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Article
Traffic Offloading in LTE System Based Heteroge-neous Networks

Author: Mahmood F. Mosleh
Journal: Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكهربائية والالكترونية ISSN: 18145892 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 152-160
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The continuous growing developments in the traffic of mobile data limits the data throughput and capacity of cellular networks. “Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)” are efficient solution to realize such demands. However, in HetNets, the congestion on the overloaded cellular network can be increased when the traffic of data is pushed from a cellular network to the Wi-Fi. In practice, offloading the cellular data traffic to a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) depending on the signal quality is a broadly deployed method to solve such problem. The use of Device to Device (D2D) communication further enhances the traffic offloading in WLAN systems and helps to obtain better throughput, end-to-end delay and network load. However, the critical offloading potential and its impacts on the whole performance is not totally understood. In this paper, the offloading of Long Term Evolution (LTE) traffic is presented using a WLAN for voice and video applications. A comparison is performed among two WLAN mecha-nisms; Distributed coordination function (DCF) and Point Coordination Function (PCF). As well, the effect of add-ing a D2D technology to the PCF is discussed. The WLAN effectively offloaded nodes at their Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) becomes more than a specific threshold. Results presented that the PCF mechanism outper-forms the DCF one in terms of packet loss ratio, throughput and the maximum load of the entire network. In addi-tion, the use of a D2D serviced in the PCF helps in further reduction in the network load.

Keywords

HetNets --- offloading --- LTE --- WLAN --- DCF --- PCF --- D2D --- SINR


Article
REDUCING DATA COST FOR INTERNET USERS IN THE MIDDLE EAST: EGYPT AS A MODEL

Author: Ahmed Haitham Najim احمد هيثم نجم
Journal: Journal of Al-Ma'moon College مجلة كلية المأمون ISSN: 19924453 Year: 2019 Issue: 34 Pages: 305-325
Publisher: AlMamon University College كلية المامون الجامعة

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Abstract

Nowadays, the usage of the internet has become a necessity to nearly every household. However, the developing countries remains to suffer from the costs of internet services especially through mobile wireless networks (Third generation network (3G) and Forth generation network (4G)) when the majority of the internet users in those countries are of low-income. This has elevated the need to reduce costs through different ways; however, not without limitations as one of the biggest obstacles in this field was finding data and information on it. The aim of this work is to moderate downloads between mobile internet and Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) in order to reduce the costs for the consumer through using the offloading techniques to manage the data consuming behavior for the customer to achieve our goal. This research will prove that we can reduce data consuming cost by more than 93% as shown in the experimental results

في الوقت الحاضر ، أصبح استخدام الإنترنت ضرورة لكل أسرة تقريبًا. ومع ذلك ، تظل البلدان النامية تعاني من تكاليف خدمات الإنترنت وبالخصوص تلك المقدمة خلال الشبكات اللاسلكية المتنقلة (شبكات الجيل الثالث 3G وشبكات الجيل الرابع 4G). وعندما يكون غالبية مستخدمي الإنترنت في تلك البلدان من ذوي الدخل المنخفض. فقد أدى ذلك إلى زيادة الحاجة إلى خفض التكاليف من خلال طرق مختلفة ؛ ومع ذلك فلا يمكن الوصول لتلك النتيجة من دون قيود وذلك لان احدى أكبر العقبات في هذا المجال هو العثور على البيانات والمعلومات المطلوبة . ان الهدف من هذا البحث هو إجراء عمليات تنزيل معتدلة بين شبكات الإنترنت عبر الجوال و خط المشترك الرقمي غير المتماثل ADSL من أجل تقليل تكاليف المستهلك. من خلال استخدام تقنيات التفريغ لإدارة سلوك استهلاك البيانات للعميل بما يحقق هدفنا. سيثبت هذا البحث أننا نستطيع تقليل تكلفة استهلاك البيانات بأكثر من 93٪ كما هو موضح في النتائج التجريبية.

Keywords

Offloading --- 3G --- ADSL --- data costs --- Wi-Fi --- cloud computing

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