 MFS indices were applied (Muhlemann, 1976), the viable counts of mutansstreptococci in stimulated saliva were also determined.Results: The entire thalassemic group was caries-active. For both dentitions, a higher dmfs/DMFS values wererecorded for study compared to control group, difference was statistically not significantconcerning dmfs, while itwas statistically significant concerning DMFS (P<0.05). Salivary bacterial counts of mutans streptococci were found tobe higher in the study compared to control group and the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.01).Allcorrelations between bacterial counts and dmfs/DMFS indices in study group were statistically not significant.Conclusion: Patients with Beta thalasemic major had more caries severity compared to normal subjects

المقدمة: یعتبرفقر دم البحر الأبیض المتوسط النوع الكبیر أحد أنواع الاضطرابات الوراثیة التي قد تؤدي الى انخفاض في انتاج كریات الدم الحمراء كما یعمل على زیادة تحطیمھا.یعاني المصابون بھذا المرضمن عدة تغیرات جرثومیة التي قد تصیب الفم واللعاب مما قد یزید من احتمالیة الاصابة بتسوّس الأسنان.أھداف الدراسة: تھدف ھذه الدراسة الى حساب حدّة تسوّس الأسنان, نظافة الفم, المكوّرات المسبحیة عند مجموعة من الأطفال الذكور المصابین بمرضفقر دم البحر الأبیض المتوسطالنوع الكبیربالمقارنة مع مجموعة ضابطة.12 ) سنة بالمقارنة مع 30 من الأطفال الأصحّاء ومن نفس الفئة العمریة. تم قیاس حدّة تسوّس الأسنان - المواد وطرق العمل: شملت الدراسة 30 مریض تتراوح أعمارھم مابین ( 10حسب طریقة موھلمان ( 1976 ). تم جمع عیّنات اللُعاب المحفّز بالاضافة احتساب الاعداد الحیّة للمكوّرات المسبحیّة في (D1-4 MFS و d1-4 mfs) ( حسب مقیاس (تسوّس, قلع, حشوةاللعاب.لدى (dmfs) ( النتائج: أظھرت النتائج اصابة جمیع الاطفال بتسوّس الأسنان. فیما یتعلق بالأسنان اللبنیة, أظھرت النتائج وجود قیم عالیة للتسوّس حسب مقیاس (تسوّس, قلع, حشوةلدى المرضى (DMFS) ( المرضى مقارنة بالأطفال الأصحّاء مع عدم وجود فروقات معنویة. فیما یتعلق بالأسنان الدائمیة, وجدت قیم عالیة للتسوّس حسب مقیاس (تسوّس, قلع, حشوةالنتائج بیّنت أن أعداد المكوّرات المسبحیة أعلى عند الأطفال المصابین بالمرض مقارنة مع المجموعة الضابطة مع .(P< مقارنة بالأطفال الأصحّاء مع وجود فروقات معنویة( 0.05كل العلاقات بین أعداد المكورات المسبحیة في اللعاب مع تسوّس الأسنان للأطفال المصابین بالمرضكانت بدون فروقات معنویة. .(P< وجود فرق معنوي عالٍ ( 0.01الأستنتاج: وجد أن تسوّس الأسنان في الأطفال المرضى أعلى من أقرانھم من الأطفال الأصحّاء, مما یعني ضرورة توفیر برنامج وقائي فعّال لھؤلاء الأطفال المرضى.


Article
The effect of black seed oil extracts on mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vitro)

Authors: Baydaa H. Abd-Awn بيداء عبد عون --- Zainab A. Al-Dhaher زينب الظاهر --- Raya R. Al-Dafaai ريا الدفاعي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 126-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The black seed or Nigella sativa has been used for centuries to promote health and fight disease. Thisplant has a great focus for research due to its antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor, and hypotensive effects. Thisstudy was conducted to assess the effect of the black seed oil extract on sensitivity of mutans streptococci and theadherence to tooth surface in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate in vitro.Materials and methods: Four different concentrations of black seed oil extract (1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were preparedusing ethanol as a solvent for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the black seed oil extract against mutansstreptococci isolated from saliva of volunteers and compared with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate using agar diffusiontest, followed by determination of the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the black seed oil extract.Three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 10%) were used in the adherence study whereby a stainless steel wires werethreaded from one end in the roots of previously cleaned, polished and sterilized first premolars, which were thenimmersed in 10 ml of the agent for 2 minutes, followed by washing with sterilized deionized water. The teeth werethen immersed in 10ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth and inoculated with 2% of bacterial isolates and incubatedaerobically at 370C for seven days. A positive score was given to the microbial growth on wire, teeth and bottleindicating a non-effective treatment and vice versa.Results The study showed inhibition zones for black seed oil extract which were found to be increased as theconcentration of the extract increased. The MBC of the black seed oil extract against mutans streptococci was 10%.The results also showed that the oil extract was effective in inhibiting the adherence of mutans streptococci to toothsurface at a concentration of 10%.Conclusion: The black seed oil extract has a bactericidal effect against mutans streptococci at a concentration of10%, and can inhibit the adherence of these microorganisms to tooth surface


