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Article
ROUTING USING GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR LARGE NETWORKS
تحدید المسا ا رت باستخدام الخوارزمیات الجینیة في الشبكات الكبیرة

Author: Yousra Ahmed Fadil یسرى احمد فاضل
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-70
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

ABSTRACT - The performance and reliability of the Internet depend in large part on the operation of the underlying routing protocols. Today's IP routing protocols compute paths based on the network topology and configuration parameters, without regard to the current traffic load on the routers and links. This paper discusses routing optimization using Genetic Algorithm Then we study and analyze the problems of routing optimization in large networks. We will propose a detailed genetic algorithm in order to optimize routing tables and to enhance the performance of the routers.

الخلاصة ان الأداء والإتقان للانترنت يعتمد بدرجة كبيرة على سياقات اختيار المسارات . اليوم Internet protocol يقوم بعملية حساب المسارات بالاعتماد على ال Network topology بدون الاهتمام للزخم في المسارات . هذا البحث يبحث بتحقيق أفضل المسارات بالاعتماد على الخوارزمية الجينية . سنقوم بدراسة وتحليل مشكلة اختيار أفضل المسارات في الشبكات الكبيرة وسنقدم شرح للخوارزمية الجينية من اجل الحصول على جدول المسارات واختيار افضل المسارات الممكنة.

Keywords

GA --- Crossover --- Mutation.


Article
Induce mutations for Bavistin resistance in Trichoderma harzianum by UV-irradation
استحداث طفرات في الفطر Trichoderma harzianum مقاومة لمبيد البافستين باستخدام الاشعة فوق البنفسجية

Authors: Alaa Mohsen Al-araji علاء محسن الاعرجي --- Mona Hamody Al-jboury منى حمودي الجبوري --- Hadi Mehdi Aboud هادي مهدي عبود
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2013 Volume: 54 Issue: 5 Pages: 1023-1035
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to induce mutations by UV- light in Trichoderma harzianum for tolerance of Bavistin fungicides which are commonly used to control soil born phytopathogens. The mycelium growth of T. harzianum T1, T2 was inhibited completely by 30 µg (a.i.) /ml PDA of Bavistin. Two isolates of Trichoderma harzianum T1 and T2 conidia suspensions 104 conidia / ml were irradiated by UV lights at 254, 320, 365nm wavelength for 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 min using UV dark room cabinet and spectrophotometer and cultured on PDA media containing 50, 60, 75, 100, and 150 µg (a.i) / ml Bavistin. A thirty one unstable mutants tolerant to Bavistin were obtained after irradiation the T. harzianum T1, T2 conidia suspension 104 conidia / ml by using UV dark room cabinet. While about 76975 Bavistin tolerant mutants were obtained by using UV spectrophotometer. Only twelve were stable and named (TAm1, TAm2, TAm3, TAa1, TAa2, TAa3, TAa4, TAa5, TAa6, TAa7, TAa9 and TAa11). Results daily radial growth and sporulation rate of stable mutants on fungicide culture media (Bavistin) revealed that the stable mutant TAa2 and TAa1 achevied the maximum average of (daily radial growth rate and sporulation). The stable mutants TAa1, TAa2, TAa3, TAa4, TAa5 and TAa7 which tolerates 150 µg (a.i)/ml Bavistin increased their ability to tolerate Bavistin up to 200 µg(a.i)/ml by using adaption technique.

