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Article
A COMPUTATION FLUID DYNAMIC INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF BAFFLES IN POTABLE WATER TREATMENT PLANT PROCESS TANKS IN IRAQ
تحقيق ديناميِكية حسابِ المائعِ في استعمال ِالحواجز في أحواضِ محطات معالجةِ الماءِ الصالح للشرب في العراق

Author: ALI H. GHAWI د. علي هادي غاوي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2009 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 94-107
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

The reaction that takes place in a process tank is in a large way dependent on the internal hydraulics of the tank, irrespective of the type of tank. In some tanks mixing is desirable in others plug flow is desirable. In most tanks it is very hard to achieve either of the two. This is partially due to the fact that the area through which the fluid enters the tank is small in relation to the tank cross sectional, complex geometries and changes of fluid direction. Baffles can in some cases offer cost effective and simple solutions. This paper demonstrates how Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) can be used to improve process tanks performance in Iraq water treatment plant by the introduction of baffles.

التفاعل الذي يَحْدثُ في أحواض معالجة مياه الشرب عَلى نَحوٍ كبير معتمدة على الهيدروليكية الداخلية للأحواض، بصرف النّظر عن نوعِ الحوضِ. في بَعْض الأحواض تكون عملية الجريان الممزوج مرغوبة و البعض الأخر تكون عملية الجريان المتدفقِِ مرغوبُة. في أكثر الأحواض من الصعب جداً ان يحصل الاثنان معا". هذهً الحقيقة بسبب إن منطقة دخول المائع إلى الحوض صغيرة بالنسبة إلى مساحة الحوض, الشكل المعقدة للحوض و التغير في اتجاه الجريان . المصدات لها القدرة على تقلل كلفة معالجة الماء الصالح للشرب في محطات المعالجة و كذلك توفر حلول سهلة و بسيطة في عملية المعالجة و لمختلف أحواض المعالجةِ. هذه الدراسة أثبتت كيفية ان ديناميكية حساب المائع (CFD) يمكن أن تُستَعملَ لتحسّينُ أداءُ الأحواض المستخدمة في محطات معالجة مياه الشرب في العراق و بتالي الحصول على نوعية مطابقة للمواصفات العالمية لنوعية الماء الصالح للشرب باستخدام المصدات.


Article
The Optimal Operation of Haditha Reservoir by Discrete Differential Dynamic Programming (DDDP)

Author: Nesrin J. AL-Mansori
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2017 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 1206-1211
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The aim of the present research is to find the best optimal policy for monthly operation of Haditha Reservoir for 24 years ( from 1990 to 2014 ) in order to minimize the total penalties taken place due to both releases and storage when exceeded the limited allowable values by using Discrete Differential Dynamic Programming (DDDP). The results of this study used to find a suitable probability distribution of the values of storage. The log normal distribution for three parameters was found to be the best distribution for determination the operation curves values

الهدف الرئيسي من هذا البحث لايجاد افضل تشغيل شهري لخزان حديثة لمدة 24 سنة من عام 1990 الى 2014 ..لايجاد اقل فواقد تحدث نتيجة كلا التجهيز والخزن عندما يتجاوز الحد المسموح بأستخدام برمجة التفاضلية الحركية المنفصلة . النتائج استخدمت لايجاد التوزيع الاحتمالي لقيم الخزن ..وقد تبين ان التوزيع الطبيعي لثلاث محددات هو افضل توزيع لايجاد افضل منحني التشغيل.


Article
Experimental Investigation about the Parameters that Effect on Evap-oration from Sub-storage Reservoir

Authors: Isam M. Abdulhameed --- Ammar Hatem Kamelb --- Sura Ibraheemc
Journal: Anbar Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة الأنبار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19979428 Year: 2018 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 260-266
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Management of water resources become one of the most important subjects in the human's life. The water sustains life on earth, therefore; more care for water management is necessary. In the last years, studies show water use will be more in the world as result of rapid increase in population, industrialization, and urbanization etc. The evaporation losses from dam's reservoirs and lagoon form very huge losses in water resources. The annual evaporation depth losses in Iraqi Western Desert is about (2.25 -3) meter, this depth store the highest percentage of the small dams. Sub-surface storage reduces evaporation losses and maintains water quality by minimizing salt concentration. In present study, three tanks are used to simulate the subsurface reservoirs to study the effectiveness of underground storage on reducing the evaporation loss. Each tank have squares cross section tanks of (80) cm length and (40) cm depth and filled up to (34) cm with different graded soil (labeled as A, B with coarse soil, and D with fine soil) to simulate the storage below the ground. While the forth tank filled with water (labeled as C) to represent the reservoir of direct evaporation for comparison study. The present study considers three parameters that can controlled the evaporation from subsurface reservoirs: (a) temperature variation, (b) water table variation, and (c) material properties such as porosity. The field study continues for four months, it was started at Jun.11, 2016 and ended at Dec. 15, 2016 in the Erbil city at north of Iraq. The results showed evaporation losses are reduced by using subsurface storage reservoir with gravel in comparison with free surface evaporation. The evaporation losses are reduced about 46 % , 39% , 64% when the water table below gravel surface range from 5 to 10 cm , while at 20 cm depth of the water table the evaporation reduction is about (85 % to 86% 95%) from A, B and D tanks with porosity 0.65 ,0.67 and o.35 for A ,B and D tanks, respectively..


