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Article
Prevalence of Anaerobic Bacteria in Periodontitis in Relation to Pocket Depth

Authors: Ghada Younis Abdul-Rahman --- Suhad Muwafaq Hamdoon
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 320-328
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: : The study evaluated the prevalence of anaerobic bacteria in the subgingival plaque in periodontitis in relation to pocket depth. Materials and Methods :The study was performed on 97 sub-gingival plague sample , pockets depth were measured , anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified in relation to pockets depth. Results: In this study high prevalence of anaerobic bacteria in the periodontal pockets of patients suffering from periodontitis compared with the gingival sulcus of healthy subjects with marked shifting from mainly Gram positive facultative anaerobic bacteria in shallow pockets to mainly Gram-negative strict anaerobic bacteria in the deep pockets.Conclusion:. Anaerobic culture used in this study provided information about the susceptibility of the individuals to develop periodontal diseases. on bone.


Article
Prevalence of periodontal abscesses among patients suffering from chronic periodontitis in Iraq.

Author: Wassan Al-Zaidi وسن الزيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Little information is available regarding the prevalence and distribution of periodontal abscesses. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to provide more information about the prevalence and distribution of periodontal abscesses and its relation to other periodontal variables in order to help in the characterizing of the periodontal abscesses in relation to periodontitis.Materials and method: 105 periodontally affected patients were examined 57 male and 48 female the mean age was 43 yrs. Seventeen subjects were diagnosed with periodontal abscesses (10 male and 7 female ) their mean age was 59 yrs. The periodontal abscesses were studied by the assessment of clinical variables including both subjective (pain, redness, swelling and edema) and objective (bleeding on probing, pocket depth and plaque index).Results: It was clear that the prevalence of periodontal abscesses increase with age in both sexes but it was higher in male (10 patients) than female (7 patients) all periodontal abscesses were associated with deep periodontal pocket where the mean pocket depth was (10.7 mm ) in male and (9.7 mm ) in female, also all periodontal abscesses presented with bleeding on probing, most of abscesses scored as "severe" acute stage 90% in male and 85.72 % in female, all male patients affected with periodontal abscesses were smokers, examined patients were presented with abundant amount of plaque accumulation reflect the negligence in oral hygiene care. The mostly affected teeth were anterior teeth then premolar and molar teeth equally.Conclusion: the periodontal abscesses have clear characteristics and they are usually associated with sever periodontal destruction including deep pocket and bleeding on probing also they are correlated with smoking habit and plaque accumulation, their prevalence increase with age and it is higher in male than female


Article
Effect of Class II Amalgam and Composite Restorations on Periodontal Health of Posterior Teeth: An in vivo study

Authors: Saher S. Gasgoos --- Sarra A. AL-Sanjary
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2017 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 82-92
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background Periodontal health at the restorative gingival interface continues to represent one of the most diffcult challenges. Unfortunately, they only mimic the physical and morphological aspects of teeth, as they are limited by the absence of the ‘ideal material’ that would provide characteristics similar to the normal tooth structure. Aims To determine the influence of class II amalgam and composite restorative materials on plaque accumulation, gingivitis and periodontal pocket depth. Materials and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study. The age ranged between (21-24) years old. The sample was composed of two groups (50 patients each), with an equal ratio of males and females. The tested restoration types were: amalgam class II (MO) and composite class II (MO) of 2-3 years. The following periodontal parameters: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and pocket depth (PD) in mm were recorded for each restored tooth compared with non-restored tooth on the other side of the mouth as a control. Results The results showed that amalgam induce the higher means of plaque, gingivitis and pocket depth compared with composite. The mean of the three parameters, as compared to control group, were statistically higher in the restored amalgam surfaces (p<0.05). For composite restoration the means of the three parameters were also higher but not in signifcant levels for both plaque index and gingival Index, except for pocket depth of the restored surfaces were signifcantly higher than the controlled surfaces. However, there were no signifcant differences in the ranks of the three mesial indices of patients having amalgam in comparison with those having composite. Conclusion This study suggests that composite restorations did not have a signifcant advantage on periodontal health over amalgam restorations for Class II posterior teeth.