استهدفت الدراسة استحداث طفرات من الفطر Trichoderma harzianum باستخدام التشعيع بالاشعة فوق البنفسجية (UV light) لتحمل المبيد الفطري Bavistin الذي يستخدم بصورة واسعة لمكافحة فطريات التربة الممرضة للنباتات. وتم تثبيط نمو عزلتي الفطر Trichoderma harzianum T1 و T2 بصورة كلية عند تركيز 30 مايكروغرام مادة فعالة / مل للمبيد Bavistin. تم تعريض العالق البوغي بتركيز 1 × 10 4 بوغ / مل لعزلتي الفطر Trichoderma harzianum T1 و T2 الى الاشعة فوق البنفسجية عند الطول الموجي 365, 320, 254 نانوميتر للمدد 160,80,40,20,10 دقيقة باستخدام غرفة الاشعة فوق البنفسجية المظلمة (UV dark room cabinet) و مطياف الاشعة فوق البنفسجية (Spectrophotometer). ومن ثم زرعت الابواغ على الوسط الزرعي بطاطا دكستروز اكار الـ PDA الحاوي على التراكيز التالية 50 , 60 , 75, 100 و 150 مايكروغرام مادة فعالة / مل من مبيد Bavistin. تم الحصول على 31 طفرة غير مستقرة من الفطر Trichoderma harzianum T1 و T2 متحملة للمبيد Bavistin باستخدام غرفة الاشعة فوق البنفسجية المظلمة (UV dark room cabinet). بينما تم الحصول على 76975 طفرة متحملة للمبيد Bavistin باستخدام مطياف الاشعة فوق البنفسجية (Spectrophotometer) , لكن تم الحصول فقط على 12 طفرة مستقرة و تمت تسميتها كالاتي (TAm1, TAm2, TAm3, TAa1, TAa2, TAa3, TAa4, TAa5, TAa6, TAa7, TAa9 and TAa11). اظهرت نتائج معدل النمو اليومي و معدل الابواغ للطفرات المستقرة المزروعة على الوسط الزرعي الحاوي على المبيد Bavistin ان الطفرتين TAa2 و TAa1حققتا اعلى معدلات. تم زيادة قدرة الطفرات المستقرة (TAa1, TAa2, TAa3, TAa4, TAa5 ,TAa7) التي تتحمل 150 مايكروغرام مادة فعالة / مل للمبيد Bavistin لتتحمل 200 مايكروغرام مادة فعالة / مل للمبيد Bavistin باستخدام تقنية التطبيع.


Article
GEOGRAPHICAL AND DEMOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ΒETA-THALASSAEMIA AMONG IRAQI POPULATION
التوزيع الجغرافي والديموغرافي للثلاسيميا – بيتا في المجتمع العراقي

Author: نورية عبد الحسين علي
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 541-550
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, the geographical and demographical distribution of eighty clinically thalassaemic patients and fifty six apparently healthy individuals as a control group were studied. The geographical distribution of the samples revealed that the collected samples were from fifteen governorates which represent various regions in Iraq. The distribution of the samples according to some demographical parameters including: gender, age, and parent relationship was studied to reveal the effects of these parameters on the diversity of β-thalassaemia in both patient and control groups. Also, after molecular diagnosis of causative β-thalassaemia mutations using Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS), the geographical distribution of positive diagnosed patients was studied in order to learn about the distribution of β-thalassaemia mutations, the results revealed the heterogeneity of diagnosed mutations within the Iraqi regions.

تم دراسة التوزيع الجغرافي والديموغرافي لثمانين مريض مصاب سريريا بالثلاسيميا– بيتا وستة وخمسون شخصاً من الأصحاء مظهرياً كمجموعة سيطرة. أظهر التوزيع الجغرافي للعينات أنها شملت خمس عشرة محافظة ممثلة لمختلف مناطق العراق. درس توزيع العينات طبقاً لبعض المعايير الديموغرافية التي شملت الجنس والعمر وعلاقة القربى بين الأباء لمعرفة تأثير هذه المعايير على تباين الإصابة بالثلاسيميا– بيتا في كلتا مجموعتي الدراسة. وبعد اجراء التشخيص الجزيئي للطفرات الوراثية المسببة للثلاسيميا-بيتا بإستخدام تقنية ARMS، درس التوزيع الجغرافي للعينات التي شخصت فيها الإصابة لمعرفة توزيع الطفرات الوراثية المسببة للثلاسيميا-بيتا، إذ أظهرت النتائج اختلاف أنواع الطفرات الوراثية لامدروسة ضمن المناطق العراقية.