Article
Effect of ginger extract on Mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate

Authors: Tuqa Akram Weli تقى اكرم --- Ahlam Taha Mohammed احلام طه محمد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 179-184
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The rhizome of ginger is used in cooking and for medicinal purposes such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal,anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. The aims of the study were to test the effect of ethanolic extract of ginger ongrowth, adherence and acidogenicity of mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% andde-ionized water.Materials and methods: From saliva often volunteers (dental students 20-22 years); mutans streptococci was isolated,purified and diagnosed according to morphological characteristic and biochemical tests. Ginger was powderedand extracted, different concentrations of ginger extract were prepared. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% used as acontrol positive; while de-ionized water was used as a control negative. In this study, in vitro and in vivo experimentswere conducted. In vitro experiment, agar well technique was used to study the sensitivity of mutans streptococci todifferent concentrations of ginger extract and other control agents; also effect of ginger extract on the viable countof mutans streptococci, the adherence and acidogenicity of mutans streptococci were studied.In vivo experiment,the volunteers couldn’t tolerate the extract.Results: Mutans streptococci was sensitive to different concentrations of ethanolic ginger extract, but they weremore sensitive to chlorhexidine gluconate than the extract. The effect of ginger extract on the viable count ofmutans streptococci at concentrations (30%, 35% and 40%) showed highly significant reduction in the count of thebacteria but less than chlorhexidine effect. In the effect of the extract on the adherence of mutans streptococci, theconcentrations (30%, 35%, 40%) were used and only 40% and chlorhexidine prevent the plaque formation. But in theacidogenicity of mutans streptococci procedure 35%, 40% of the extract and chlorhexidine showed effectiveness inreducing acid formation.Conclusion: Ginger extract was effective against mutans streptococci, chlorhexidine is more effective than otheragents.


Article
Effect of german chamomile (matricaria recutita) extracts on Mutans Streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate: A comparative in vitro and in vivo study

Authors: Mona A. Saleem منى سليم --- Athraa' M. Al-Weheb عذراء الوهب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 111-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: German chamomile has a very long history of traditional use, it is primary uses are as a sedative,anxiolytic and antispasmodic, and as a treatment for mild skin irritation and inflammation, is one of the herbs that hasbeen known as an anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and wound healing promoter, this satudy was done to evaluatethe antibacterial effect of chamomile on Growth, viability count, adherence and acidigenicity of mutansstreptococci in vitro. And viability counts of Streptococci and mutans streptococci, the pH and salivary flow rate ofsaliva among a number of volunteers.Materials and Methods: After the preparation of alcoholic chamomile extract and the collection of the stimulatedsaliva from a ten healthy looking dental students aged (20-22 years) from which the Mutans Streptococci wasisolated , purified, and diagnosed the four in vitro and one in vivo study was done to test the effect of chamomileextract on growth, adherence, and acidogenicity of Mutans Streptococci.Result: The results showed that, the concentration of chamomile extract from 2.5% have an inhibition effect on themutans bacteria, and the effectiveness increased with the increasing of the concentration of the extracts till the 15%which have an effect equal to chlorhexidine.Conclusion: the alcoholic chamomile extract was effective in prevention of growth, adherence, and acidproduction of Mutans Streptococci


Article
A comparison between the antibacterial and antifungal effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (An in vitro study)