Article
Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in Relation to Periodontal Health Status Among a Group of Hypertensive Patients

Authors: Eman Zuhair AlMudaris --- Nadia Aftan AlRawi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 48-53
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hypertension is probably the most important public health problem around the world. People with periodontal disease may be at greater risk of hypertension. The inflammatory effects of periodontal disease help to promote endothelial dysfunction in arteries which may lead to changes in blood pressure. Salivary MMP-8 has been associated with both periodontal disease and prevalent hypertension.Aim of study: This study was conducted to measure salivary matrix metalloproteinase - 8, in relation to periodontal health condition among a group of patients with hypertension in comparison with control group.Materials and methods: Ninety subjects, aged 45-50 years old were included in this study, seeking treatment for chest pain in Ibn-AlBaytar center for cardiac surgical treatments in Baghdad, Iraq. The subjects were divided into study group (45 patient) who were diagnosed to be a hypertensive patient, and a control group (45 subject), with no hypertension. Plaque status was evaluated according to the Silness and Loe, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Unstimulated saliva was collected from all subjects to analyses MMP-8. Result: A high mean value of plaque index, clinical attachment level and probing pocket depth for the study group than the control group with statistically no significant difference. In addition to that, a significant positive correlation between the plaque index and the clinical attachment level among both groups. Salivary MMP-8 level showed a higher level in the study group than in the control group, with statistically significant difference between groups, and a significant positive correlation was detected between salivary MMP-8 with plaque index, among study group,Conclusions: Higher percentage of periodontal diseases was found among patients with blood hypertension. In addition, high level of salivary MMP-8 is potentially associated with periodontal status of the study group.


Article
Amlodipine and Oral Health

Authors: Nahla O Tawfik --- Rana Kh Atarbashe
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 111-114
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

To evaluate the oral side effect of amlodipine in patients with cardiovascular disease, also to study the effect of improving oral health on the possibility of development of gingival over growth. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 patients (pretreated group) with cardiovascular disease who had been prescribed amlodipine for the first time, aged ranged between 30-63 years. Clinical examinations (plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and gingival over growth scores) were conducted under standardized illumination with plain dental mirror and a periodontal probe. The screening was done twice, the 1st assessment was collected at base line (pretreatment) visit before the first dose of the amlodipine and they received non surgical periodontal therapy (scaling, root planning and home care instruction) to get them to base line, but the 2nd assessment was done at the end of trial period at 12 week assessments (post treated). Results: The result obtained showed that the mean values of PI and BOP in post group were significantly lower than pre group (p<0.05), While for the PPD, GO the mean values in the post group were higher than mean value in the pre group with significant difference for GO (p<0.05) and no significant difference for PPD (p>0.05).Conclusion: The study concluded that amlodipine therapy had got its influence on GO and that improvement in oral health represent a scientifically sound complementary intervention in reducing both the occurrence of GO and inflammatory levels in the systemic circulation.


Article
Periodontal Pocket Depth in Relation to Salivary Osteonectin among Osteoporotic Old Adult Women
عمق جيب اللثة وعلاقته بالبروتين اللعابي لمرضى هشاشة العظام من النساء كبار السن

Author: Hiba F. Al-Sekab
Journal: Al-Rafidain University College For Sciences مجلة كلية الرافدين الجامعة للعلوم ISSN: 16816870 Year: 2016 Issue: 38 Pages: 97-110
Publisher: Rafidain University College كلية الرافدين الجامعة

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Abstract

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength The association between systemic osteoporosis and periodontal health remains controversial many studies found a relationship between clinical measures of periodontal disease and salivary levels of osteonectin asit is essential for normal bone mass. This study was conducted to measure salivary osteonectin in relation to periodontal pocket depth among osteoporotic women and compared to control group.Materials and Methods: 60 females aged 60-65 years attending Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital were included in the present study , The 30 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis by measuring bone density at the spine and femur with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at T-score of >2.5, and 30 women without osteoporosis with T-score of<-1 (control group). The periodontal health condition was assessed using periodontal pocket depth . Stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition, according to the criteria of Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, (1994). The saliva was analyzed for estimation of glycoprotein (osteonectin) by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: The data of the present study illustrates that the mean rank value of probing pocket depth (PPD) was found to be higher among control group than osteoporotic women but the difference was not significant in addition the mean rank value of both ≥4 and ≥5 thresholds of PPD was found to be higher among osteoporotic women than control groups, while opposite figure was found concerning PPD ≥3, however all these differences were statistically not significant. Analysis among osteoporotic group revealed that the salivary osteonectin correlate very weakly not significantly in positive direction with all threshold Conclusions: The Osteoporosis associated with decreased bone mineral density had an effect on oral health status, leading to an increase in periodontal disease. This was slightly affected by changes in salivary osteonectin. Therefore old adult women may need special oral health preventive and educational programs.