Article
Detection of IVS 1-110and IVS 1-5 Mutations in β-Thalassemia Major Patients in Babylon Province

Authors: Ahmed J. Mohammed --- Mahdi Mohamed Ridha --- Lamees M. Al-Janabi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2015 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 357-362
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

One hundred blood samples of beta thalassemia major patients were collected in Thalassemia center of Babylon hospital for Maternity and children in Hilla city. In addition, blood samples were collected from 40 apparently healthy subjects as a control group (without Hemoglobinopathy disorders). All samples of blood were subjected to isolation of DNA and molecular characterization of two β-thalassemia mutations {IVS 1-110 (G-A) and IVS 1-5(G-C)} using a PCR-ARMS technique. The result revealed that IVS1- 110 mutation was the most common in the patient's samples as (21%) whereas IVS1-5 mutation was present with a relatively less incidence as (10%). These point mutations are recorded for 1st time in Babylon governorate.

Keywords

thalassemia --- mutation --- globin


Article
DETECTION OF NUCLEOPHOSMIN (NPM-1) AND FLT3-ITD MUTATIONS IN 30 IRAQI PEDIATRIC ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA PATIENTS

Author: Subh S AL-Mudallal صبح سالم المدلل
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-49
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Mutation within the FLT 3 and NPM 1 genes ranked within the most frequent recurrent known genetic markers in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and show apparently opposite prognostic significance.Objective:To detect the frequency of FLT3-ITD and NPM-1 mutations in Iraqi pediatric AML patients using conventional polymerized chain reaction (PCR), and to relate their prevalence with the clinical presentation and the response to induction therapy.Methods:A prospective study of 30 children presented with AML and 16 children who were age and gender matched served as negative control for the mutation. AML cases were classified according to FAB classification. WBC count, platelet count and hematocrit were measured at diagnosis and after 30 days. Molecular analysis was done on peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirate samples by conventional PCR technology.Results:FLT 3-ITD mutation was detected in 3/30 (10%) patients, whereas NPM1 mutation was detected in 4/30 (13.33%) patients. Both mutations were detected in older age patients and predominantly in male. No significant correlation between each mutation and various hematological parameters, however WBC count was significantly higher in FLT-ITD unmutated patients. FLT3-ITD mutation was detected in M3 and M3 variant whereas NPM-1 mutation was detected in M2 and M3v. The three patients having FLT-3-ITD mutation (100%) did not achieved complete hematological remission, whereas 3/24 (12.5%) patients without the mutation did not achieve remission. On the other hand 2 out of 4 (50%) patients with NPM-1 mutation had not achieved complete hematological remission and 4/22 (18.18%) patients without mutation did not achieve remission. Finally regarding the interrelation between the two mutations, the two children who had NPM1 mutation and no FLT3-ITD mutation had achieved complete remission on induction therapy whereas the three children who had FLT3-ITD mutation with or without NPM1 mutation did not achieved complete remission.Conclusion:Prevalence of FLT3-ITD and NPM-1 mutations in Iraqi pediatric AML patients is comparable to that recorded worldwide and both mutations were observed in older age children and mainly in male. FLT3-ITD mutation unlike NPM-1 mutation associate with poor response to induction therapy and the adverse effect of FLT3-ITD mutation overcome the favorable effect of NPM-1 mutation when they exist together.Keywords:Pediatric AML, Flt3-ITD mutation, NPM1 mutation, PCR


Article
Detection of BRCA2 exon 10 genetic variations in Iraqi breast cancer patients
التحري عن التغايرات الجينية في المحور 10 لجين الـ BRCA2 في مرضى سرطان الثدي العراقيين

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Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent malignancy in women in Western countries currently accounting for one third of all female cancers, and in Iraq rank the first among all cancers. Germline mutations in BRCA2 genes have been demonstrated to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Conversely, the impact of BRCA mutations on prognosis and survival of breast cancer patients is still debated.Familial aggregation is thought to account for 5–10 % of all BC cases and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for less of the half of these inherited cases. In Iraq breast cancer represents the principal death-causing malignancy among women, with (44.44 %) of the cases diagnosed before the age of 50 years. In order to study BRCA2 mutation spectra in the Iraqi population, direct sequencing of the entire coding region and intronicsequences flanking the exon was performed. A total of three BRCA2 sequence variants (a, 865A>C, N289H a, 1114 A>C. N372H a, 1153 A>G. K385E)were found. One of them a, 1153 A>G. K385E was novel. In conclusion, this study represents the evaluation of the deleterious and unclassified genetic variants in the BRCA2 gene exon 10 found in Iraqi population harboring of breast cancer.

