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Article
The role of small projects in the Iraq economy after 2003 the reality and challenges
دور المشاريع الصغيرة في الاقتصاد العراقي بعد عام2003الواقع والتحديات

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Abstract

Small projects occupies extreme importance in the economies of the world all nations, regardless of the degree of development and different economic concepts because of their role represented an increase of national income and employment and reduce the level of unemployment and poverty and on the other hand to meet large enterprise needs of the citizens of various consumer goods and that is reflected in turn positively on the level individual, family and improve the standard of living, health, education level and provide the possibilities of a decent life for members of the community income, in Iraq, is a small industrial projects backbone for being top of the summit on medium and large projects at least five (90 account (% during the period between 2003 and 2012 and rates run labor ranging from (30% -40%) in the years 2003-2012 the overall project and for that was chosen this topic for research.

تحتلالمشاريعالصغيرةأهميةبالغةفياقتصادياتدولالعالمكافةبغضالنظرعندرجةتطورهاواختلافمفاهيمهاالاقتصاديةلمالهادورمتمثلبزيادةالدخلالقوميوتشغيلالأيديالعاملةوتقليلمستوىالبطالةوالفقر ومنجهةأخرىتلبي المشاريعالكبيرةاحتياجات المواطنين من مختلف السلع الاستهلاكيةوالذيينعكسبدورهايجابياعلىمستوىدخلالفردوالأسرةوتحسينالمستوىالمعيشيوالصحيوالتعليميوتوفيرإمكانياتالحياةالكريمةلأفرادالمجتمع،ففيالعراقتعدالمشاريعالصناعيةالصغيرةالعمودالفقريلكونهاتتصدرالقمةعلىحسابالمشاريعالمتوسطةوالكبيرةمالاتقلعن(۹۰ (%خلالالفترةما بين۲۰۰۳و۲۰۱۲وبنسبتشغيلللأيديالعاملةتتراوحمابين(30%-40%) عامي 2003-2012فيمجملالمشاريعولأجلذلكتماختيارهذاالموضوعمنأجلالبحث.


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Abstract

The architectural studies consider as part of cognitive studies in most of worldlyuniversities .The investigation includes six final projects from both countries. Thecomparative study is made between these two samples which are artistic presentationpoint of view and the scientific point of view. The former includes the efficiency ofpresentation, colours and writings. While the latter includes the type of design whetherit is urban design or single buildings, way of thinking i:e input, output, diagrams,analysis, human and visual scales, details about the used materials and drawings, typeof structure land scapins.) Which consider as determiners in architecture engineering onthe basisis that architecture is a mixture of since and art. The researcher propose that there are many differences in the syllabuses ,customs , circumstances and other technical materials of the two countries. The studyhas got by using the analysis on the description of the samples results which denote thatthere are differences in comparative elements. Then we have got different conclusions with respect of two groups of samples.


Article
Design and evalution of a solar PV system
تصميم وتقسيم منظومة للالواح الشمسية

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Abstract

PV connected systems are worldwide installed because it allows consumer to reduce energy consumption from the electricity grid. This paper presents the results obtained from monitoring a 1.1 kWp. The system was monitored for nine months and all the electricity generated was fed to the fifth floor for physics and renewable energy building 220 V, 50 Hz. Monthly, and daily performance parameters of the PV system are evaluated which include: average generated of system Ah per day, average system efficiency, solar irradiation around these months. The average generated kWh per day was 8 kWh/day, the average solar irradiation per day was 5.6 kWh/m2/day, the average inverter efficiency was 95%, the average modules efficiency was 12%.