ترقق العظام حالة تتميز بانخفاض كتلة العظام خاصة في كبار السن. يمكن استخدام اللعاب كسائل للتحليل للمؤشرات الحيوية البشرية لدوره في نمو العظام مثل البروتين اللعابي) أوستيونيكتين( التي تؤدي بدورها إلى تأثير سلبي على حالة صحة الفم والأسنان. الاهداف من الدراسة: ان الغرض من الدراسة هو تقييم مستويات العلامات البيولوجية والبروتين اللعابي )أوستيونيكتين( وتأثيره على أمراض اللثة بين كبار السن من النساء المصابات بهشاشه العظام ومقارنتهم مع اقرانهم من نفس الجنس الغير مصابات بهشاشه العظام.المواد والطرائق :اشتملت الدراسة على مجموعة من الاناث البالغين وعددهم 60 باعمار تتراوح بين 60 -65 سنة من المراجعات لمستشفى اليرموك التعليمي , 60 انثى شخصت باصابتها بهشاشه العظام قبل اخذ اي علاج و 60 انثى تشتمل على نفس المواصفات ولكن ليس لديهم اي تشخيص بالاشعه لضعف العظم. وجمعت العينة اللعابية تحت ظروف موحدة وتم جمع اللعاب المحفز بطريقة (Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, 1994) ومن ثم تم تحليلها لتقدير البروتين اللعابي عن طريق تقنيه قياس الانزيم المناعي المرتبط ) ( ELISA )النتائج: توضح البيانات الخاصة بهذه الدراسة أن نسبه مدى حدوث و عمق الجيب (PPD) وجد أعلى ضمن مجموعه النساء غير المصابات بهشاشه العظام مقارنه بالنساء المصابات، لكن الفرق لم يكن كبيرا. كما ان نسبه مدى حدوث و عمق الجيب كانت أعلى بين مجموعة النساء المصابات بهشاشه العظام في ≤ 4 و ≤ 5ملم وأقل في ≤ 3 ٠ مم. ومع ذلك لا يوجد فرق معنوي في عمق الجيب بين المجموعتين. كان مستوى البروتين اللعابي ( أوستيونيكتين) أقل لدى النساء المصابات بهشاشه العظام , كما أظهرت الدراسه وجود علاقة إيجابية مع عمق الجيب وفقدان مستوى ارتفاع اللثه لدى النساء المصابات بهشاشه العظام مقارنه بغير المصابات مع عدم وجود فرق معنوي.الاستنتاجات: هشاشة العظام المرتبطة بانخفاض كثافة العظام يكون لها تأثير على حالة صحة الفم والأسنان،مما يؤدي إلى زيادة في امراض اللثة التي تتأثر أيضا بالتغييرات في الخصائص الفيزيائية خاصة البروتين اللعابي )أوستيونيكتين (الذي كان أقل، وبالتالي تؤثر على صحة الفم بين النساء كبار السن ويحتاج الى برامج وقائية وتثقيفية في صحة الفم والأسنان.


Article
Periodontal Health Condition and Salivary Parameters Among a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Al- Najaf City

Authors: Bayan Jaber Hussein, --- Yamama Adnan Abdulla --- Selma Merza Hasan,
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 6 Pages: 101-108
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis (PD), the most common oral disease, is a destructive inflammatory disease of the teeth supporting tissues and is caused by group of specific microorganisms included: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetem-comedias and this condition is categorized by both destruction of connective tissue and alveolar bone due to a chronic inflammation. In periodontitis the clinical findings of bone resorption and the clinical attachment loss around the tooth are a result of inflammatory mediated alterations to remodeling balance of the bone.Material and Method: The samples consist of 60 female participants, 30 were in healthy condition (not suffering from systemic disease and not taking any medication) and 30 with rheumatoid arthritis, with age between (40-45) years. Periodontal status of the two groups was assessed by measuring the probing pocket depth, periodontal attachment loss, plaque index, calculus index and gingival index and salivary sample were collected after subjecting all participants for saliva stimulation and measuring the salivary PH and flow rate for them.Results: The rheumatoid arthritis(RA) group showed a highly significant difference in probing pocket depth(PPD), Plaque index(PI),gingival index(GI),calculus index(CAL.I) and loss of attachment(L.A) compared to Non-RA group, while there is significantly decrease in salivary flow rate among RA patients when compared to control groups and there is no significant difference in salivary PH between two groups. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence of a highly significant relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease this may be due to the similar pathophysiology nature of both diseases.