سرطان الثدي من اكثر السرطانات شيوعا بين النساء في دول العالم الغربي, ويمثل ثلث انواع السرطانات التي تصيب النساء في العالم. في العراق يحتل سرطان الثدي الصداره بين انواع السرطانات. وتظهر التغايرات الجينيه الموروثه في BRCA2 احتماليه كبيره للتعرض الى سرطان الثدي بالاضافه لذلك فان دور التغايرات الجينيه فيBRCA في تشخيص سرطان الثدي وتاثيره في معدل الوفيات في المرضى مازال قيد البحث والدراسة. حيث يشكل سرطان الثدي نسبه 5-10% بين السرطانات الموروثه ضمن العوائل, ومن ضمن هذا تشكل التغايرات في BRCA1/2 نسبه اقل من النصف ، ويعتبر في العراق سبب مهم من اسباب الوفيات بين النساء حيث ان معظم الحالات في هذه الدراسه ظهرت قبل عمر ال 50 عاما وهذا يشكل نسبه (44.44%) من الحالات. ولدراسة هذه التغايرات في هذا الجين بين المرضى العراقيين تم استخدام بادئات خاصه تضمن لنا تغطيه المنطقه بالكامل في تفاعل البلمره التسلسلي ليتسنى لنا بعدها دراسه تتابعات القواعد النتروجينيه لكل حاله ومقارنتها مع التسلسل المصدر ضمن برامج خاصه وبالتالي تحديد التغايرات ومواقعها, وواحدة من هذه التغايرات التي تم تحديدها لم تسجل مسبقا عالميا. وبالنتيجه فان الهدف من هذه الدراسه التحري عن التغايرات الوراثيه الخطره وغير المصنفه مسبقا في جين الـ BRCA2 المنطقه المشفره 10 بين مرضى سرطان الثدي في المجتمع العراقي.


Article
Diagnosis of Mutations in Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptorgene (TSHR) of Thyroid Disorders Patients in Basra Province
تشخيص طفرات جين الهرمون المحفز للغدة الدرقية TSHRلدى مرضى الغدة الدرقية في محافظة البصرة

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Abstract

Abstract: The study was conducted on 90 blood samples divided into 35 samples Hypothyroidism 35 samples hyperthyroidism (group of patients ) and 20samples from healthy people ( control group). DNA of two groups was extracted and exon 10 was amplified by using PCR. Mutations were diagnosed and analyzed by using Sequencing. The present study found seven novel mutations in exon 10, divided into five mutations among hypothyroidism patients compared to control (who did not appear to have any type of mutations diagnosed). All mutations diagnosed were substitution included transition or transversion depending on the nature of the mutant base, three missense mutation in three hypothyroidism patients with a proportion of 20% each. They are as follows c.1330 T>C, Y444H; c.1424 T>C, L475P and c.1435 T>C, S479P and two silent mutation in two hypothyroidism patients (c.1338G>A, L446L and c.2300 G>A Untranscrib).While the result showed two mutation in hyperthyroidism, one was missense mutation (c.1832 C>A, P610Q) and the other silent mutation (c.2103 C>A, R701R).The current study pointed out the occurrence of the disease linked with mutations in specific areas of linking stimulating hormone and the interaction between the protein receptor and α-subunit for G-protein.