تم تنصيب منظومات الخلايا الشمسية بشكل واسع وذلك لمساهمة المستخدم بتقليل القدرة المستهلكة من الشبكة الوطنية. وهذه النشرية تعطي نتائج تم استحصالها من مراقبة منظومة طاقة شمسية بقدرة 1.1 كيلو . واط وهذه المنظومة تم مراقبتها لمدة تسعة اشهر والكهرباء المتولدة تم تغذيتها الى الطابق الخامس في بناية الفيزياء و الطاقات المتجددة بواقع 220 فولت 50هيرتز وتشخيص معاملات المنظومة شهريا ويوميا والتقييم تضمن معدل التوليد للنظام بالامبير.ساعة لكل يوم وكفاءة المنظومة وتقييم الاشعاع الشمسي خلال هذه الأشهر, ومعدل الكيلو وط ساعة المتولدة كانت 8 كيلو .واط ساعة يوميا ومعدل الاشعاع الشمسي 5.6 كيلو .واط ساعة / المتر المربع يوميا, وكفاءة عاكس الفولتية 95% وكانت كفاءة الالواح بحدود 12%.


Article
Predicting the Delivery Time of Public School Building Projects Using Nonlinear Regression

Authors: Zeyad S. M. Khaled --- Raid S. Abid Ali --- Mussab Faleh Hassan
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1538-1548
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The delay in delivering public school building projects in Iraq is one of the major problems that face the construction of new school buildings. In order to enable the concerned governmental agencies to predict the expected delivery time of these projects at the time of contract assignment, two forecasting modelsare developed to aid in this matter. After reviewing a wide range of literature to determine the most common causes of delay, a questionnaire is distributed to owners, consultants, supervising engineers and contractors engaged in public school building projects. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using the relative importance index. Nine most important causes of delay in public school building projects were assured by the respondents namely; the contractor's financial status, delayed interim payments, change orders, contractor rank(classification), work stoppages, contract value, experience of the supervising engineers, contract duration and delay penalty. Historical data concerning these causes was extracted from past records of the General Directorate of School Buildings, thennonlinear regressionwasemployedto develop two models (A & B)that can predict the final delivery time of public school building projectshaving (12) and (18) classes separately, where the Levenberg-Marquardt technique was used to develop the mathematical equations.The developedprediction equations show a degree of average accuracy of (97.79%) for schoolshaving (12) classes and (97.11%) for schools having (18) classes,with (R2) for both NLR models of (81.25%) and (87.58%) respectively.


Article
Controlling of Time-Overrun in Construction Projects in Iraq

Authors: T.A. Khaleel --- I.Z. Hadi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 2 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 111-117
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper is about analyzing time overrun in construction projects. The principle targets are centered on researching the causes, effects and strategies for controlling time over-run in development ventures in Iraq. The study has been accomplished based on previous researches in addition to a questionnaire form and case studies. Forty-two factors of time overrun causes under four main responsible parties were distinguished (owner, consultant, contractor, others). Eight major impacts of time overrun were also identified. The questionnaire form was formulated based on the above data and was distributed to the selected respondents which are professionals in construction industry. Depending on the results of the questionnaire form, the major origin of time overrun was found that the contractor is the responsible for most of the time overrun (i.e. Contractor's financial difficulties Shortage of skilled manpower and the other causes related to him). The most important two impacts of time overrun were Increase the cost of the project, Quality degradation and Increasing in overhead expenses, the highest percentage of time-overrun in the nine existed project 319% and the most common causes were (change in economic condition and Company's lack of experience).According to the research findings a management system has been proposed to control on the time overrun in construction projects.


Article
Bidding Strategy and Cash Flow Forecasting in Private Construction Companies in Iraq