Article
Setting-up a 3D Integrated Petrophysical Model Using Petrel software for Mishrif Formation in Garraf Oil Field, Southern Iraq
بناء موديل بتروفيزيائي متكامل ثلاثي الابعاد باستخدام برنامج البتريل لتكوين المشرف في حقل الغراف النفطي، جنوب العراق

Authors: Ameen I. Al-Yasi أمين ابراهيم الياسي --- Mustafa A. Jaed مصطفى عبدالحسين جاعد --- Firas N. Hasan فراس ناظم حسن
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 1C Pages: 678-692
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Setting-up a 3D geological model both from field and subsurface data is a typical task in geological studies involving natural resource evaluation and hazard assessment. In this study a 3D geological model for Mishrif Formation in Garraf oil field has been set-up using Petrel software. Mishrif Formation represents the most important reservoir in Garraf oil field. Four vertical oil wells (GA-4, GA-A1P, GA-3 and GA-5) and one directional well (GA-B8P) were selected in Garraf Oil Field in order to set-up structural and petrophysical (porosity and water saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in three dimensions. Structural model shows that Garraf oil field represents a domal structure that shows continuous growth as indicated by the structural maps at top of reservoir units. The structural closure is shifted from GA-3 well to GA-A1P well. Mishrif Formation was divided into ten zones (top Mishrif, M1, M1.2, M2, L1, L1.2, L2, L2.2, L2.3 and L2.4.). Petrophysical model (porosity and water saturation) for Mishrif Formation was set-up from values of porosity and water saturation using Sequential Gaussian Simulation algorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modeling the units (M1.2, L1 and L1.2) are considered as high quality reservoir units due to the high PHIE and low water saturation. Units (L2, L2.2, L2.3 and L2.4) are considered as poor reservoirs because of low PHIE and high water saturation, and non-reservoir units include (Top Mishrif, M1 and M2) therefore, they represent cap units. Cross sections of petrophysical model were conducted to illustrate the vertical and horizontal distribution of porosity and water saturation between wells in the field.

يعد بناء الموديل الجيولوجي ثلاثي الابعاد من المعلومات تحت السطحية والحقلية مهمة اساسية في الدراسات الجيولوجية المتضمنة تقييم الموارد الطبيعية وتحديد الخطورة. يتضمن هذا البحث بناء موديل جيولوجي ثلاثي الابعاد لتكوين المشرف في حقل الغراف النفطي باستخدام برنامج البتريل الحاسوبي. يمثل تكوين المشرف المكمن الأكثر أهمية في حقل الغراف النفطي. تضمنت الدراسة اختيار أربعة آبار عمودية وكذلك بئر واحد مائل لغرض بناء الموديل البتروفيزيائي (المسامية والتشبع بالماء) متمثلا بموديل جيولوجي بالإبعاد الثلاثة. اظهر الموديل التركيبي ان حقل الغراف يمثل تركيباﹰ قبوياﹰ. ازيح الانغلاق التركيبي من بئر GA-3 الى بئرGA-A1P. تم بناء الموديل المكمني بصورة اساسية بالاعتماد على الخواص البتروفيزيائية. في هذه الدراسة تم تقسيم تكوين المشرف الى الوحدات الاتية: (Top Mishrif، M1، M1.2، M2، L1، L1.2، L2، L2.2، L2.3، L2.4) وتمتاز كل من هذه الوحدات بصفات مكمنية مختلفة. تم بناء موديل بتروفيزيائي لتكوين المشرف من قيم المسامية والتشبع المائي باستخدام خوارزمية خاصة بالمحاكاة. وفقا لتحليل البيانات والنتائج اعتبرت الوحدات (M1.2، L1، L1.2) ذات مواصفات مكمنية عالية نظرا الى المسامية الفعالة العالية التي تمتلكها والتشبع المائي الواطئ. اما الوحدات (L2، L2.2، L2.3، L2.4) فقد اعتبرت فقيرة نتيجة للمسامية الفعالة الواطئة والتشبع المائي العالي. الوحدات اللامكمنية تشمل (Top Mishrif، M1، (M2 لذا فهي تمثل وحدات غطائية. اعدت المقاطع العرضية للموديل البتروفيزيائي لتوضيح التوزيع العمودي والأفقي للمسامية والتشبع المائي بين الآبار في الحقل.

Keywords

Setting-up a 3D geological model both from field and subsurface data is a typical task in geological studies involving natural resource evaluation and hazard assessment. In this study a 3D geological model for Mishrif Formation in Garraf oil field has been set-up using Petrel software. Mishrif Formation represents the most important reservoir in Garraf oil field. Four vertical oil wells --- GA-4 --- GA-A1P --- GA-3 and GA-5 and one directional well --- GA-B8P were selected in Garraf Oil Field in order to set-up structural and petrophysical --- porosity and water saturation models represented by a 3D static geological model in three dimensions. Structural model shows that Garraf oil field represents a domal structure that shows continuous growth as indicated by the structural maps at top of reservoir units. The structural closure is shifted from GA-3 well to GA-A1P well. Mishrif Formation was divided into ten zones --- top Mishrif --- M1 --- M1.2 --- M2 --- L1 --- L1.2 --- L2 --- L2.2 --- L2.3 and L2.4.. Petrophysical model --- porosity and water saturation for Mishrif Formation was set-up from values of porosity and water saturation using Sequential Gaussian Simulation algorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modeling the units --- M1.2 --- L1 and L1.2 are considered as high quality reservoir units due to the high PHIE and low water saturation. Units --- L2 --- L2.2 --- L2.3 and L2.4 are considered as poor reservoirs because of low PHIE and high water saturation --- and non-reservoir units include --- Top Mishrif --- M1 and M2 therefore --- they represent cap units. Cross sections of petrophysical model were conducted to illustrate the vertical and horizontal distribution of porosity and water saturation between wells in the field.

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