الخلاصة: استخدمت الدراسة الحالية90 عينة دم مقسمة إلى 35عينة من مصابين بحالة القصور في نشاط الغدة و35 عينة من مرضى فرط نشاط الغدة ومثلت بمجموعة المرضى (Patients Group )) و20 عينة من أشخاص أصحاء تمثلت بمجموعة السيطرة (Control Group ). استخلص DNA للمجموعتين وضخمت المنطقة المشفرة العاشرة (Exons 10) لجين TSHR باستخدام تقنية Polymerase Chain Reaction ( PCR) بعدها تم تشخيص الطفرات وتحليلها بطريقة التتابعSequencing . وجدت الدراسة الحاليةسبعة طفرات جديدة Novel Mutations في المنطقة المشفرة موزعة الى خمسة طفرات لدى مصابين بحالة القصور مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة (الذين لم تظهر لديهم أي نوع من الطفرات المشخصة ) وان جميع الطفرات المشخصة هي طفرات نقطية تعويضية استبدالية Substitution أما من نوع Transition أو Transversion اعتمادا على طبيعة القاعدة الطافره ثلاث منهاMissense Mutations في ثلاث مصابين بحالة القصورنسبة كل منها 20% وهي كالتالي c.1330 T>C , Y444H ; c.1424 T>C ,L475P and c.1435 T>C , S479Pو طفرتين صامتتين Silent Mutations في اثنين من مرضى بحالة القصور (c.1338 G>A, L446L and c.2300 G>A , Untranscribt ). بينما سجلت النتائج وجود طفرتين فقط في حالة الفرط في نشاط الغدة بنسبة 5.71% احدهما Missense (c.1832 C>A, P610Q ) والأخرى صامته (c.2103 C>A ,R701R ). أشارت الدراسة الحالية إلى احتمالية ارتباط الطفرات بحدوث المرض وذلك من خلال موقع الطفرات في المناطق الخاصة للارتباط بالهرمون المحفز ومنطقة التفاعل بين البروتين المستقبل و الوحدة الثانوية ألفا لكوانين- بروتين (G-protein ).


Article
A Study of FLT/ITD Mutations in Cytogenetically Normal Iraqi Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients
دراسة الطفرات الوراثية في جين FLT/ITD لبعض مرضى ابيضاض الدم الحاد العراقيين ذوي الخلايا الطبيعية

Author: Samara K. Mohammed ¹ Abdul Hussein M. AL-Faisal ¹ Mohammed S. Abbas ² Rehab S. Ramadhan ³
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2-2 Pages: 152-160
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study was designed to shed light on the molecular effects caused by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis in three cases before, during and after treatment with chemotherapy (in vitro) in lymphocytes. It was also aimed to investigate FLT3/ITD point mutations in cytogenetically normal-AML region 100-300 bp compared to healthy control. The study comprised of 30 AML Iraqi patients and their ages ranged between 2.5-81 years. It included 12 females and 18 males compared with 26 healthy controls. Results revealed that the extracted DNA from 30 AML patients and amplified by PCR to obtain FLT3/ITD gene from exon 11 to 12 showed larger bands (470 and 460) bp in 2 patients when compared to wild type (330) bp. Among six patients, three of them displayed point mutations of deletion and substitution, while the others were normal since no mutations were detected. The percentages of mutation types were substitution 77.8% and deletion 22.2%. The types of mutations were missense mutations as (55.54%), deletion (22.22%) and nonsense (22.22%).

صممت الدراسة الحالية لتسليط الضوء على التأثير الجزيئي في خلايا الدم البيضاء الناتج عن امراضية ابيضاض الدم الحاد قبل واثناء وبعد العلاج الكيميائي. هدفت الدراسة للبحث عن الطفرات الوراثية النقطية للمورث FLT3/ITD في عينات طبيعية خلوياً لمرضى ابيضاض الدم الحاد وعينات من اشخاص اصحاء شملت الدراسة 30 مريضاً تتراوح اعمارهم بين 81-2.5 سنة وشملت 12 انثى و 18 ذكر اضافة الى 26 طبيعياً.بينت النتائج بأن تضخيم الـ DNA المعزول من المرضى بطريقة تفاعل البلمرة التسلسلي للمناطق المشفرة أو الاكسونين 11 و 12 من المورث FLT3/ITD اعطى حزمتين هما 470 و 460 زوج قاعدي لمريضين مقارنة مع حزمة مفردة 330 زوج قاعدي للأصحاء.بينت النتائج ايضاً وجود طفرات وحذوف في ستة من المرضى فقط بينما كانت عينات المرضى الباقين طبيعية مثلت الطفرات الوراثية الاستبدالية نسبة %77.8 واما الحذوف فمثلت 22.2%.