Author: T.A. Khaleel
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 3 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 254-260
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The sector of Private Construction Companies is one of the most important sectors in construction market in IRAQ. This sector played an important role in the last ten years in the Iraqi construction field. The idea of this research came from the hardly competitive bidding among these many private companies, and because of the lack of knowledge by many of these companies about the bidding strategy theories. This research is a trial to create a balanced condition of the bidding price for the contractor. The average bidding strategy method depends on historical data for the bidders and it is a relationship between the added percentage of profit and the winning probability. An important factor is inserted in this research, which is the maximum fiscal deficit that is facing the contractor during construction period of any project; this deficit is the difference between the received discounted payments and the cost of finished works for any period during construction. The contractor apply the bidding strategy method to lower his profit margin to the lowest certain extent to rise the opportunity to win the contract. Nevertheless, he forget that the lowest profit margin leads to highest cash deficit during construction. A survey was done for a contract construction company in the private sector in Iraq, where the competition is more clearly than the governmental sector, by collecting data for (5) competitive companies in (16) projects. By using the average bid method, to determine the added (12%) of profit the winning probability was (9%), and from the analysis of the cash flow forecasting curve the maximum fiscal deficit will be IQD (8,972,000) at the second month of the project execution duration. By applying the resultant equation and to lower the deficit through rising profit by (0.1%) the winning opportunity will be decrease by (0.6%). In this research, a relationship is drawn between the profit margin and the maximum deficit for project, and finally a relationship is drawn between the deficit and the winning opportunity of the contract. Both of these two relationships are linear, and the important results are that any contract should apply both average bid method and cash deficit method at the same time, according to the economic condition to its firm.


Article
Post-evaluation of the strategic projects of the Directorate of Public Municipalities - Case study for the period (2004-2015)
التقييم اللاحق للمشاريع الإستراتيجية التابعة لمديرية البلديات العامة دراسة حالة للمدة (2004 - 2015 )

Authors: سناء عبد الرحيم سعيد --- حاتم عطا مسلم
Journal: journal of Economics And Administrative Sciences مجلة العلوم الاقتصادية والإدارية ISSN: 2227 703X / 2518 5764 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 102 Pages: 71-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The research aims at conducting a follow-up evaluation of a number of strategic projects implemented by the Directorate of Public Municipalities, one of the Ministry of Construction, Housing and Municipalities and Public Works. The sample included (35) varied strategic projects implemented in most Iraqi governorates. Buildings, municipal buildings, minarets, massacres, multi-story parking, paving and rehabilitation of streets and residential neighborhoods. The difference between the actual and planned times and costs of these projects was then measured and analyzed. These projects were used as a tool for collecting data and information. The questionnaire included four axes, each representing one of the parties to the project, which may be a cause of delay (employer, contractor, consultant, etc.) in an attempt to explore as many views as possible. And the results of the research were obtained through the use of the statistical program (SPSS). The most important recommendations of the research were the need to develop appropriate policies and controls for decision-making and development of these policies in accordance with the interest of the work, in order to save the decision maker time to make the right decisions, and the need to study the project documents in depth in order to avoid errors during implementation, And to minimize the additional work as much as possible because of the negative impact on the time and cost of the project, and the need to work on the implementation of the prequalification program for contractors and companies, and attention to the continuation of the process of training and development (Project management fundamentals, planning, organization, risk management, feasibility study, quality management, time management), project management and project management. , As well as attention to the information provided by feedback on the employees and give importance to the administrative organization and performance reports related to the development of workers.