Author: Firas H. Qanbar فراس قنبر
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 88-90
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The use of antimicrobial agent to control plaque and oral disease has been advocated for a numberof years. Different compounds have been delivered through mouth rinses or tooth pastes or by topical application.The purpose of this research is to find out and to compare between the antibacterial and antifungal properties ofChlorhexidine digluconate 0.2%.Materials and methods: Mutans streptococci & Candida albicans were isolated from 25 saliva samples from healthyvolunteers (age range between 21-23 yrs). These isolates were purified and diagnosed according to morphologicalcharacteristics and biochemical tests. Chlorhexidine 2mg/ml (0.2%) was used in the in vitro; susceptibility of Mutansstreptococci and Candida albicans were tested by agar diffusion technique.Results: Agar diffusion technique showed that Chlorhexidine (0.2%) inhibited the growth of Mutans Streptococci, andCandida albicans, but the effect of Chlorhexidine (0.2%) on Candida albicans was more patent than on MutansStreptococci in vitro. There was statistically highly significant difference (p<0.001) between the antifungal andantibacterial effects of Chlorhexidine on the sensitivity of the isolates,Conclusion: Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2% was more potent as an antifungal than an antibacterial agent


Article
Effect of thymus vulgaris extract on streptococci and mutans streptococci, in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (in vivo study)

Authors: Eman A. Al-Timimi ايمان التميمي --- Mohammed AL-Casey محمد القيسي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 116-121
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme) is an aromatic plant which has been used since ancient times for its culinaryand medicinal effects almost everywhere in the world. In Medicine, it is used as antispasmolytic, antibacterial,antifungal, expectorant, and antiseptic. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tonsillitis, gum diseases, and fungalinfections. The aim of this study was to test the effects of Thymus Vulgaris extract on the viable count of SalivaryStreptococci and Mutans Streptococci and on salivary flow rate and pH in comparison to Chlorhexidine Gluconate0.2% and de-ionized water in vivo.Materials and method: Thymus vulgaris extract was prepared and different concentrations of Thyme extract wereprepared and estimated in gm /100 ml of De-ionized water. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% used as a control positive;while deionized water was used as a control negative. Stimulated saliva was collected from 15 volunteers, dividedinto three groups each group rinsed with one of the tested agents (Chlorhexidine, Thyme extract and De-ionizedwater) for one minute. The counts of bacteria were recorded at different time point (before rinsing, one minute afterrinsing, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and one hour). Colonies were counted using colony counter. Salivary pH and volumeof saliva were measured also.Results: Thymus Vulgaris extract had a significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococci and MutansStreptococci in the following time points (15 minutes and 30 minute) and a highly significant reduction in the countsof salivary streptococci and Mutans Streptococci (P<0.001) had been found after one hour, but Chlorhexidine is stillmore effective than other agents in reduction of salivary counts of these two types of bacteria. Salivary flow ratesand pH was measured for the three agents before and after rinsing for five time intervals. Immediately after rinsing,salivary flow rates and pH increased for the three mouth rinses. The increase in Salivary flow rates and pH continuedafter half an hour and then started to decrease after one hour for Chlorhexidine and Thymus vulgaris extract.Chlorhexidine had the highest increase in salivary flow rates and pH followed by Thymus Vulgaris then De-ionizedwater.Conclusion: Thymus Vulgaris extract was effective against both Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci andChlorhexidine is still more effective than other agents


Article
Antibacterial efficiency of salvia officinalis extracts and their effect on growth, adherence and acid production of oral Mutans Streptococci

Authors: Hadi A. Hmeem Al-Lamy هادي حميم اللامي --- Abbas S. Al-Mizraqchi عباس المزرقجي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 153-157
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The use of antimicrobial agent to control plaque and oral disease has been advocated for a number ofyears. Different compounds have been delivered through mouth rinses or tooth pastes or by topical application. Thepurpose of this research is to find out and to compare between the anticariogenic properties of aqueous and alcoholicsage extract on the most causative cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity (Mutans streptococci).Materials and methods: In the present study Mutans streptococci were isolated from saliva often dental students (agerange between 21-23 yrs) .These bacteria were isolated, purified and diagnosed according to morphologicalcharacteristic and biochemical tests.Results: Agar diffusion technique showed that sage extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) were inhibited the growth ofMutans Streptococci, and the diameter of inhibition zone increased as the concentration of sage extract increased, butthe effect of aqueous extract was less than the effect of alcoholic extract. The minimum bactericidal concentration ofaqueous and alcoholic sage extract were 50%, 20% respectively. Also the alcoholic extract was high significant inhibit(P<0.01) the viable count of Mutans Streptococci in vitro in comparison to aqueous extract.Conclusion: Alcoholic sage extract was interfered with acid production and adherence of Mutans Streptococci higherthan aqueous extract resultant in reducing of acid production and inhibition of the adherence of this cariogenicbacteria; alcoholic sage extract have substantively phenomenon similar to those in chlorohexidine in comparison toaqueous extract