Keywords

AML --- point mutation --- FLT/ITD


Article
Molecular Detection of Some Mutations Associated with Βeta-Thalassaemia in Iraq

Authors: Massoud Houshmand --- Ali A. Al-Zaag --- Norrya A. Ali --- Waleed K. Al-Murrani --- et al.
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2008 Volume: 2 no.4, 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 263-274
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

the study was carried out in period between “1 August 2005 to 30 of December 2006”.Blood samples of 80 clinically thalassaemic patients were collected from three thalassaemiacenters in Iraq, namely: Ibn Albalady central thalassaemia center in Baghdad, and also fromKerbalaa and Al-Qadissya governorates. Blood samples were also collected from 56 apparentlyhealthy individuals to serve as a control group.DNA was isolated from blood and used for molecular detection of seven types of β-thalassaemiamutations (IVS1 nt.1 G--A , IVS1nt.5 G--C, IVS1 nt.6 T--C, IVS1 nt.110 G --A, codon 39 C--T,IVS2 nt.1G--A, and IVS2 nt.745 C--G) using the PCR based technique called ARMS(Amplification Refractory Mutation System).Five out of seven of these diagnosed mutations were reported for the first time in Iraq, and themost frequent β-thalassaemia mutations were codon 39 and IVS1 nt.110 with the proportions(26.76%) and (20.34%), respectively. No IVS2nt.745 was detected within the studied samples.Genotypic distribution of the samples indicated that there is no significant difference (p > 0.05)between the frequency of homozygotes and heterozygotes within patient group, while there is asignificant difference at (P < 0.01) in comparison with the control group.The study of association between the number and the types of mutations revealed that 28(58%) ofpositive cases have single mutation in a homozygous state or heterozygous state whichsignificantly associated at (P < 0.05) with β-thalassaemia mutations, whereas 20(42%) of thesecases have compound mutations. The most frequent association appeared between IVS1 nt.110 andCodon 39 mutations.Finally, mutations within families, pointed to a positive correlation between the types of mutationsin sons or daughters and their fathers and/or mothers; this indicates the accuracy of the ARMStechnique in detection of β-thalassaemia mutations. This conclusion should be taken with cautiondue to the limited number of families.

Keywords

Beta-thalassaemia --- mutation --- ARMS-PCR --- Iraq


Article
THE INFLUENCE OF N-RAS GENE MUTATIONS ON THE RESPONSE TO INDUCTION THERAPY IN AML IRAQI PATIENTS

Authors: Nahidh K. Alwan ناهض كامل علوان --- Raad J. Musa رعد جابر موسى --- Ban A. Abdul-Majeed بان عباس عبد المجيد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 230-237
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:N-RAS mutations are the most commonly detected molecular abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, especially in those of myeloid origin.Objective:Current study aimed to determine the frequency of N-RAS mutation; and its influence on response to induction therapy in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in Iraq.Methods:Peripheral blood and bone marrow samples were taken from 58 newly diagnosed AML patients and 30 individuals with reactive bone marrow were selected as a control group. Samples screened for N-RAS gene mutations using nested PCR were followed by mutation sensitive digestion analysis (MSDA).Results:N-RAS mutations at the time of diagnosis were found in 10/58 (17.24%) patients with AML and no mutation in control individuals. Patients with mutant N-RAS showed lower complete remission (CR) than wild type, the difference was not significant (60% vs. 72.92%, P = 0.414).Conclusion:The current results provide clues for activation of RAS-signaling cascade in AML patients, supporting their role in molecular pathogenesis of leukemia. N-RAS mutations show no influence on CR rate in AML patients. Further studies on larger scale to define the prognostic significance of N-RAS mutations are recommended.Keyword:AML, N-RAS mutation, MSDA, complete remission.

Keywords

AML --- N-RAS mutation --- MSDA --- complete remission

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