المستخلصيهدف البحث إلى إجراء التقييم اللاحق لعدد من المشاريع الإستراتيجية المنفذة من قبل مديرية البلديات العامة إحد تشكيلات وزارة الاعمار والإسكان والبلديات والاشغال العامة , حيث شملت عينة البحث (35) مشروعاً إستراتيجياً متنوعاً تم تنفيذها في معظم المحافظات العراقية , إذ تم إختيار مجموعة متباينة من المشاريع ( أبنية ومقرات بلدية, مجسرات, مجازر, موقف سيارات متعدد طوابق تبليط وتأهيل شوارع وأحياء سكنية ), إذ تم في البداية قياس الإختلاف بين الأوقات والكلف الفعلية والمخططة لهذه المشاريع وتحليل نسب إنجازها, بعد ذلك وفي محاولة للوقوف على أهم أسباب التلكؤ لهذه المشاريع تم إستخدام الإستبانة كأداة لجمع البيانات والمعلومات, وشملت الإستبانة أربعة محاور يمثل كل منها أحد أطراف المشروع التي قد تكون سبباً من أسباب التلكؤ وهي (رب العمل, المقاول, الإستشاري, أسباب أخرى) وذلك في محاولة لإستطلاع رأي أكبر قدر ممكن من وجهات نظر أطراف المشروع وعدم الإقتصار على وجهة نظر جهة دون أخرى, وتم التوصل الى نتائج البحث من خلال إستخدام البرنامج الإحصائي ( SPSS ), ولعل من أبرز هذه النتائج إن أكبر نسبة من التلكؤ كان سببها رب العمل يليه المقاول ثم الإستشاري , ووجود زيادة كبيرة في أوقات وكلف التنفيذ الفعلية بالمقارنة مع أوقات وكلف التنفيذ المخططة لأغلب المشاريع الإستراتيجية, أما أهم التوصيات التي خرج بها البحث فكانت وجوب وضع السياسات والضوابط المناسبة لاتخاذ القرارات وتطوير هذه السياسات وفقاً لمصلحة العمل، وبما يوفر الوقت على صانع القرار في اتخاذ القرارات السليمة, وضرورة العمل على دراسة وثائق المشروع بشكل معمق لتجنب ظهور الأخطاء أثناء التنفيذ , وضرورة دراسة العقود الخاصة بالمشاريع دراسة مستفيضة منعاً للإجتهاد في تفسيرها , والتقليل من الأعمال الإضافية قدر الامكان لما لها من تأثير سلبي على وقت وكلفة المشروع , وضرورة العمل على تطبيق برنامج التأهيل المسبق للمقاولين والشركات, والإهتمام بإستمرارية عملية تدريب وتطوير العاملين في تخطيط وتنفيذ المشاريع بمختلف مستوياتهم ودرجاتهم الوظيفية بهدف إكسابهم المهارات التي تساعد على رفع مستوى أدائهم ورفع قدراتهم وتنمية معلوماتهم حول إدارة المشاريع ومخاطر التأخير مثل ( أساسيات إدارة, التخطيط التنظيم, إدارة المخاطر , دراسة الجدوى , إدارة الجودة , تنظيم الوقت ) وكذلك الإهتمام بالمعلومات التي توفرها التغذية العكسية عن العاملين وإعطاء أهمية للتنظيم الإداري وتقارير الاداء ذات الصلة بتطوير العاملين .


Article
Building a Tool to Evaluate Students' Projects in the Department of Design
بناء أداة لتقويم مشاريع طلبة قسم التصميم

Authors: م. زينب رضا حمودي --- م.د. عامر عبد الرضا عبد الحسين
Journal: Journal of Nabo مجلة نابو ISSN: 24114650 Year: 2019 Volume: 22 Issue: 25 Pages: 116-159
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The present research deals with (Building a tool to evaluate students' projects in the department of design). It includes four chapters, the first of which is devoted to the methodological framework of research. The second chapter deals with the theoretical framework and previous studies. The theoretical part includes two sections: the first section is concerned with studying the concept of evaluation whereas the second talks about the data (students' projects). The third chapter involves the procedures of the research and its community which is limited to the projects of the department of design students. A sample of (10) projects of art have been adopted. Chapter four comes with the findings and conclusions of the research as well as recommendations and implications for future research work. The results of the research tool include: (1) the aesthetic side scores the first position with the degree of (3) and the frequency of (15) which means (100%). This finding explains the importance of this side of artistic work, (2) the creative side comes in second position with a degree of (2.93) and a frequency of (14) and this means (93.33%).

تناول البحث الحالي (بناء أداة لتقويم مشاريع طلبة قسم التصميم) تضمن البحث اربعة فصول، ضم الأول منها: الإطار المنهجي للبحث. وتناول الفصل الثاني الإطار النظري والدراسات السابقة، بينما تضمن الإطار النظري مبحثين، اهتم الأول منها بدراسة مفهوم التقويم. أما المبحث الثاني تحدث عن مادة المشروع. بينما ضم الفصل الثالث إجراءات البحث وقد تضمن مجتمع البحث مشاريع طلبة قسم التصميم. واعتماد عينة منه البالغة (10) اعمال فنية لمشاريع الطلبة. وجاء الفصل الرابع بنتائج واستنتاجات البحث فضلاً عن التوصيات والمقترحات. ومن تلك النتائج التي تمخضت عن أداة البحث: (1. جاءت فقرة (الجانب الجمالي) في المركز الأول حيث حصلت على (3) درجة حدة وبمعدل (15) تكرار وبنسبة مئوية 100% لأهمية هذا الجانب في العمل الفني. 2. الجانب الإبداعي: جاءت في المرتبة الثانية وقد حصلت على (2.93) درجة حدة وبمعدل (14) تكرار وبنسبة مئوية (93.33%))