Article
Antibacterial effect of cardamom and black tea aqueous extract on mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine (in vitro study)

Author: Nebal Th. Shaker
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 158-164
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Antimicrobial agents have been considered as having potential for the prevention of dental caries. Thisstudy aimed to test the effect of different concentrations of cardamom and black tea extracts on the sensitivity andgrowth of salivary mutans streptococci in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) in vitro.Materials and methods: In this study. Mutans streptococci were isolated from saliva of 34 healthy people (agedbetween 22-40yrs). The bacteria was isolated, purifiedand diagnosed according to morphologicalcharacteristic andbiochemical tests. Aqueous extracts of cardamom and black tea were prepared. Different concentrations ofextracts were prepared and estimated in gm/ 100ml deionized water. The agar diffusion technique was used todetermine the antibacterial activity of cardamom and tea extracts in which the inhibition of bacteria growth bydifferent concentrations of extracts was measured by diameter of inhibition zone in millimeter. The viable count wasmeasured in different concentrations for both types of extracts on comparison to chlorhexidine 0.2%.Results: The result showed that the mutans streptococci is more sensitive to tea extract than cardamom one, wherethe mean value of diameter of inhibition zone was higher by tea extract than cardamom type in all concentrationsand chlorohexidine0.2% is more effective than both extracts. For viable count no statistical significant differencebetween two extract types at concentration of 40% but there are a high statistical significant difference for otherconcentrations, where the chlorhexidine is moreeffective than tea type and the last one is more effective thancardamom type with p value 0.05 .Conclusions: Cardamom and black tea have antibacterial effect against Mutans streptococci; the accused factorof dental caries.


Article
Effect of Water Cinnamon Extract on Mutans Streptococci , in Comparison to Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Zac (In Vitro and In Vivo Study)

Author: Dr. Jinan Mohammed Rashad, B.D.S., M.Sc. in Preventive Dentistry د. جنان محمد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 250-260
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of water cinnamon extract on growth of mutans streptococci, in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%), Zac [0.12% chlorhexidine with 0.05% sodium fluoride (Maleh Chemical products, Syria)] and deionized water in vitro and viability counts of mutans streptococci among a number of volunteers.Material and Methods:Stimulated saliva was collected from six healthy looking students aged (22-24) from which mutans streptococci were isolated. Sensitivities of mutans streptococci according to Agar Well Technique showed that mutans streptococci were more sensitive to chlorhexidine and Zac compared to water cinnamon extract. The effect of these agents on the viability counts of mutans streptococci in comparison to the control in vitro were studied, a significant reduction in the counts of bacteria at concentrations 20% of water cinnamon extract was illustrated (P<0.05), at higher concentrations water cinnamon extract showed a highly significant reduction in the counts of bacteria(P<0.001), concerning chlorhexidine, and Zac there was a highly significant reduction in the counts of bacteria in comparison to the control after 24 hour(P<0.001). The study involved one in vivo experiment to test the effect of water cinnamon extract (20%) against salivary mutans streptococci in comparison to 0.2% chlorhexidine, Zac and deionized water. Stimulated saliva was collected from 20 subjects (22-25), they were divided into four groups, each group rinse once with either chlorhexidine, Zac, cinnamon extract or deionized water. A non significant difference was found between cinnamon and chlorhexidine compared to deionized water in the counts of bacteria after thirty minute. There was a highly significant difference between Zac and deionized water, rinsing with Zac resulted in a highly significant reduction in the count of bacteria within this time followed by chlorhexidine which was not significantly difference from cinnamon, deionized water showed a slight reduction in the counts of bacteria. The same result was shown after one hour, within this time chlorhexidine resulted in a highly significant reduction in the counts of bacteria compared to deionized water. After two hours of rinsing there was no significant difference between cinnamon and deionized water in the counts of bacteria.Conclusion:Cinnamon would be a useful compound for development of antibacterial agents against mutans streptococci although its effectiveness was less than chlorhexidine but it may has potential for use in mouthwash for preventing dental caries.

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