المقدمة: التهاب اللثة (PD)، من أمراض الفم الأكثر شيوعا، هو مرض مدمر للأنسجه الأسنان الرابطة وسببه مجموعة من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة المحددة اللثوية Porphyromonas Prevotella ،Tannerella ،Aggregatibacter actinomycetem هذه الحالة يعود اليها تدمير كلا الأنسجة الضامة والعظم السنخي بسبب التهاب اللثة المزمن. النتائج السريرية للألتهاب اللثة من تأكل العضم السنخي وفقدان الروابط النسيجية حول الاسنان هي نتيجة التعديلات التي تتوسط فيها الالتهابات للتوازن واعاده تشكيل العظام.ارتشاح الالتهابات بين طبقه البلاك (الجير) والعظم السنخي والأنسجة الضامة تقيم استجابة المضيف المناعية للبكتريا. نواتج المضيف الأنزيمية والمواد التي تحلل المواد خارج الخلية مما تقود الى تأكل بالعظم السنخي مما ينتج عنه خساره لا رجعه فيها من فقدان الأنسجة الضامة.المواد وطرائق العمل: العينات تتكون من 60 مشاركا من الإناث (30بحاله صحيه طبيعية و 30 يعانون من الروماتيزم الرثوي) مع التقدم في السن ما بين (40-45) سنة. تم تقييم الوضع الصحي للثة لكلا المجموعتين عن طريق قياس عمق الجيب اللثوي ,فقدان الانسجة الرابطة, مؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية, مؤشر الكلس, مؤشر التهاب اللثة. عينات اللعاب تم تجميعها لكلا المجموعتين بعد تعرض المشاركين لعمليه تحفيز اللعاب وقياس PH اللعابية ومعدل تدفق اللعاب بالنسبة لهم.النتائج :اظهرت مجموعه الروماتيزم الرثوي فرقا كبيرا جدا في عمق الجيب اللثوي, مؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية , مؤشر التهاب اللثة ,مؤشر الكلس, معدل فقدان الانسجة الرابطة مقارنه مع المجموعة الطبيعية الاخرى بينما وجد هناك نقصان واضح في معدل تدفق اللعاب في مجموعه الروماتيزم الرثوي مقارنه مع مجموعه السيطرة في حين لم يوجد اي فرق ملحوظ في PH اللعابية بين المجموعتين.الاستنتاج : تقدم نتائج هذه الدراسة دليلا على وجود علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية بين التهاب المفاصل الروماتيزي وأمراض اللثة، وهذا قد يكون راجعا إلى الطبيعة الفيزيولوجية المرضية المماثلة لكلا المرضين.


Article
Evaluation of serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies level in rheumatoid patients with and without periodontitis

Author: Fatin M. Jarallah فاتن جار الله
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 83-87
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are widely prevalent diseases and are characterized bytissue destruction due to chronic inflammation. Recently, there is growing evidence that the two diseases sharemany pathological features. An association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis has been consideredmany years ago. The current study was established to evaluate the serum ACCP levels in rheumatoid arthritis patientswith and without periodontitis, in addition to study the correlation between serum ACCP levels and periodontalparameters.Subjects and methods: A total of 95 subjects were enrolled in this study, age ranged (35 – 55) years divided into 3groups: Group I consist of 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients with periodontitis, while group II consist of 35 rheumatoidarthritis patients without periodontitis and group ÉÉÉ which consist of 15 apparently- healthy controls. . Periodontalparameters used in this study were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinicalattachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Blood samples were collected from each subject todetermine serum concentrations of ACCP by means of enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA).Results: present study revealed that serum ACCP levels were significantly higher in rheumatoid patients withperiodontitis (P<0.001) than that in other two groups. Regarding the correlation between serum ACCP levels andperiodontal parameters, the current study showed positive correlation between serum ACCP and each of plaqueindex, gingival index and probing pocket depth.Conclusion: The current results provide strong evidence of association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis,and suggested that periodontitis may play an important role in activation and triggering immune response

Keywords

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis --- RA and periodontitis --- PD are widely prevalent diseases and are characterized by tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation. Recently --- there is growing evidence that the two diseases share many pathological features. An association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis has been considered many years ago. The current study was established to evaluate the serum ACCP levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients with and without periodontitis --- in addition to study the correlation between serum ACCP levels and periodontal parameters. Subjects and methods: A total of 95 subjects were enrolled in this study --- age ranged --- 35 – 55 years divided into 3 groups: Group I consist of 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients with periodontitis --- while group II consist of 35 rheumatoid arthritis patients without periodontitis and group ÉÉÉ which consist of 15 apparently- healthy controls. . Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index --- PI --- gingival index --- GI --- probing pocket depth --- PPD --- clinical attachment level --- CAL and bleeding on probing --- BOP. Blood samples were collected from each subject to determine serum concentrations of ACCP by means of enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay --- ELISA. Results: present study revealed that serum ACCP levels were significantly higher in rheumatoid patients with periodontitis --- P<0.001 than that in other two groups. Regarding the correlation between serum ACCP levels and periodontal parameters --- the current study showed positive correlation between serum ACCP and each of plaque index --- gingival index and probing pocket depth. Conclusion: The current results provide strong evidence of association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis --- and suggested that periodontitis may play an important role in activation and triggering immune response

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