Article
Shortage Sanitation Services in the Outskirts of Baghdad and its Environmental Impacts

Authors: Alaa R.H. Al-Obaidi --- Sara D.A. Zangana --- Saja H.S. Al-Sudany
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2019 Volume: 37 Issue: 1 Part (c) special Pages: 1-5
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Abstract- This study focuses on evaluation of the reality of wastewater services inthe areas of outskirts of Baghdad which the responsibility of their implementationrests on the province of Baghdad and the ministry of construction and housing andgeneral municipalities/ the General Directorate of Sewerage GDS, and to suggestthe possibility to improve these services in light of the plans developed by theconcerned authorities and the proportion of disability in the services suffered bythose areas. The study concluded that the completion of the stopped project becauseof the financial crisis will raise the proportion of serves population toapproximately 71.4%, and the construction of new projects will raise theproportion to approximately 100%


Article
Study Scientific Methods for Small Project Selection in an Iraqi Environment

Authors: SawsanSabeeh Al-Zubaidy --- EsraaIbrahiemAl-Bayati
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 9 Pages: 334-343
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The Research aims to study the scientific methods of selecting the best project in a specific environment. The selection of the best small project is an important step for any executive authority or contractor and it is essential for achieving a specific goal (whether it is a profit or provision of certain goods or any other objective). In order to have a true choice, the project evaluation will be the basis of choice. ؛ Project evaluation defined as the an organizedassemblage of data about the activities characteristic and results of actions or activities, for determining its value. It can afford a plurality of significant information project's outcomes; it is a systematicmethod of reflecting on and calculating the wealth of what is being done (i.e. project, events,and program). Evaluation is usuallyunderstood as a product or an activity taking place at the end of a project. However, evaluation should be considered as a process, occurring across all phases of a project, used for determining what doesoccurred and if the early project objectives have been achieved.The aim of this paperis to study the scientific approaches and steps to make a decision to select the best small projects in a specific environment for implementing within the constraints of the investor and the governorate strategic plan.

يهدف البحث إلى دراسة الأساليب العلمية لاختيار أفضل مشروع في بيئة محددة. إن اختيار أفضل مشروع صغير هو خطوة مهمة لأي سلطة تنفيذية أو مقاول وهو ضروري لتحقيق هدف محدد (سواء كان ربحًا أو توفيرًا لبعض السلع أو أي هدف آخر). من أجل الحصول على اختيار حقيقي، سيكون تقييم المشروع هو أساس الاختيار. إنه الجمع المنهجي للمعلومات حول الأنشطة المميزة ونتائج النشاط أو الإجراء، من أجل تحديد قيمته أو جدارة. يمكن أن يوفر العديد من المعلومات الهامة عن نتائج المشروع؛ إنها طريقة منتظمة للتأمل وتقييم قيمة ما يجري (أي مشروع أو برنامج أو حدث). عادة ما يتم تفسير التقييم على أنه منتج نهائي أو نشاط يجري في نهاية المشروع. ومع ذلك، ينبغي اعتبار التقييم بمثابة عملية، تحدث في جميع مراحل المشروع، وتستخدم لتحديد ما حدث وما إذا كانت الأهداف الأولية للمشروع قد نفذت وحققت. تهدف هذه الورقة إلى دراسة الأساليب والخطوات العلمية لاتخاذ قرار لاختيار أفضل المشاريع الصغيرة في بيئة محددة للتنفيذ ضمن قيود المستثمر والخطة الاستراتيجية للمحافظة.

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